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Understanding research methods and statistics in psychology

Author: Helen Gavin
Publisher: Los Angeles, CA : SAGE, 2008.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
To enable all undergraduate psychology students to carry out their own investigations, this textbook covers basic and advanced qualitative and quantitative methods and follows a sequential structure starting from first principles to more advanced techniques.
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Gavin, Helen.
Understanding research methods and statistics in psychology.
Los Angeles, CA : SAGE, 2008
(DLC) 2008920885
(OCoLC)179793398
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Helen Gavin
ISBN: 9781446204603 144620460X 9781446214565 1446214567
OCLC Number: 608110854
Reproduction Notes: Electronic reproduction. [S.l.] : HathiTrust Digital Library, 2010. MiAaHDL
Description: 1 online resource (xx, 404 pages) : illustrations
Details: Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Contents: Preface --
pt. I. First explorations --
1. The range of research --
Studying the invisible --
Introspection --
The experimental approach --
Falsifiability --
Demand characteristics --
Control in experimentation --
Research without experimentation --
Psychometrics --
Direct observation --
Self-reports --
Surveys --
Evaluation --
Analysis of psychological data --
Summary --
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) --
Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) --
2. Ethics in research : some shocking cases --
Shocking events in New Haven --
Public health shame --
Ethical issues --
How to design ethical research --
General --
Consent --
Deception --
Debriefing --
Withdrawal --
Confidentiality --
Protection --
Observational research --
Giving advice --
Colleagues --
Summary --
Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) --
3. Some basic concepts in psychological research --
Who takes part in research? --
Populations --
Samples --
Variables --
Independent --
Fixed --
Random --
Dependent --
Confounding --
Level of measurement --
Quantitative research design --
Temporal precedence --
Covariation --
Alternative explanation --
Internal validity --
Replicability and reliability --
External validity --
Hypotheses --
Handling statistical data --
Qualitative and quantitative data --
Why use qualitative methods? --
Reflexivity --
Validity in qualitative research --
Types of qualitative research --
Ethnography --
Phenomenology --
Hermeneutics --
Grounded theory --
Qualitative data collection --
In-depth interviews --
Direct observation --
Participant observation --
Case studies --
Diaries --
Handling qualitative data --
Summary Pt. II. Beginning quantitative research --
4. Using numbers to describe behaviour --
The distribution --
Building a distribution --
The normal distribution --
Central tendency --
The mean --
The median --
The mode --
Which central tendency measure? --
Dispersion --
The sample variance and the standard deviation --
Standard error of the mean --
The z-score --
Disruptions to normality --
skew and kurtosis --
Tabular presentation --
Summary --
5. Inferential statistics --
why and what? --
Probability --
Hypothesis testing --
Step 1 : state the hypotheses --
Step 2 : set the criterion for rejecting H₀ --
Step 3 : compute the test statistic --
Step 4 : decide about H₀ (reject or not reject) --
One-tailed and two-tailed significance tests --
Power --
Parametric tests and assumptions --
Normal distribution --
Homogeneity of variances --
Level of measurement --
Degrees of freedom --
Summary --
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) --
6. Simple experimental designs : being watched --
Who is watching you? --
The analysis of data from experiments with two conditions --
The t test --
Experiments with within-subjects designs --
Analysis of data in within-subjects designs --
Experiments using between-subjects designs --
Analysis of data in between-subjects designs --
One- and two-tailed t tests --
Summary --
Robert Zajonc --
7. Single factorial designs : the levels of processing experiments --
Models of memory --
Designs with more than two groups --
Single factor designs --
Analysis of variance --
Total sum of squares (SST) --
Sum of squares between groups (SSB) --
Sum of squares within groups (SSW) --
Post-hoc tests in single factor between-subjects designs --
Non-parametric tests in single factor designs --
Single factor designs with repeated measures --
Non-parametric tests in single factor repeated --
Measures designs --
Tests of trend --
Summary --
Fergus Craik --
Robert Lockhart --
8. Survey research : who is afraid of crime? --
Measuring attitudes using surveys --
Attitudes --
Attitude measurement --
Writing questionnaires --
Question format --
Scaling --
Dimensionality --
The major unidimensional scale types --
Likert scales --
Scoring and analysis --
Level of measurement --
Sampling --
Answers to our crime survey --
Ethical considerations of performing surveys --
Summary --
9. Correlational designs : the poor relation? --
Correlational designs and analysis --
Correlational analysis with interval-level data --
Simple linear regression --
Correlation with non-continuous data --
Ordinal data --
Assumptions made in correlational analysis --
Partial correlation --
Summary --
Hans Jurgen Eysenck (1916-1997) Pt. III. Complex quantitative designs --
10. Factorial designs with more than one factor : a closer look at memory --
Alternatives to the levels of processing framework --
The principles of encoding specificity --
Analysis of factorial designs with more than one factor --
Reporting factorial results --
Mixed designs --
Post-hoc analysis --
Simple effects --
Simple main effects for between- and within-subjects contrasts --
Non-parametric tests --
Transformations --
Friedman's test --
Summary --
Endel Tulving --
11. Multivariate statistics --
Analysis of covariance --
Multivariate analysis of variance --
Summary --
12. Complex correlational designs and analysis : stats can be murder --
Murdering stats --
Multiple linear regression --
Multicollinearity --
Selection methods --
Getting away with murder --
Logistic regression --
Summary --
Sir Edward Coke (1552-1634) Pt. IV. Beginning qualitative research --
13. Theory in qualitative research --
The alternative paradigm? --
Qualitative versus quantitative research paradigms --
Theoretical viewpoints in psychological qualitative enquiry --
Phenomenology --
Ethnomethodology --
Symbolic interactionism --
Semiotics --
Hermeneutics --
Modernism, post-modernism --
Psychological approaches to qualitative research --
Summary --
14. Designing qualitative research --
Features of qualitative research --
The role of the researcher --
Research design --
Sampling strategies --
Data collection techniques --
Analysis of data --
Credibility of qualitative research --
Summary Pt. V. Complex qualitative research --
15. Interviews and focus groups --
Market research --
Qualitative interviews --
Conducting interviews --
Focus groups in qualitative research --
Use of focus groups --
Questions for focus groups --
Analysis of interview and focus group data --
Summary --
16. Participant observation : girls, gangs and aggression --
Observing violence --
Violent women --
Observation as method --
Access --
Time --
Recording data --
Analysing data --
How to be a participant observer --
Summary --
Anne Campbell --
17. Thematic analysis --
Research diaries --
The effect of recording experience --
The analysis --
The outcomes --
Summary --
18. Discourse analysis : power and control --
Language structure --
Syntax --
relation of signs to each other --
Semantics --
relation of signs to objects --
Definitions of discourse analysis --
Assumptions of discourse analysis --
Issues of reliability and validity --
How do we perform discourse analysis? --
Gathering data for discourse analysis --
Natural discourse --
The method of discourse analysis --
Summary --
Jonathan Potter --
Margaret Wetherell --
19. Evaluation research --
Evaluation of treatment programmes --
Sexual offending, the research, the theory --
Biological and evolutionary explanation of sexual aggression --
Social and psychological explanations for sexual aggression --
Treatment of sexual aggression and sexual offending --
Evaluation study design --
Effectiveness of therapy --
Summary --
pt. VI. Communication of research --
20. Communicating research --
Journal articles --
Conference proceedings --
Books --
Government/corporate reports --
Newspapers --
Theses and dissertations --
Internet --
Research paper sections --
Abstract --
Introduction --
Method and research design --
Results --
Statistical results --
Qualitative results --
Discussion --
Summary --
Appendix A. Choosing a statistical test --
Appendix B. SPSS output for data and analysis discussed in chapter 6 --
SPSS output for data and analysis discussed in chapter 7 --
SPSS output for data and analysis discussed in chapter 9 --
SPSS output for data and analysis discussed in chapter 10 --
SPSS output for data and analysis discussed in chapter 11 --
Glossary --
References --
Index.
Responsibility: Helen Gavin.

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