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A tropical rain forest : a study of irradiation and ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico

Author: Howard T Odum; Robert F Pigeon; U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Publisher: [Oak Ridge, Tenn.] : Division of Technical Information, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission ; [available from Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.], 1970.
Edition/Format:   Book : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
A 10,000-curie ¹³⁷Cs gamma source was placed by helicopter at the center of a selected site in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. The source was operated for three months after which it was retracted into its shield and eventually removed. Immediately upon termination of the irradiation, detailed effects studies began with quantitative comparisons of the status of the main site before irradiation with  Read more...
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Tropical rain forest.
[Oak Ridge, Tenn.] : Division of Technical Information, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission; [available from Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.], 1970
(OCoLC)659361725
Material Type: Government publication, National government publication
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Howard T Odum; Robert F Pigeon; U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
OCLC Number: 128610
Notes: "Results of the Atomic Energy Commission Rain Forest Project, 1963-1967."
Description: 1 volume (various pagings) : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm
Contents: A. The rain forest project --
A-1. Radioecology at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center / H.J. Gomberg --
A-2. The rain forest and man : an introduction / Howard T. Odum --
B. The rain forest at El Verde --
B-1. The El Verde study area and the rain forest systems of Puerto Rico / H.T. Odum --
B-2. Review of past research in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico / Frank H. Wadsworth --
B-3. Relationships of trees of the Luquillo Experimental Forest / Elbert L. Little Jr. --
B-4. List of common plant species at El Verde / Robert Ford Smith --
B-5. Aerial sensing and photographic study of the El Verde rain forest / Philip L. Johnson and David M. Atwood --
B-6. Stand structure and yield in the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico / C.B. Briscoe and F.H. Wadsworth --
B-7. Species diversity in two plant communities of Puerto Rico / Fred H. Tschirley, Clyde C. Dowler, and James A. Duke --
B-8. Point-quarter sampling of forest type-site relations at El Verde / Robert K. Wadsworth --
B-9. Relation of crown diameter to stem diameter in forests of Puerto Rico, Dominica, and Thailand / Jose W. Perez --
B-10. Upper canopy crown closure at El Verde / A. Paul Desmarais and Alfonso Vazquez --
B-11. Pollen analysis of selected sphagnum-bog sites in Puerto Rico / Carol June Ogle --
B-12. A system for representing structure in tropical forest associations / L.R. Holdridge --
B-13. A procedure for describing the geometry of plants and plant assemblages / Eugene E. Addor, William N. Rushing, and Warren E. Grabau --
B-14. A quantitative description of vegetation at El Verde sites / William N. Rushing --
B-15. Keys for the identification of seedlings of some prominent woody species in eight forest types in Puerto Rico / James A. Duke --
B-16. Preliminary illustrated leaf key to the woody plants of the Luquillo Mountains / Robert Ford Smith --
B-17. Some autecological studies of Ormosia krugii / Joe Edmisten --
B-18. Ecological life cycle of Euterpe globosa Gaertn / Barbara A. Bannister --
B-19. Effects of herbicides on a Puerto Rican rain forest / C.C. Dowler and F.H. Tschirley --
B-20. The summit forest of Pico del Oeste, Puerto Rico / Richard A. Howard --
B-21. A comparison of environments of rain forests in Dominica, British West Indies, and Puerto Rico / Mario Soriano-Ressy, A. Paul Desmarais, and Jose W. Perez --
B-22. Climate at El Verde, 1963-1966 / Howard T. Odum, George Drewry, and J.R. Kline --
C. The radiation experiment --
C-1. The AEC rain forest program / Howard T. Odum --
C-2. The cesium source at El Verde / Howard T. Odum and George Drewry --
C-3. Thermoluminescent dosimetry / Roscoe M. Hall Jr. --
C-4. Patterns of radiation exposure in the tropical rain forest / J. Frank McCormick --
C-5. A kinetic model of radiation response to field irradiation / G.J. Dienes --
D. Plants and the effects of radiation --
D-1. Effects of gamma radiation on the forest at El Verde / H.T. Odum [and others] --
D-2. Effects of ¹³⁷Cs radiation on vegetation structure and optical density at El Verde / A. Paul Desmarais and Billy T. Helmuth --
D-3. The vegetation structure of a Puerto Rican rain forest before and after short-term gamma irradiation / Robert Ford Smith --
D-4. Tree growth at El Verde and the effects of ionizing radiation / Peter G. Murphy --
D-5. Germination of seeds of certain tropical species / Elsie Quarterman --
D-6. Seed distribution and germination experiment / C.R. Bell --
D-7. Studies of Phytolacca icosandra / Joe Edmisten --
D-8. Postirradiation woody seedlings / James A. Duke --
D-9. Growth and survival of the sierra palm under radiation stress in natural and simulated environments / J. Frank McCormick --
D-10. Direct and indirect effects of gamma radiation on seedling diversity and abundance in a tropical rain forest / J. Frank McCormick --
D-11. Bryophyte studies on the irradiated and control sites in the rain forest at El Verde / William C. Steere --
D-12. A study of the lichens of an irradiated rain forest / T.P. Gannutz --
D-13. Distribution of epiphytic algae on palm fronds / Robert Watson --
D-14. Phenological studies of trees at El Verde / Alejo Estrada Pinto --
D-15. Leaf growth, leaf survival, leaf holes, color of cambium, and terminal bud condition / Nelson Mercado --
D-16. Branch elongation and the radiation field / Henry Watson --
D-17. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophyll A content in bromeliads / F.K.S. Koo, H.T. Odum, and Edith Robles de Irizarry --
D-18. Radiation effect on survival and growth of bromeliads / F.K.S. Koo and R.C. Venator --
D-19. Vegetative sprouting following irradiation of a tropical rain forest / Carl F. Jordan --
D-20. Hemispherical photographs at El Verde / Philip L. Johnson --
E. Animals and the effects of radiation --
E-1. Effects of radiation on a population of the Puerto Rican tree snail, Caracolus caracolla / Harold Heatwole [and others] --
E-2. Observations of lizards and tree frogs in an irradiated Puerto Rican rain forest / Frederick B. Turner and Clayton S. Gist --
E-3. Niche separation of tree frogs in the Luquillo forest / Gilberto Cintrón --
E-4. Factors affecting activity of rain forest frog populations as measured by electrical recording of sound pressure levels / George Drewry --
E-5. Population density and seasonal changes of the avifauna in a tropical rain forest before and after gamma irradiation / Harry F. Recher --
E-6. Aquatic communities in bromeliad leaf axils and the influence of radiation / Bassett Maguire Jr. --
E-7. Nematodes in the litter and soil of El Verde rain forest / David C. Coleman --
E-8. Radiation and termites at El Verde / Elizabeth A. McMahon --
E-9. Observations on bats and their ectoparasites / J.R. Tamsitt and Darío Valdivieso --
E-10. A list of insects from El Verde, Puerto Rico / George E. Drewry --
E-11. Diversity of microarthropods after irradiation / Elizabeth A. McMahon and Nancy F. Sollins --
E-12. Observations on the mosquito population in the irradiated forest at El Verde / M.P. Weinbren and B.M. Weinbren --
E-13. Studies on the roof rat (Rattus rattus) in the El Verde forest / M.P. Weinbren [and others] --
E-14. Preliminary comparison of bird species diversity and density in Luquillo and Guanica forests / Cameron B. Kepler and Angela K. Kepler. F. Microorganisms and the effects of radiation --
F-1. Fleshy fungi in relation to irradiation and cutting in the Luquillo Experimental Forest / G.T. Cowley --
F-2. Survey of mycorrhiza and nodules in the El Verde forest / Joe Edmisten --
F-3. Rain forest myxomycetes / Constantine J. Alexopoulos --
F-4. Effect of radiation on the microfungal populations of six litter species in the Luquillo Experimental Forest / G.T. Cowley --
F-5. Aspects of soil microflora in a gamma-irradiated rain forest / Martin Witkamp --
F-6. Response of soil, root, and litter microfungal populations to radiation / James R. Holler and G.T. Cowley --
F-7. Vertical study of microfungal populations on leaves of Dacryodes excelsa and Manilkara bidentata / G.T. Cowley --
F-8. Microbiological and chemical observations in a tropical rain forest / Robert S. Hutton and Reinhold A. Rasmussen --
F-9. A study of natural virus cycles before, during, and after irradiation / M.P. Weinbren and B.M. Weinbren --
F-10. The survival of actinomycetes in a radiation field / Jerome J. Perry --
G. Cytological studies within the irradiated forest --
G-1. Nuclear volume and radiosensitivity of plant species at El Verde / F.K.S. Koo and Edith R. de Irzarry --
G-2. Inherent and radio-induced cytological abnormalities in Palicourea riparia benth / Robert Venator and F.K.S. Koo --
G-3. Fern cytology and the radiation field / Veikko Sorsa --
G-4. Karyotype rearrangements and malformation of gonads in the walking-sticks (Phasmatoptera) of the El Verde radiation center / Niilo Virkki --
G-5. Histological damage induced by gamma irradiation in shoot apices of Palicourea riparia / Edith R. de Irizarry and F.K.S. Koo --
G-6. Deoxyribonucleic acid in rain forest leaves / Michael J. Canoy --
H. Mineral cycling and soils --
H-1. Rain forest structure and mineral-cycling homeostasis / Howard T. Odum --
H-2. Biomass and chemical content of El Verde lower montane rain forest plants / J.D. Ovington and J.S. Olson --
H-3. Soil studies in the El Verde rain forest / Joe Edmisten --
H-4. Effects of ionizing radiation on leaf fall, decomposition, and the litter microarthropods of a montane rain forest / Richard G. Wiegert --
H-5. Effect of season, species, and location on the disappearance rate of leaf litter in a Puerto Rican rain forest / Richard G. Weigert and Peter Murphy --
H-6. Hydrogen budget and compartments in the rain forest / Howard T. Odum, Allen M. Moore, and Lawrence A. Burns --
H-7. Kinetic model study of hydrogen flow through the El Verde forest system / Sanford G. Bloom and Gilbert E. Raines --
H-8. Tritium movement in soil of a tropical rain forest / J.R. Kline and C.F. Jordan --
H-9. Variation in size and frequency of stomata with altitude in the Luquillo Mountains / Gilberto Cintrón --
H-10. Electrical conductivity and flow rate of water through the forest canopy / Phillip Sollins and George Drewry --
H-11. Leaching of metabolites from foliage and its implication in the tropical rain forest / H.B. Tukey Jr. --
H-12. The phosphorus cycle in a tropical rain forest / Robert A. Luse --
H-13. Fallout radioactivity and epiphytes / H.T. Odum, George Ann Briscoe, and C.B. Briscoe --
H-14. Mineral retention by epiphyllic organisms / Martin Witkamp --
H-15. Comparisons of the amount of fallout radionuclides in tropical forests / J.R. Kline and H.T. Odum --
H-16. Effect of gamma radiation on leaching of ¹³⁷Cs and ⁵⁴Mn from tropical forest foliage and litter / J.R. Kline, H.T. Odum, and J.C. Bugher --
H-17. Retention of fallout radionuclides by tropical forest vegetation / J.R. Kline --
H-18. Flow of soil water in the lower montane tropical fain forest / C.F. Jordan --
H-19. Movement of ⁸⁵Sr and ¹³⁷Cs by the soil water of a tropical rain forest / C.F. Jordan --
H-20. Preliminary studies of radionuclide cycling in understory plants in the rain forest / J.R. Kline and Nelson Mercado --
H-21. Preliminary studies of the nitrogen budget of a tropical rain forest / Joe Edmisten --
H-22. A progress report on studies of mineral cycles at El Verde / Carl F. Jordan --
I. Forest metabolism and energy flows --
I-1. Estimates of chlorophyll and biomass of the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico / H.T. Odum [and others] --
I-2. Forest chlorophyll and radiation / Howard T. Odum and Gilberto Cintrón --
I-3. Metabolism of forest-floor microcosms / Howard T. Odum and Ariel Lugo --
I-4. Energetics of the nest-building termite, Nasutitermes costalis (Holmgren), in a Puerto Rican forest / R.G. Wiegert --
I-5. Respiration in the snail Caracolus caracolla and an estimate of the relative density and biomass of litter snails / Alan E. Stiven --
I-6. Holes in leaves and the grazing control mechanism / H.T. Odum with the assistance of J. Ruíz-Reyes --
I-7. Photosynthetic studies on four species of rain forest seedlings / Ariel Lugo --
I-8. Metabolism and evapotranspiration of some rain forest plants and soil / H.T. Odum [and others] --
I-9. Metabolism and evapotranspiration of the lower forest in a giant plastic cylinder / Howard T. Odum and C.F. Jordan --
I-10. Summary, an emerging view of the ecological system at El Verde / Howard T. Odum.
Responsibility: Howard T. Odum, editor and project director ; Robert F. Pigeon, associate editor.

Abstract:

A 10,000-curie ¹³⁷Cs gamma source was placed by helicopter at the center of a selected site in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. The source was operated for three months after which it was retracted into its shield and eventually removed. Immediately upon termination of the irradiation, detailed effects studies began with quantitative comparisons of the status of the main site before irradiation with that developing subsequently. The studies described in this volume deal with the impact of gamma radiation on species and also with the more abstract phenomenology associated with the modification of ecological systems.

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schema:description"A. The rain forest project -- A-1. Radioecology at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center / H.J. Gomberg -- A-2. The rain forest and man : an introduction / Howard T. Odum -- B. The rain forest at El Verde -- B-1. The El Verde study area and the rain forest systems of Puerto Rico / H.T. Odum -- B-2. Review of past research in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico / Frank H. Wadsworth -- B-3. Relationships of trees of the Luquillo Experimental Forest / Elbert L. Little Jr. -- B-4. List of common plant species at El Verde / Robert Ford Smith -- B-5. Aerial sensing and photographic study of the El Verde rain forest / Philip L. Johnson and David M. Atwood -- B-6. Stand structure and yield in the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico / C.B. Briscoe and F.H. Wadsworth -- B-7. Species diversity in two plant communities of Puerto Rico / Fred H. Tschirley, Clyde C. Dowler, and James A. Duke -- B-8. Point-quarter sampling of forest type-site relations at El Verde / Robert K. Wadsworth -- B-9. Relation of crown diameter to stem diameter in forests of Puerto Rico, Dominica, and Thailand / Jose W. Perez -- B-10. Upper canopy crown closure at El Verde / A. Paul Desmarais and Alfonso Vazquez -- B-11. Pollen analysis of selected sphagnum-bog sites in Puerto Rico / Carol June Ogle -- B-12. A system for representing structure in tropical forest associations / L.R. Holdridge -- B-13. A procedure for describing the geometry of plants and plant assemblages / Eugene E. Addor, William N. Rushing, and Warren E. Grabau -- B-14. A quantitative description of vegetation at El Verde sites / William N. Rushing -- B-15. Keys for the identification of seedlings of some prominent woody species in eight forest types in Puerto Rico / James A. Duke -- B-16. Preliminary illustrated leaf key to the woody plants of the Luquillo Mountains / Robert Ford Smith -- B-17. Some autecological studies of Ormosia krugii / Joe Edmisten -- B-18. Ecological life cycle of Euterpe globosa Gaertn / Barbara A. Bannister -- B-19. Effects of herbicides on a Puerto Rican rain forest / C.C. Dowler and F.H. Tschirley -- B-20. The summit forest of Pico del Oeste, Puerto Rico / Richard A. Howard -- B-21. A comparison of environments of rain forests in Dominica, British West Indies, and Puerto Rico / Mario Soriano-Ressy, A. Paul Desmarais, and Jose W. Perez -- B-22. Climate at El Verde, 1963-1966 / Howard T. Odum, George Drewry, and J.R. Kline -- C. The radiation experiment -- C-1. The AEC rain forest program / Howard T. Odum -- C-2. The cesium source at El Verde / Howard T. Odum and George Drewry -- C-3. Thermoluminescent dosimetry / Roscoe M. Hall Jr. -- C-4. Patterns of radiation exposure in the tropical rain forest / J. Frank McCormick -- C-5. A kinetic model of radiation response to field irradiation / G.J. Dienes -- D. Plants and the effects of radiation -- D-1. Effects of gamma radiation on the forest at El Verde / H.T. Odum [and others] -- D-2. Effects of ¹³⁷Cs radiation on vegetation structure and optical density at El Verde / A. Paul Desmarais and Billy T. Helmuth -- D-3. The vegetation structure of a Puerto Rican rain forest before and after short-term gamma irradiation / Robert Ford Smith -- D-4. Tree growth at El Verde and the effects of ionizing radiation / Peter G. Murphy -- D-5. Germination of seeds of certain tropical species / Elsie Quarterman -- D-6. Seed distribution and germination experiment / C.R. Bell -- D-7. Studies of Phytolacca icosandra / Joe Edmisten -- D-8. Postirradiation woody seedlings / James A. Duke -- D-9. Growth and survival of the sierra palm under radiation stress in natural and simulated environments / J. Frank McCormick -- D-10. Direct and indirect effects of gamma radiation on seedling diversity and abundance in a tropical rain forest / J. Frank McCormick -- D-11. Bryophyte studies on the irradiated and control sites in the rain forest at El Verde / William C. Steere -- D-12. A study of the lichens of an irradiated rain forest / T.P. Gannutz -- D-13. Distribution of epiphytic algae on palm fronds / Robert Watson -- D-14. Phenological studies of trees at El Verde / Alejo Estrada Pinto -- D-15. Leaf growth, leaf survival, leaf holes, color of cambium, and terminal bud condition / Nelson Mercado -- D-16. Branch elongation and the radiation field / Henry Watson -- D-17. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophyll A content in bromeliads / F.K.S. Koo, H.T. Odum, and Edith Robles de Irizarry -- D-18. Radiation effect on survival and growth of bromeliads / F.K.S. Koo and R.C. Venator -- D-19. Vegetative sprouting following irradiation of a tropical rain forest / Carl F. Jordan -- D-20. Hemispherical photographs at El Verde / Philip L. Johnson -- E. Animals and the effects of radiation -- E-1. Effects of radiation on a population of the Puerto Rican tree snail, Caracolus caracolla / Harold Heatwole [and others] -- E-2. Observations of lizards and tree frogs in an irradiated Puerto Rican rain forest / Frederick B. Turner and Clayton S. Gist -- E-3. Niche separation of tree frogs in the Luquillo forest / Gilberto Cintrón -- E-4. Factors affecting activity of rain forest frog populations as measured by electrical recording of sound pressure levels / George Drewry -- E-5. Population density and seasonal changes of the avifauna in a tropical rain forest before and after gamma irradiation / Harry F. Recher -- E-6. Aquatic communities in bromeliad leaf axils and the influence of radiation / Bassett Maguire Jr. -- E-7. Nematodes in the litter and soil of El Verde rain forest / David C. Coleman -- E-8. Radiation and termites at El Verde / Elizabeth A. McMahon -- E-9. Observations on bats and their ectoparasites / J.R. Tamsitt and Darío Valdivieso -- E-10. A list of insects from El Verde, Puerto Rico / George E. Drewry -- E-11. Diversity of microarthropods after irradiation / Elizabeth A. McMahon and Nancy F. Sollins -- E-12. Observations on the mosquito population in the irradiated forest at El Verde / M.P. Weinbren and B.M. Weinbren -- E-13. Studies on the roof rat (Rattus rattus) in the El Verde forest / M.P. Weinbren [and others] -- E-14. Preliminary comparison of bird species diversity and density in Luquillo and Guanica forests / Cameron B. Kepler and Angela K. Kepler."@en
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