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Genre/Form: Criticism, interpretation, etc
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Burgon, John William, 1813-1888.
Traditional text of the Holy Gospels vindicated and established.
London, G. Bell, 1896
(OCoLC)555754348
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: John William Burgon; Edward Miller
OCLC Number: 1386970
Description: xx, 317 pages 23 cm
Contents: 1. Preliminary grounds : Importance of the subject : Need of new advance and of candour [candor] in investigation. Sacred textual criticism different from profane : The new testament assailed from the first. Overruling providence : Unique conditions and overwhelming mass of evidence. Authority of the church : Hort's admission ; Existence and descent of the received text. The question one of the many against the few : The plea of antiquity on the side of the few virtually a claim to subtle divination ; Impossibility of compromise --
2. Principles : Two chief branches of inquiry : Collection of evidence ; Employment of evidence. Providential multiplication of copies ordinary and lectionary : Of versions ; Of patristic quotations. Similarity between later uncials and cursives : Overestimate of the oldest uncials ; Copies the most important class of evidence ; But not so old virtually as the earliest versions and fathers . Search for the readings of the autographs : the better attested the genuine reading ; need of tests or notes of truth ; seven proposed. Mere antiquity of an authority not enough : yet antiquity a most important principle. Various readings' a misleading phrase : Corruption patent in b and n ; Four proofs that their text not the traditional has been fabricated ; Scrivener's mistake in supposing that the true texts must be sought in the oldest uncials ; Their constant disagreement with one another ; Self impoverishment of some critics 3. The seven notes of truth : Antiquity : The more ancient probably the better testimony ; But not the sole arbiter. Number : Much fallacy in 'witnesses are to be weighed not counted' ; Used to champion the very few against the very many ; Number necessarily a powerful but not the sole note of truth ; Heb Iv. 2. Variety : A great help to Number ; Various countries ; Various ages ; No collusion ; St. Matt x. 8. Weight or respectability ; Witnesses must be : Respectable ; MSS must not be transcripts of one another ; Patristic evidence must not be copied ; MSS from one archetype between one and two copies ; Any collusion impairs weight ; A version outweighs any single MS ; Also a father ; weight of single MSS. To be determined by peculiar characteristics. Continuity : Value of unbroken tradition ; Weakening effects of smaller chasms ; Fatal consequence of the admitted chasm of fifteen centuries. Context : Context of meaning : 1 Cor Xiii. 5. Context of readings : St Matt. Xvii. 21 ; xi. 2-3 and St. Luke vii. 19 ; Consistency in immediate context --
4. The Vatican and Sinaitic manuscripts : The seven old uncials : Some understanding necessary between the two schools ; Dialogue with a Biblical student ; The superior antiquity of B and a reasonable presumption that they are the purest ; Yet nearly 300 years between them and the autographs ; No proof that their archetype was much older than they ; Conflict with the evidence of versions and fathers which are virtually much older ; Any superior excellence in their text merely the opinion of one school balanced by the other ; Mai's editions of B ; Antiquity number variety and continuity against that school ; also weight ; Traditional text virtually older ; proof that the text of B and was derived from the traditional text not vice versa ; Alleged recensions no proof to the contrary ; Nor 'conflation' proved to be unsound ; Their disagreement with one another proved by passages ; 2. St. John v. 4 ; St. Luke xi. 2-4. The 'Marys' of the Gospels ; Jona and John ; The foregoing instances typical ; Our appeal only to facts 5. The antiquity of the traditional text : Witness of the early fathers : Involuntary witness of Dr. Hort ; though he denied the antiquity of the traditional text ; No detailed examination of Dr. Hort's theory intended in this didactic treatise ; His admission that we have the period of the church since St. Chrysostom ; Driven to label the evidence of those centuries with the unhappy epithet 'Syrian' ; Foisting into history his 'phantom recensions' ; Facts not theory. Testimony of the ante-Chrysostom writers : Two examinations made of all their quotations of the gospels ; Trustworthiness of their writings on this point ; Many of their quotations not capable of use ; General list ; Proportion of 3 : 2 for traditional text ; Verdict of those writers on thirty test passages ; Proportion of 3 : 1 ; Validity of these lists ; Mistakes of Hort and others respecting separate fathers ; Antiquity of corruption though subordinate also established ; List of early traditional deponents ; Later traditional ; Western or Syrio-Low -Latin: Alexandrian ; Lessons from these groups --
6. The antiquity of the traditional text : Witness of the early Syriac versions : Startling rise of Christianity in Syria ; Weakness of Cureton's arguments for the superior antiquity of the Curetonian ; Not helped by the heretical Lewis Codex ; The idea of a Vulgate Peshitto founded upon a false parallel ; Traced to the fifth century by the universal use of the Peshitto by Nestorians, Monophysites, Christians of St. Thomas, and Maronities ; Very early date proved by numerous MSS of the same period ; Attested in the fourth by Ephraem Syrus and Aphraates ; Must have been in existence before ; Proved back by its agreement with the traditional text ; The petty Curetonian an unequal combatant ; Objection that the text of the Curetonian and Lewis was the older ; Inaccurate advocacy of the Lewis ; The age of these MSS to be decided by the known facts ; Mepharreshe or distinct Gospels to replace the Mehallete or mixed Gospels of Tatian 7. The antiquity of the traditional text : Witness of the western or Syrio-Low-Latin text : Wiseman wrong in supposing that all old Latin texts came from one stem ; The prima facie inference from similarity of language open to delusion ; Contrast of other versions ; Table of the old Latin MSS as used by Tischendorf ; No very generic difference ; Comparison under the thirty test passages ; Variety of synonyms denotes variety of sources ; Direct evidence of Augustine and Jerome ; Translations must have been made by all who wanted them in the bilingual Roman empire ; Origin of Wiseman's idea in an etymological blunder ; Diez's subsequent teaching ; The deflection in the language of the old Latin MSS due to the low Latin dialects of the Italian peninsula the 'Itala' of St. Augustine being in the most classical of later Latin ; Syriaciztion of the Codex Bezae and the teaching of the Ferrar group ; Pre- Evangelistic corruption carried to Rome from Antioch and afterwards foisted into the Gospels ; The synoptic problem ; The traditional text thus attested from the first by fathers and versions --
8. Alexandria and Caesarea : Alexandrian readings and the Alexandrian school : Text or readings : List of early Alexandrian fathers ; The thirty test passages in Bohairic ; No Alexandrian MSS of the period ; instability ; Origen the leading figure ; Elemental and critical ; The cradle of criticism. Caesarean school : dates from 231 A.D. when Origen moved to Caesarea ; his witness to both texts ; Pamphilus ; Eusebius really prefers the traditional ; Palestine a central situation ; Coalition of readings ; Eusebius' fifty MSS. probably included all sorts ; Acacius more probably the scribe of B and of the six leaves of N ; Vellum came into prominent use at Caesarea ; An Asiatic product ; Older MSS. written on papyrus ; Papyrus used till the tenth century ; Cursive hand on papyrus led to the 'cursives' 9. The old Uncials, the influence of Origen : Superstitious deference to B ; products of the Semi-Arian or Homoean school : Dated from that time ; Condemned when Arianism was finally condemned ; Agree with Origenism ; Produced at Alexandria : Colophons under Esther and Ezra and agreement with Codex Pamphili ; Written accordingly at Caesarea. Origen: his writings much studied by the ancients: of the same class as B and proved from various passages ; Gal. iii. I ; St. Matt xiv. 19 xv. 35 ; St. John xiii. 26 ; St. John xiii. 26 ; St. Luke iv. 8 ; St. John viii. 38. Sceptical [skeptical] character of all the three --
10. The old uncials, codex D : Parallel and connexion [connection] between the settlements of the Canon and the Text ; End of the controversy after the last General Council ; Origenism finally condemned then ; no rest in Roman Empire till then ; The art of writing on vellum then perfected ; Existence of better copies than B and during the early Uncial period. Codex D : Strange character : Assimilation on a large scale ; St. Mark iii. 26 ; St. Luke xix. 27 ; St. Matt. xx. 28 ; St. Luke xiv. 8-10. Extreme licentiousness : St. Mark iv. I ; 3. St. Luke iii. 23-38. St. Luke xxii. 20 and St. Mark xv. 43-4 ; St. Luke i. 65- St. Mark xiv. 72 & c ; Bad features in D and its family ; Clumsiness and tastelessness in the Old Uncials ; St. John ix. 36 xiv. 22: St. Matt. i. 18 : St. Luke xviii. 14: St. John xvii. 2 ; Delicate points thus rubbed off 11. The later Uncials and the cursives : Nature of tradition : Many streams ; Great period of the two St. Gregories, St. Basil, and St. Chrysostom ; Canon of St. Augustine ; Uncials and cursives do not differ in kind ; Cursives different enough to be independent witnesses ; Not copies of Cod. A ; A small minority of real dissentients ; Era of greater perfection from end of seventh century ; Expression by the majority of later Uncials and the cursives of the settled judgment of the Church. The text of the Cursives not debased : The Traditional Text already proved to go back to the first ; Could not have been formed out of non-existing materials ; Superior to the text of B : Proved by the consentience of copies, versions, fathers, and superior under all the notes of truth. St. Luke xix. 42 ; St. Matt. xx. 22-23 ; St. Matt. iv. 17-22: St. Mark i. 14-20: St. Luke v. 1-11 ; St. Mark x. 23-24 ; St. Luke xvi. 9 ; St. John xvi. 13 ; St. Matt. viii. 5-13 ; St. Luke xx. 14 ; Familiarity through collation with the cursive copies will reveal the general excellence of their text --
12. Conclusion : Recapitulation ; quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibus, the principle of the Traditional Text ; An exhaustive case ; And very strong ; Answers to objections : Antiquity of B ; Witnesses must be weighed first ; Charge of conflation: Eph. v. 30: Weak pleas ; Genealogy explained : only true in a limited measure ; Reduces some groups of MSS. to one archetype each ; advance of this plea solely as an excuse for B ; Which were founders of an obscure family dating from Caesarea, with huge gaps in their descent ; Perfect genealogy of the Traditional Text through many lines of descent ; Attested contemporaneously by numerous Fathers ; Proved step by step back to the earliest days ; The Traditional Text contrasted with the Neologian in three ways, viz. : Wide and deep against narrowness ; Founded on facts, not on speculation ; Increasing now in strength, instead of daily getting out of date : The verdict of the Church: and therefore resting on the Rock.
Responsibility: Arranged, completed and edited by Edward Miller.

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    schema:description "3. The seven notes of truth : Antiquity : The more ancient probably the better testimony ; But not the sole arbiter. Number : Much fallacy in 'witnesses are to be weighed not counted' ; Used to champion the very few against the very many ; Number necessarily a powerful but not the sole note of truth ; Heb Iv. 2. Variety : A great help to Number ; Various countries ; Various ages ; No collusion ; St. Matt x. 8. Weight or respectability ; Witnesses must be : Respectable ; MSS must not be transcripts of one another ; Patristic evidence must not be copied ; MSS from one archetype between one and two copies ; Any collusion impairs weight ; A version outweighs any single MS ; Also a father ; weight of single MSS. To be determined by peculiar characteristics. Continuity : Value of unbroken tradition ; Weakening effects of smaller chasms ; Fatal consequence of the admitted chasm of fifteen centuries. Context : Context of meaning : 1 Cor Xiii. 5. Context of readings : St Matt. Xvii. 21 ; xi. 2-3 and St. Luke vii. 19 ; Consistency in immediate context -- 4. The Vatican and Sinaitic manuscripts : The seven old uncials : Some understanding necessary between the two schools ; Dialogue with a Biblical student ; The superior antiquity of B and a reasonable presumption that they are the purest ; Yet nearly 300 years between them and the autographs ; No proof that their archetype was much older than they ; Conflict with the evidence of versions and fathers which are virtually much older ; Any superior excellence in their text merely the opinion of one school balanced by the other ; Mai's editions of B ; Antiquity number variety and continuity against that school ; also weight ; Traditional text virtually older ; proof that the text of B and was derived from the traditional text not vice versa ; Alleged recensions no proof to the contrary ; Nor 'conflation' proved to be unsound ; Their disagreement with one another proved by passages ; 2. St. John v. 4 ; St. Luke xi. 2-4. The 'Marys' of the Gospels ; Jona and John ; The foregoing instances typical ; Our appeal only to facts"@en ;
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    schema:description "5. The antiquity of the traditional text : Witness of the early fathers : Involuntary witness of Dr. Hort ; though he denied the antiquity of the traditional text ; No detailed examination of Dr. Hort's theory intended in this didactic treatise ; His admission that we have the period of the church since St. Chrysostom ; Driven to label the evidence of those centuries with the unhappy epithet 'Syrian' ; Foisting into history his 'phantom recensions' ; Facts not theory. Testimony of the ante-Chrysostom writers : Two examinations made of all their quotations of the gospels ; Trustworthiness of their writings on this point ; Many of their quotations not capable of use ; General list ; Proportion of 3 : 2 for traditional text ; Verdict of those writers on thirty test passages ; Proportion of 3 : 1 ; Validity of these lists ; Mistakes of Hort and others respecting separate fathers ; Antiquity of corruption though subordinate also established ; List of early traditional deponents ; Later traditional ; Western or Syrio-Low -Latin: Alexandrian ; Lessons from these groups -- 6. The antiquity of the traditional text : Witness of the early Syriac versions : Startling rise of Christianity in Syria ; Weakness of Cureton's arguments for the superior antiquity of the Curetonian ; Not helped by the heretical Lewis Codex ; The idea of a Vulgate Peshitto founded upon a false parallel ; Traced to the fifth century by the universal use of the Peshitto by Nestorians, Monophysites, Christians of St. Thomas, and Maronities ; Very early date proved by numerous MSS of the same period ; Attested in the fourth by Ephraem Syrus and Aphraates ; Must have been in existence before ; Proved back by its agreement with the traditional text ; The petty Curetonian an unequal combatant ; Objection that the text of the Curetonian and Lewis was the older ; Inaccurate advocacy of the Lewis ; The age of these MSS to be decided by the known facts ; Mepharreshe or distinct Gospels to replace the Mehallete or mixed Gospels of Tatian"@en ;
    schema:description "1. Preliminary grounds : Importance of the subject : Need of new advance and of candour [candor] in investigation. Sacred textual criticism different from profane : The new testament assailed from the first. Overruling providence : Unique conditions and overwhelming mass of evidence. Authority of the church : Hort's admission ; Existence and descent of the received text. The question one of the many against the few : The plea of antiquity on the side of the few virtually a claim to subtle divination ; Impossibility of compromise -- 2. Principles : Two chief branches of inquiry : Collection of evidence ; Employment of evidence. Providential multiplication of copies ordinary and lectionary : Of versions ; Of patristic quotations. Similarity between later uncials and cursives : Overestimate of the oldest uncials ; Copies the most important class of evidence ; But not so old virtually as the earliest versions and fathers . Search for the readings of the autographs : the better attested the genuine reading ; need of tests or notes of truth ; seven proposed. Mere antiquity of an authority not enough : yet antiquity a most important principle. Various readings' a misleading phrase : Corruption patent in b and n ; Four proofs that their text not the traditional has been fabricated ; Scrivener's mistake in supposing that the true texts must be sought in the oldest uncials ; Their constant disagreement with one another ; Self impoverishment of some critics"@en ;
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