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Upgrading and repairing PCs

Author: Scott Mueller
Publisher: Indianapolis, Ind. : Que, ©2012.
Edition/Format:   Print book : CD for computer : English : 20th edView all editions and formats
Summary:
Practical answers about PC processors, motherboards, buses, BIOSes, memory, storage, video, audio, I/O, input devices, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. Coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair, plus discussions of improving performance via overclocking and other techniques.
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Scott Mueller
ISBN: 9780789747105 0789747103
OCLC Number: 732967766
Notes: Includes index.
Description: x, 1081 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm + 1 DVD-ROM (4 3/4 in.)
Details: System requirements: Window 98 SE, Me, 2000, XP, Vista, 7 or newer ; DVD capable optical drive ; DVD player and decoder software installed.
Contents: Introduction --
Book objectives --
20th edition DVD-Rom --
My website: informit_com/upgrading --
Personal note --
1: --
Development Of The PC: --
Computer history: before personal computers --
Timeline --
Electronic computers --
Modern computers --
From tubes to transistors --
Integrated circuits --
History of the PC --
Birth of the personal computer --
IBM personal computer --
PC industry 30 years later --
2: --
PC Components, Features, And System Design: --
What is a PC? --
Who controls PC software? --
Who controls PC hardware? --
White-box systems --
PC design guides --
System types --
System components --
3: --
Processor Types And Specifications: --
Microprocessor history --
First microprocessor --
PC processor evolution --
16-bit to 64 bit architecture evolution --
Processor specifications --
Data I/O bits --
Address bus --
Internal registers (internal data bus) --
Processor modes --
Processor benchmarks --
Comparing processor performance --
Cache memory --
Processor features --
System management mode (SMM) --
Superscalar execution --
MMX technology --
Dynamic execution --
Dual independent bus architecture --
HT technology --
Multicore technology --
Processor manufacturing --
Processor re-marking --
PGA chip packaging --
Single edge contact and single edge processor packaging --
Processor socket and slot types --
Socket --
Socket LGA 775--
Socket LGA1156 --
Socket LGA1366 --
Socket LGA1155 --
Socket 939 and 940 --
Socket AN2/AM2+/AM3/AM3/AM3+ --
Socket F (1207FX) --
CPU operating voltages --
Math coprocessors (floating-point units) --
Processor bugs and steppings --
Processor code names --
P1 (086) processors --
P2 (286) processors --
P3 (386) processors --
P4 (486) processors --
P5 (586) processors --
AMD-K5 --
Intel P6 (686) processors --
Pentium pro processors --
Pentium II processors --
Pentium III --
Celeron --
Intel Pentium 4 processors --
Pentium 4 extreme edition --
Intel Pentium D and Pentium extreme edition --
Intel core processors --
Intel core 2 family --
Intel (Nehalem) core i processors --
AMD K6 processors --
NexGen Nx 586 --
AMD-K6 series --
AMD K7 processors --
AMD Athlon --
AMD Duron --
AMD Athleon XP --
Athlon MP --
AMD K8 processors --
AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX --
AMD Sempron --
AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX --
AMD K10 processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) --
AMD fusion processors --
Processor upgrades --
Overclocking --
Quartz crystals --
Modern PC clocks --
Overclocking tips --
Unlocking cores --
Bus speeds and multipliers --
Processor cooling --
Heatsinks --
Liquid cooling --
Thermally advantaged chassis --
Processor troubleshooting techniques --
4: --
Motherboards And Buses: --
Motherboard form factors --
Obsolete form factors --
ATX and other modern form factors --
Processor sockets/slots --
Chipsets --
Chipset evolution --
Intel chipsets --
Intel chipset model numbers --
Intel integrated graphics --
Architecture --
AMD integrated graphics --
Architecture --
Traditional north/south bridge --
Architecture --
Hub architecture --
Third-party north-south bridge --
Connections --
HyperTransport --
Intel's early 386/486 chipsets --
Fifth-generation (P5 Pentium class) --
Chipsets --
Sixth-generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III class) chipsets --
Seventh/eighth-generation (Pentium 4/D, Core 2, and Core i) chipsets --
Intel 915 family --
Intel 925X family --
Intel 945 express family --
Intel 955X and 975X family --
Intel 96x series --
Intel 3x and 4x series chipsets --
Intel 5x series chipsets --
Intel 6x series chipsets --
Third-party chipsets for Intel processors --
SiS chipsets --
ULi electronics chipsets --
ATI chipsets --
VIA chipsets --
NVIDIA chipsets for Intel processors --
Chipsets for AMD processors --
AMD Athlon chipsets --
AMD Athlon 64 chipsets --
AMD 8000 (8151) chipset --
AMD (formerly ATI) chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom --
Third-party chipsets for AMD --
Processors --
VIA chipsets --
SiS chipsets --
NVIDIA chipsets --
Super I/O chips --
Motherboard connectors --
System bus types, functions, and features --
Processor Bus (FSB) --
Types of I/O buses --
ISA Bus --
Micro channel Bus --
EISA Bus --
Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) --
System resources --
Interrupts --
DMA channels --
I/O port addresses --
Resolving resource conflicts --
Pnp --
Motherboard selection criteria (knowing what to look for) --
Chipset documentation --
5: --
BIOS: --
BIOS basics --
Motherboard ROM BIOS --
ROM hardware --
ROM shadowing --
ROM chip types --
ROM BIOS manufacturers --
BIOS hardware/software --
Upgrading the BIOS --
Where to get your BIOS update --
Determining your BIOS version --
Checking the BIOS date --
Backing up your BIOS --
Backing up your BIOS setup (CMOS RAM) setting --
Upgrading a flash BIOS --
Motherboard CMOS Ram addresses --
Year 2000 BIOS issues --
Preboot environment --
Unified extensible firmware interface (UEFI) --
UEFI and BIOS limitations --
UEFI support --
CMOS setup --
Running or accessing the CMOS setup program --
BIOS setup menus --
Maintenance menu --
Main menu --
Advanced menus --
Security menu --
Power menu --
Boot menu (boot sequence, order) --
Exit menu --
Additional BIOS setup features --
PnP BIOS --
PnP device IDs --
ACPI --
BIOS/MBR error messages --
BIOS boot error messages --
MBR boot error messages --
6: --
Memory: --
Memory basics --
ROM --
DRAM --
Cache memory: SRAM --
Memory standards --
Speed and performance --
Fast page mode DRAM --
Extended data our RAM --
SDRAM --
DDR SDRAM --
DDR2 SDRAM --
DDR3 SDRAM --
RDRAM --
Memory modules --
Registered modules --
SIMM details --
SDR DIMM details --
DDR DIMM details --
DDR2 DIMM details --
DDR3 DIMM details --
Determining a memory module's size and features --
Memory banks --
Memory module speed --
Parity and ECC --
Parity checking --
How parity checking works --
ECC --
RAM upgrades --
Upgrade options and strategies --
Purchasing memory --
Replacing modules with higher-capacity versions --
Installing memory modules --
Troubleshooting memory --
Memory defect isolation procedures --
System logical memory layout. 7: --
ATA/IDE Interface: --
Overview of the IDE interface --
Precursors to IDE --
IDE origins --
Origins of ATA --
ATA standards --
ATA-1 (ATA interface for disk drives) --
ATA-2 (ATA interface with extensions-2) --
ATA-3 (ATA interface-3) --
ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with packet interface extension-4) --
ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with packet interface-5) --
ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with packet interface-6) --
ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with packet interface-7) --
ATA/ATAPI-8 --
PATA --
PATA I/O connector --
PATA I/O cable --
Longer or rounded cables --
PATA signals --
PATA dual-drive configurations --
PATA PIO transfer modes --
PATA DMA transfer modes --
SATA --
SATA cables and connectors --
SATA configuration --
Advanced host controller interface (AHCI) --
SATA transfer modes --
ATA features --
ATA commands --
ATA security mode --
Host protected area --
ATAPI --
ATA drive capacity limitations --
Prefixes for decimal and binary multiples --
BIOS limitations --
CHS versus LBA --
CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS conversions --
BIOS commands versus ATA commands --
CHS limitations (the 528MB barrier) --
CHS translation (breaking the 528MB barriers) --
2-1 IGB and 4-2GB barriers --
LBA-assist translation --
8-4GB barrier --
137GB barrier and beyond --
Operating system and other software limitations --
GPT and the 2-2TB barrier --
PATA/SATA RAID --
8: --
Magnetic Storage Principles: --
Magnetic storage --
History of magnetic storage --
How magnetic fields are used to store data --
Read/write head designs --
Ferrite --
Metal-in-gap --
Thin-film --
Magneto-resistive heads --
Giant magneto-resistive heads --
Head sliders --
Data-encoding schemes --
Frequency modulation encoding --
Modified FM encoding --
Run length limited encoding --
Encoding scheme comparisons --
Partial-response, maximum-likelihood decoders --
Capacity measurements --
Areal density --
PMR --
9: --
Hard Disk Storage: --
Definition of a hard disk --
Hard drive advancements --
Form factors --
5 1/4 -inch drive --
3 1/2-inch drive --
2 1/2-inch drive --
1-8-inch drive --
1-inch drives --
HDD operation --
Ultimate HDD analogy --
Tracks and sectors --
ECC --
Disk formatting --
Basic HDD components --
Hard disk platter (disks) --
Recording media --
Read/write heads --
Head actuator mechanisms --
Air filters --
Hard disk temperature acclimation --
Spindle motors --
Logic boards --
Cables and connectors --
Configuration items --
Hard disk features --
Capacity --
Performance --
Reliability --
10: --
Flash And Removable Storage: --
Alternative storage devices --
Flash memory devices --
CompactFlash --
SmartMedia --
MultiMediaCard --
SecureDigital --
Sony memory stick --
ATA flash PC card --
xD-picture card --
SSD (solid-state drive) --
Virtual SSD (RAMdisk) --
Flash-based SSDs --
USB flash drives --
Comparing flash memory devices --
Flash card readers --
Card readers --
Type II PC card adapters --
High-capacity removable magnetic storage devices --
Devices --
Floppy disk drives --
1-44MB 3 1/2-inch drives --
Floppy drive interfaces --
Drive components --
Read/write heads --
Floppy controller --
Power and data connectors --
Floppy disk controller cable --
How the OS uses a floppy disk --
Disk change --
Floppy disk media types and specifications --
Density --
Media coercivity and thickness --
Floppy disk media --
Tape drives --
11: --
Optical Storage: --
Optical technology --
CD-based optical technology --
CDs: a brief history --
CD construction and technology --
Mass-producing CDs --
Writable CDs --
MultiRead specifications --
DVD --
DVD history --
DVD construction and technology --
DVD tracks and sectors --
Handling DVD errors --
DVD capacity (sides and layers) --
Data encoding on the DVD disc --
Recordable DVD standards --
Multiformat rewritable DVD drives --
BD --
HD-DVD --
Optical disc formats --
CD formats --
DVD formats and standards --
Optical disc file systems --
Ripping/copying discs --
For music use only CD-R/RW --
Discs --
CD copy protection --
CD digital rights management --
DVD copy protection --
Optical drive performance specifications --
CD data transfer rate --
CD drive speed --
DVD drive speed --
Access time --
Buffer/cache --
Direct memory access and ultra-DMA --
Interface --
Loading mechanism --
Other drive features --
How to reliably record optical discs --
Booting from a floppy disk with optical drive support --
Bootable optical discs-El Torito --
LightScribe and LabelFlash --
Troubleshooting optical drives --
Caring for optical media --
Updating the firmware in an optical drive --
12: --
Video Hardware: --
Display adapters and monitors --
Video display adapters --
Video adapter types --
Integrated video/motherboard chipsets --
CPUs with integrated video --
Video adapter components --
Identifying the video and system chipsets --
Video RAM --
DAC --
Video display interfaces --
System interface --
Display interface --
TV display interfaces --
3D graphics accelerators --
How 3D graphics accelerators --
APIs --
Dual-GPU scene rendering --
Monitors --
Display specifications --
LCD technology --
LED backlit technology --
CRT display technology --
Plasma display technology --
LCD and DLP projectors --
Using multiple monitors --
Dualview --
Homogeneous adapters --
Heterogeneous adapters --
Video troubleshooting and maintenance --
Troubleshooting video cards and drivers --
Video drivers --
Maintaining monitors --
Testing monitors --
Adjusting monitors --
Bad pixels --
Troubleshooting monitors --
Repairing monitors --
13: --
Audio Hardware: --
Audio hardware concepts and terms --
Nature of sound --
Evaluating the quality of your audio hardware --
Sampling --
Early PC sound cards --
Limitations of sound blaster pro compatibility --
Microsoft windows and audio support --
DirectX and audio support --
Hardware --
Core audio APIs for windows vista and windows --
3D gaming audio standards --
Legacy audio support through virtualization --
Audio hardware features --
Basic connectors --
Advanced audio features --
Volume control --
MIDI support features --
Data compression --
Sound drivers --
Sound cards for sound producers --
Motherboard chipsets with integrated audio --
AC'97 integrated audio --
Intel"Azalia" HD audio --
Troubleshooting PC audio problems --
Sound card and onboard audio problems --
Speakers --
Speaker selection criteria --
Theater and surround sound considerations --
Microphones. 14: --
External I/O Interfaces: --
Introduction to input/output ports --
Serial versus parallel --
Universal serial bus (USB) --
IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i-LINK) --
Comparing USB and IEE 1394 (FireWire)--
Hot-plugging (and unplugging) --
Thunderbolt technology --
Low-speed external connections --
Serial ports --
Parallel ports --
15: --
Input Devices: --
Keyboards --
Enhanced 101-key keyboard --
104-key (Windows) keyboard --
Keyboard technology --
Keyswitch design --
Keyboard interface --
Typematic functions --
Keyboard key numbers and scan codes --
International keyboard layouts --
Keyboard/mouse interface connectors --
USB keyboards --
Keyboards with special features --
Keyboard troubleshooting and repair --
Keyboard disassembly --
Cleaning a keyboard --
Keyboard recommendations --
Pointing devices --
Ball-type mice --
Optical mice --
Pointing device interface types --
Mouse troubleshooting --
Scroll wheels --
TrackPoint II/III/IV --
Alternative pointing devices --
Wireless input devices --
Power management features of wireless input devices --
Troubleshooting wireless input devices --
16: --
Internet Connectivity: --
Internet connectivity trends --
Broadband internet access types --
Cable TV --
Digital subscriber line --
Wireless broadband --
Cellular broadband 3G and 4G services --
Satellite broadband --
ISDN --
Leased lines --
Comparing high-speed internet access --
Dial-up modems --
56Kbps modems --
Internet connection security --
Having a backup plan in case of service interruptions --
Sharing your internet connection --
Routers for internet sharing --
Modem/router status LEDs --
17: --
Local Area Networking: --
Defining a network --
Types of networks --
Requirements for a network --
Client/server versus peer networks --
Peer-to-peer networks --
Comparing client/server and peer-to-peer networks --
Network architecture overview --
Wired Ethernet --
Wireless Ethernet --
Bluetooth --
Hardware elements of your network --
NICs for wired Ethernet networks --
Network cables for wired Ethernet --
Wired network topologies --
Switches for Ethernet networks --
Wireless Ethernet hardware --
Network protocols --
IP and TCP/IP --
IPX --
NetBEUI --
Other home networking solutions --
HomePNA --
Power line networking --
Putting your network together --
Network adapters --
Cables and connections between computers --
Switch/access point --
18: --
Power Supplies: --
Power supply --
Primary function and operation --
Voltage tails --
Power good signal --
Power supply form factors --
Modern form factors --
Power switches --
ATX and newer --
PC/XT/AT and LPX power switches --
Motherboard power connectors --
AT/LPX power supply connectors --
ATX and ATX12V motherboard power connectors --
Backward and forward compatibility --
Dell proprietary (nonstandard) ATX design --
Additional power connectors --
Peripheral power connectors --
Floppy power connectors --
Serial ATA power connectors --
PCI express auxiliary graphics power connectors --
Power supply specifications --
Power supply loading --
Power supply ratings --
Other power supply specifications --
Power factor correction --
SLI-ready and crossfireX --
Certifications --
Safety certifications --
Power-use calculations --
Power savings --
P80 plus --
ENERGY STAR --
Advanced power management --
Advanced configuration and power interface --
Power cycling --
Power supply troubleshooting --
Overloaded power supplies --
Inadequate cooling --
Using digital multimeters --
Specialized test equipment --
Power supply recommendations --
Modular cables --
Sources for replacement power supplies --
Power-protection systems --
Surge suppressors (protectors) --
Network and phone line surge protectors --
Line conditioners --
Backup power --
Real-time clock/nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) batteries --
Modern CMOS batteries --
Obsolete or unique CMOS batteries --
CMOS battery troubleshooting --
19: --
Building Or Upgrading Systems: --
System components --
Case and power supply --
Processor --
Motherboard --
Memory --
Hard disk/solid-state drives --
Removable storage --
Input devices --
Video card and display --
Audio hardware --
Accessories --
Hardware and software resources --
System assembly and disassembly --
Assembly preparation --
Installing the CPU and heatsink --
Installing memory modules --
Mounting the new motherboard in the case --
Preparing a modular power supply --
Connecting the power supply --
Connecting I/O and other cables to the motherboard --
Installing the drives --
Installing a video card --
Installing additional expansion cards --
Replacing the cover and connecting --
External cables --
System startup --
Installing the OS --
Troubleshooting new installations --
20: --
PC Diagnostics, Testing, And Maintenance: --
PC diagnostics --
Diagnostics software --
POST --
Peripheral diagnostics --
Operating system diagnostics --
Commercial diagnostics software --
Free/user supported diagnostics --
Boot process --
Hardware boot process: operating system independent --
DOS boot process --
Window 9x/Me boot process --
Windows 2000/XP startup --
Windows vista/7 startup --
PC maintenance tools --
Hand tools --
Safety --
Test equipment --
Special tools for the enthusiast --
Preventive maintenance --
Active preventive maintenance --
Procedures --
Passive preventive maintenance procedures --
Troubleshooting tips and techniques --
Repair or replace? --
Troubleshooting by replacing parts --
Troubleshooting by the bootstrap approach --
Problems during the POST --
Problems running software --
Problems with adapter cards --
Top troubleshooting problems --
Index.
Other Titles: Upgrading and repairing personal computers
Responsibility: Scott Mueller.

Abstract:

Practical answers about PC processors, motherboards, buses, BIOSes, memory, storage, video, audio, I/O, input devices, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. Coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair, plus discussions of improving performance via overclocking and other techniques.

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    schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/15397506> ; # Scott Mueller
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    schema:description "Introduction -- Book objectives -- 20th edition DVD-Rom -- My website: informit_com/upgrading -- Personal note -- 1: -- Development Of The PC: -- Computer history: before personal computers -- Timeline -- Electronic computers -- Modern computers -- From tubes to transistors -- Integrated circuits -- History of the PC -- Birth of the personal computer -- IBM personal computer -- PC industry 30 years later -- 2: -- PC Components, Features, And System Design: -- What is a PC? -- Who controls PC software? -- Who controls PC hardware? -- White-box systems -- PC design guides -- System types -- System components -- 3: -- Processor Types And Specifications: -- Microprocessor history -- First microprocessor -- PC processor evolution -- 16-bit to 64 bit architecture evolution -- Processor specifications -- Data I/O bits -- Address bus -- Internal registers (internal data bus) -- Processor modes -- Processor benchmarks -- Comparing processor performance -- Cache memory -- Processor features -- System management mode (SMM) -- Superscalar execution -- MMX technology -- Dynamic execution -- Dual independent bus architecture -- HT technology -- Multicore technology -- Processor manufacturing -- Processor re-marking -- PGA chip packaging -- Single edge contact and single edge processor packaging -- Processor socket and slot types -- Socket -- Socket LGA 775-- Socket LGA1156 -- Socket LGA1366 -- Socket LGA1155 -- Socket 939 and 940 -- Socket AN2/AM2+/AM3/AM3/AM3+ -- Socket F (1207FX) -- CPU operating voltages -- Math coprocessors (floating-point units) -- Processor bugs and steppings -- Processor code names -- P1 (086) processors -- P2 (286) processors -- P3 (386) processors -- P4 (486) processors -- P5 (586) processors -- AMD-K5 -- Intel P6 (686) processors -- Pentium pro processors -- Pentium II processors -- Pentium III -- Celeron -- Intel Pentium 4 processors -- Pentium 4 extreme edition -- Intel Pentium D and Pentium extreme edition -- Intel core processors -- Intel core 2 family -- Intel (Nehalem) core i processors -- AMD K6 processors -- NexGen Nx 586 -- AMD-K6 series -- AMD K7 processors -- AMD Athlon -- AMD Duron -- AMD Athleon XP -- Athlon MP -- AMD K8 processors -- AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX -- AMD Sempron -- AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX -- AMD K10 processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) -- AMD fusion processors -- Processor upgrades -- Overclocking -- Quartz crystals -- Modern PC clocks -- Overclocking tips -- Unlocking cores -- Bus speeds and multipliers -- Processor cooling -- Heatsinks -- Liquid cooling -- Thermally advantaged chassis -- Processor troubleshooting techniques -- 4: -- Motherboards And Buses: -- Motherboard form factors -- Obsolete form factors -- ATX and other modern form factors -- Processor sockets/slots -- Chipsets -- Chipset evolution -- Intel chipsets -- Intel chipset model numbers -- Intel integrated graphics -- Architecture -- AMD integrated graphics -- Architecture -- Traditional north/south bridge -- Architecture -- Hub architecture -- Third-party north-south bridge -- Connections -- HyperTransport -- Intel's early 386/486 chipsets -- Fifth-generation (P5 Pentium class) -- Chipsets -- Sixth-generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III class) chipsets -- Seventh/eighth-generation (Pentium 4/D, Core 2, and Core i) chipsets -- Intel 915 family -- Intel 925X family -- Intel 945 express family -- Intel 955X and 975X family -- Intel 96x series -- Intel 3x and 4x series chipsets -- Intel 5x series chipsets -- Intel 6x series chipsets -- Third-party chipsets for Intel processors -- SiS chipsets -- ULi electronics chipsets -- ATI chipsets -- VIA chipsets -- NVIDIA chipsets for Intel processors -- Chipsets for AMD processors -- AMD Athlon chipsets -- AMD Athlon 64 chipsets -- AMD 8000 (8151) chipset -- AMD (formerly ATI) chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom -- Third-party chipsets for AMD -- Processors -- VIA chipsets -- SiS chipsets -- NVIDIA chipsets -- Super I/O chips -- Motherboard connectors -- System bus types, functions, and features -- Processor Bus (FSB) -- Types of I/O buses -- ISA Bus -- Micro channel Bus -- EISA Bus -- Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) -- System resources -- Interrupts -- DMA channels -- I/O port addresses -- Resolving resource conflicts -- Pnp -- Motherboard selection criteria (knowing what to look for) -- Chipset documentation -- 5: -- BIOS: -- BIOS basics -- Motherboard ROM BIOS -- ROM hardware -- ROM shadowing -- ROM chip types -- ROM BIOS manufacturers -- BIOS hardware/software -- Upgrading the BIOS -- Where to get your BIOS update -- Determining your BIOS version -- Checking the BIOS date -- Backing up your BIOS -- Backing up your BIOS setup (CMOS RAM) setting -- Upgrading a flash BIOS -- Motherboard CMOS Ram addresses -- Year 2000 BIOS issues -- Preboot environment -- Unified extensible firmware interface (UEFI) -- UEFI and BIOS limitations -- UEFI support -- CMOS setup -- Running or accessing the CMOS setup program -- BIOS setup menus -- Maintenance menu -- Main menu -- Advanced menus -- Security menu -- Power menu -- Boot menu (boot sequence, order) -- Exit menu -- Additional BIOS setup features -- PnP BIOS -- PnP device IDs -- ACPI -- BIOS/MBR error messages -- BIOS boot error messages -- MBR boot error messages -- 6: -- Memory: -- Memory basics -- ROM -- DRAM -- Cache memory: SRAM -- Memory standards -- Speed and performance -- Fast page mode DRAM -- Extended data our RAM -- SDRAM -- DDR SDRAM -- DDR2 SDRAM -- DDR3 SDRAM -- RDRAM -- Memory modules -- Registered modules -- SIMM details -- SDR DIMM details -- DDR DIMM details -- DDR2 DIMM details -- DDR3 DIMM details -- Determining a memory module's size and features -- Memory banks -- Memory module speed -- Parity and ECC -- Parity checking -- How parity checking works -- ECC -- RAM upgrades -- Upgrade options and strategies -- Purchasing memory -- Replacing modules with higher-capacity versions -- Installing memory modules -- Troubleshooting memory -- Memory defect isolation procedures -- System logical memory layout."@en ;
    schema:description "14: -- External I/O Interfaces: -- Introduction to input/output ports -- Serial versus parallel -- Universal serial bus (USB) -- IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i-LINK) -- Comparing USB and IEE 1394 (FireWire)-- Hot-plugging (and unplugging) -- Thunderbolt technology -- Low-speed external connections -- Serial ports -- Parallel ports -- 15: -- Input Devices: -- Keyboards -- Enhanced 101-key keyboard -- 104-key (Windows) keyboard -- Keyboard technology -- Keyswitch design -- Keyboard interface -- Typematic functions -- Keyboard key numbers and scan codes -- International keyboard layouts -- Keyboard/mouse interface connectors -- USB keyboards -- Keyboards with special features -- Keyboard troubleshooting and repair -- Keyboard disassembly -- Cleaning a keyboard -- Keyboard recommendations -- Pointing devices -- Ball-type mice -- Optical mice -- Pointing device interface types -- Mouse troubleshooting -- Scroll wheels -- TrackPoint II/III/IV -- Alternative pointing devices -- Wireless input devices -- Power management features of wireless input devices -- Troubleshooting wireless input devices -- 16: -- Internet Connectivity: -- Internet connectivity trends -- Broadband internet access types -- Cable TV -- Digital subscriber line -- Wireless broadband -- Cellular broadband 3G and 4G services -- Satellite broadband -- ISDN -- Leased lines -- Comparing high-speed internet access -- Dial-up modems -- 56Kbps modems -- Internet connection security -- Having a backup plan in case of service interruptions -- Sharing your internet connection -- Routers for internet sharing -- Modem/router status LEDs -- 17: -- Local Area Networking: -- Defining a network -- Types of networks -- Requirements for a network -- Client/server versus peer networks -- Peer-to-peer networks -- Comparing client/server and peer-to-peer networks -- Network architecture overview -- Wired Ethernet -- Wireless Ethernet -- Bluetooth -- Hardware elements of your network -- NICs for wired Ethernet networks -- Network cables for wired Ethernet -- Wired network topologies -- Switches for Ethernet networks -- Wireless Ethernet hardware -- Network protocols -- IP and TCP/IP -- IPX -- NetBEUI -- Other home networking solutions -- HomePNA -- Power line networking -- Putting your network together -- Network adapters -- Cables and connections between computers -- Switch/access point -- 18: -- Power Supplies: -- Power supply -- Primary function and operation -- Voltage tails -- Power good signal -- Power supply form factors -- Modern form factors -- Power switches -- ATX and newer -- PC/XT/AT and LPX power switches -- Motherboard power connectors -- AT/LPX power supply connectors -- ATX and ATX12V motherboard power connectors -- Backward and forward compatibility -- Dell proprietary (nonstandard) ATX design -- Additional power connectors -- Peripheral power connectors -- Floppy power connectors -- Serial ATA power connectors -- PCI express auxiliary graphics power connectors -- Power supply specifications -- Power supply loading -- Power supply ratings -- Other power supply specifications -- Power factor correction -- SLI-ready and crossfireX -- Certifications -- Safety certifications -- Power-use calculations -- Power savings -- P80 plus -- ENERGY STAR -- Advanced power management -- Advanced configuration and power interface -- Power cycling -- Power supply troubleshooting -- Overloaded power supplies -- Inadequate cooling -- Using digital multimeters -- Specialized test equipment -- Power supply recommendations -- Modular cables -- Sources for replacement power supplies -- Power-protection systems -- Surge suppressors (protectors) -- Network and phone line surge protectors -- Line conditioners -- Backup power -- Real-time clock/nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) batteries -- Modern CMOS batteries -- Obsolete or unique CMOS batteries -- CMOS battery troubleshooting -- 19: -- Building Or Upgrading Systems: -- System components -- Case and power supply -- Processor -- Motherboard -- Memory -- Hard disk/solid-state drives -- Removable storage -- Input devices -- Video card and display -- Audio hardware -- Accessories -- Hardware and software resources -- System assembly and disassembly -- Assembly preparation -- Installing the CPU and heatsink -- Installing memory modules -- Mounting the new motherboard in the case -- Preparing a modular power supply -- Connecting the power supply -- Connecting I/O and other cables to the motherboard -- Installing the drives -- Installing a video card -- Installing additional expansion cards -- Replacing the cover and connecting -- External cables -- System startup -- Installing the OS -- Troubleshooting new installations -- 20: -- PC Diagnostics, Testing, And Maintenance: -- PC diagnostics -- Diagnostics software -- POST -- Peripheral diagnostics -- Operating system diagnostics -- Commercial diagnostics software -- Free/user supported diagnostics -- Boot process -- Hardware boot process: operating system independent -- DOS boot process -- Window 9x/Me boot process -- Windows 2000/XP startup -- Windows vista/7 startup -- PC maintenance tools -- Hand tools -- Safety -- Test equipment -- Special tools for the enthusiast -- Preventive maintenance -- Active preventive maintenance -- Procedures -- Passive preventive maintenance procedures -- Troubleshooting tips and techniques -- Repair or replace? -- Troubleshooting by replacing parts -- Troubleshooting by the bootstrap approach -- Problems during the POST -- Problems running software -- Problems with adapter cards -- Top troubleshooting problems -- Index."@en ;
    schema:description "7: -- ATA/IDE Interface: -- Overview of the IDE interface -- Precursors to IDE -- IDE origins -- Origins of ATA -- ATA standards -- ATA-1 (ATA interface for disk drives) -- ATA-2 (ATA interface with extensions-2) -- ATA-3 (ATA interface-3) -- ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with packet interface extension-4) -- ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with packet interface-5) -- ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with packet interface-6) -- ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with packet interface-7) -- ATA/ATAPI-8 -- PATA -- PATA I/O connector -- PATA I/O cable -- Longer or rounded cables -- PATA signals -- PATA dual-drive configurations -- PATA PIO transfer modes -- PATA DMA transfer modes -- SATA -- SATA cables and connectors -- SATA configuration -- Advanced host controller interface (AHCI) -- SATA transfer modes -- ATA features -- ATA commands -- ATA security mode -- Host protected area -- ATAPI -- ATA drive capacity limitations -- Prefixes for decimal and binary multiples -- BIOS limitations -- CHS versus LBA -- CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS conversions -- BIOS commands versus ATA commands -- CHS limitations (the 528MB barrier) -- CHS translation (breaking the 528MB barriers) -- 2-1 IGB and 4-2GB barriers -- LBA-assist translation -- 8-4GB barrier -- 137GB barrier and beyond -- Operating system and other software limitations -- GPT and the 2-2TB barrier -- PATA/SATA RAID -- 8: -- Magnetic Storage Principles: -- Magnetic storage -- History of magnetic storage -- How magnetic fields are used to store data -- Read/write head designs -- Ferrite -- Metal-in-gap -- Thin-film -- Magneto-resistive heads -- Giant magneto-resistive heads -- Head sliders -- Data-encoding schemes -- Frequency modulation encoding -- Modified FM encoding -- Run length limited encoding -- Encoding scheme comparisons -- Partial-response, maximum-likelihood decoders -- Capacity measurements -- Areal density -- PMR -- 9: -- Hard Disk Storage: -- Definition of a hard disk -- Hard drive advancements -- Form factors -- 5 1/4 -inch drive -- 3 1/2-inch drive -- 2 1/2-inch drive -- 1-8-inch drive -- 1-inch drives -- HDD operation -- Ultimate HDD analogy -- Tracks and sectors -- ECC -- Disk formatting -- Basic HDD components -- Hard disk platter (disks) -- Recording media -- Read/write heads -- Head actuator mechanisms -- Air filters -- Hard disk temperature acclimation -- Spindle motors -- Logic boards -- Cables and connectors -- Configuration items -- Hard disk features -- Capacity -- Performance -- Reliability -- 10: -- Flash And Removable Storage: -- Alternative storage devices -- Flash memory devices -- CompactFlash -- SmartMedia -- MultiMediaCard -- SecureDigital -- Sony memory stick -- ATA flash PC card -- xD-picture card -- SSD (solid-state drive) -- Virtual SSD (RAMdisk) -- Flash-based SSDs -- USB flash drives -- Comparing flash memory devices -- Flash card readers -- Card readers -- Type II PC card adapters -- High-capacity removable magnetic storage devices -- Devices -- Floppy disk drives -- 1-44MB 3 1/2-inch drives -- Floppy drive interfaces -- Drive components -- Read/write heads -- Floppy controller -- Power and data connectors -- Floppy disk controller cable -- How the OS uses a floppy disk -- Disk change -- Floppy disk media types and specifications -- Density -- Media coercivity and thickness -- Floppy disk media -- Tape drives -- 11: -- Optical Storage: -- Optical technology -- CD-based optical technology -- CDs: a brief history -- CD construction and technology -- Mass-producing CDs -- Writable CDs -- MultiRead specifications -- DVD -- DVD history -- DVD construction and technology -- DVD tracks and sectors -- Handling DVD errors -- DVD capacity (sides and layers) -- Data encoding on the DVD disc -- Recordable DVD standards -- Multiformat rewritable DVD drives -- BD -- HD-DVD -- Optical disc formats -- CD formats -- DVD formats and standards -- Optical disc file systems -- Ripping/copying discs -- For music use only CD-R/RW -- Discs -- CD copy protection -- CD digital rights management -- DVD copy protection -- Optical drive performance specifications -- CD data transfer rate -- CD drive speed -- DVD drive speed -- Access time -- Buffer/cache -- Direct memory access and ultra-DMA -- Interface -- Loading mechanism -- Other drive features -- How to reliably record optical discs -- Booting from a floppy disk with optical drive support -- Bootable optical discs-El Torito -- LightScribe and LabelFlash -- Troubleshooting optical drives -- Caring for optical media -- Updating the firmware in an optical drive -- 12: -- Video Hardware: -- Display adapters and monitors -- Video display adapters -- Video adapter types -- Integrated video/motherboard chipsets -- CPUs with integrated video -- Video adapter components -- Identifying the video and system chipsets -- Video RAM -- DAC -- Video display interfaces -- System interface -- Display interface -- TV display interfaces -- 3D graphics accelerators -- How 3D graphics accelerators -- APIs -- Dual-GPU scene rendering -- Monitors -- Display specifications -- LCD technology -- LED backlit technology -- CRT display technology -- Plasma display technology -- LCD and DLP projectors -- Using multiple monitors -- Dualview -- Homogeneous adapters -- Heterogeneous adapters -- Video troubleshooting and maintenance -- Troubleshooting video cards and drivers -- Video drivers -- Maintaining monitors -- Testing monitors -- Adjusting monitors -- Bad pixels -- Troubleshooting monitors -- Repairing monitors -- 13: -- Audio Hardware: -- Audio hardware concepts and terms -- Nature of sound -- Evaluating the quality of your audio hardware -- Sampling -- Early PC sound cards -- Limitations of sound blaster pro compatibility -- Microsoft windows and audio support -- DirectX and audio support -- Hardware -- Core audio APIs for windows vista and windows -- 3D gaming audio standards -- Legacy audio support through virtualization -- Audio hardware features -- Basic connectors -- Advanced audio features -- Volume control -- MIDI support features -- Data compression -- Sound drivers -- Sound cards for sound producers -- Motherboard chipsets with integrated audio -- AC'97 integrated audio -- Intel"Azalia" HD audio -- Troubleshooting PC audio problems -- Sound card and onboard audio problems -- Speakers -- Speaker selection criteria -- Theater and surround sound considerations -- Microphones."@en ;
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