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Ute reference grammar

Author: Talmy Givón
Publisher: Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : John Benjamins Pub. Company, ©2011.
Series: Culture and language use, v. 3.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Ute is a Uto-Aztecan language of the northernmost (Numic) branch, currently spoken on three reservations in western Colorado and eastern Utah. Like many other native languages of Northern America, Ute is severely endangered. This book is part of the effort toward its preservation. Typologically, Ute offers a cluster of intriguing features, best viewed from the perspective of diachronic change and grammaticalization.  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Talmy Givón
ISBN: 9789027202840 9027202842 9789027202857 9027202850 9789027287410 9027287414
OCLC Number: 669269901
Description: xxiii, 441 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1.1. Ute, Numic and Uto-Aztecan --
1.2. Earlier sources --
1.3. What is grammar? --
1.4. What is a reference grammar? --
1.4.1. Mental vs. descriptive grammar --
1.4.2. Descriptive vs. pedagogic grammar --
1.4.3. Synchronic vs. diachronic grammar --
1.4.4. Literacy and spoken language --
1.5. data --
1.6. Intended audiences and uses --
1.7. Organization of the book --
1.8. Abbreviations of grammatical terms --
2.1. Preliminaries --
2.2. Vowels --
2.2.1. Vowels and their pronunciation --
2.2.2. Short vs. long vowels --
2.2.3. Stressed vs. unstressed vowels --
2.2.4. Silent vowels --
2.3. Consonants and their pronunciation --
2.4. Hyphenation conventions --
2.5. Capitalization conventions --
3.1. Preliminaries --
3.2. Lexical word classes --
3.2.1. Membership criteria --
3.2.2. Nouns --
3.2.2.1. Semantic properties --
3.2.2.2. Syntactic properties --
3.2.2.3. Morphological properties --
3.2.2.3.1. Noun suffixes and noun classes --
3.2.2.3.2. Plural formation --
3.2.2.3.3. Grammatical ('case') roles --
3.2.2.3.4. Possessor suffix pronouns --
3.2.2.3.5. Noun compounds --
3.2.3. Adjectives --
3.2.3.1. Semantic characteristics --
3.2.3.2. Syntactic characteristic --
3.2.3.3. Morphological characteristics --
3.2.4. Numerals and ordinals --
3.2.5. Quantifiers --
3.2.6. Verbs --
3.2.6.1. Plural subject agreement --
3.2.6.2. Causative --
3.2.6.3. Benefactive --
3.2.6.4. Passive --
3.2.6.5. Tense-aspect-modality --
3.2.6.6. Negation --
3.2.6.7. Suffix pronouns --
3.2.6.8. First-syllable stem reduplication --
3.2.6.9. Incorporated stems --
3.2.7. Adverbs --
3.2.7.1. Time adverbs --
3.2.7.2. Manner adverbs --
3.2.7.3. Epistemic adverbs --
3.2.8. Demonstratives, articles and pronouns --
3.2.8.1. Demonstratives --
3.2.8.2. Definite articles --
3.2.8.3. Personal pronouns --
3.2.9. Interjections --
4.1. Syntactic description --
4.1.1. Theme, variations and clause-types --
4.1.2. States, events, and actions --
4.1.3. Participant roles --
4.1.4. Grammatical relations --
4.1.5. Constituency and hierarchic structure --
4.1.6. Word order --
4.2. Dummy-subject verbs --
4.3. Copular verbs and non-verbal predicates --
4.4. Simple intransitive verbs --
4.5. Intransitive clauses with an indirect object --
4.5.1. Syntactic characterization --
4.5.2. Locative indirect objects --
4.5.3. Locative post-positions --
4.5.4. Dynamic locative post-positions --
4.5.5. Non-locative indirect objects --
4.6. Transitive verbs --
4.6.1. Transitivity --
4.6.2. Simple transitive verbs --
4.7. Bi-transitive verbs --
4.7.1. Verbs with a locative indirect object --
4.7.2. Verbs with a dative indirect object --
4.7.3. Verbs with an associative indirect object --
4.7.4. Verbs with the instrumental-locative variation --
4.8. Verbs with verbal complements --
4.8.1. Modal-aspectual verbs --
4.8.2. Manipulation verbs --
4.8.3. Perception-cognition-utterance verbs --
4.9. Optional participant roles --
4.9.1. Benefactive --
4.9.2. Associative --
4.9.3. Instrumental --
4.9.4. Manner --
4.9.5. Optional locatives --
5.1. Introduction --
5.2. Subject, object and genitive --
5.2.1. Current state: Recapitulation --
5.2.2. Traces of the oblique suffix -y/-i --
5.2.2.1. Traces on object or genitive nouns --
5.2.2.2. Traces on demonstratives and pronouns --
5.2.2.3. Traces in nominalized clauses --
5.2.2.4. epenthetic suffix -y --
5.2.3. oblique suffix -a --
5.2.3.1. suffix -a as a genitive marker --
5.2.3.2. suffix -a as an object marker --
5.2.4. object suffix -ku --
5.2.5. Interim summary --
5.2.6. Object and genitive: The hidden footprints of nominalization --
5.2.6.1. Preliminaries --
5.2.7. diachrony of Ute object marking: Reconstruction --
5.2.7.1. suffixes -a and -y --
5.2.7.2. demise of the suffix -y --
5.2.7.3. object suffix -ku --
5.3. Post-positions and indirect objects --
5.3.1. Introduction --
5.3.2. Large-size locative post-positions --
5.3.2.1. Noun-derived post-positions --
5.3.2.2. Verb-derived post-positions --
5.3.2.3. Older monosyllabic de-verbal post-positions --
5.3.2.4. oldest locative post-positions -na, -mi and -ma --
5.4. Discussion --
6.1. Introduction --
6.1.1. Perspective --
6.1.2. Tense --
6.1.3. Aspect --
6.1.4. Modality --
6.2. immediate aspect --
6.3. anterior aspect --
6.4. remote past --
6.5. Imperfective remote-past --
6.6. finite habitual aspect --
6.7. nominal habitual aspect --
6.8. distributive aspect --
6.9. Future and irrealis --
6.9.1. Simple future --
6.9.2. Present subjunctive --
6.9.3. Habitual subjunctive --
6.9.4. Future-in-past --
6.9.5. intentional mode --
6.9.6. exhortative mode --
6.9.7. strong-obligation mode --
6.9.8. other-directed hope-wish mode --
6.9.9. counter-fact hope-wish mode --
6.9.10. Hypothetical counter-fact modes --
6.10. Discourse-sensitive aspectual markers --
6.10.1. digression aspect --
6.10.2. closure aspect --
6.11. Residual cases --
6.11.1. inceptive aspect --
6.11.2. completive aspect --
6.11.3. verbal suffix -kwa --
6.11.4. Other old co-lexicalized suffixes --
7.1. Introduction --
7.2. Referential coherence in discourse --
7.3. Indefinite referents: First introduction --
7.3.1. Definiteness and access to knowledge --
7.3.2. Indefinite nominals --
7.3.3. Non-referring and generic nominals --
7.4. Demonstratives and definite articles --
7.4.1. Demonstrative modifiers --
7.4.2. Definite articles --
7.4.3. Demonstratives as pronouns --
7.5. Personal pronouns --
7.6. Clitic anaphoric pronouns and zero anaphora --
7.6.1. Preliminaries --
7.6.2. Zero anaphora: The default case for referential continuity --
7.6.3. Subject vs. object clitics: In search of a general principle --
7.6.4. Pronominal agreement --
7.6.5. Cliticization locus: Second-position clitics? --
7.7. Flexible word-order and referential coherence --
7.8. Final reflections --
8.1. Orientation --
8.2. Modifying adjectives --
8.2.1. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive modification --
8.2.2. Adjectives used as pronouns --
8.2.3. Morphological note --
8.3. Numerals, ordinals and quantifiers --
8.3.1. Numerals --
8.3.2. Ordinals --
8.3.3. Quantifiers --
8.3.4. Partitive constructions --
8.4. Possessive modifiers --
8.5. Noun compounds --
8.6. Nominalized clauses as noun phrases --
8.6.1. Preliminaries: Finiteness and nominalization --
8.6.2. Nominalized clauses in the --
8.7. Noun-phrase conjunction --
8.8. Diachronic notes --
9.1. Orientation --
9.2. Modal-aspectual verbs --
9.3. Manipulation verbs --
9.3.1. Non-implicative manipulation verbs --
9.3.2. Implicative verbs and the causative construction --
9.3.2.1. Introduction --
9.3.2.2. Verb classes and case-marking --
9.3.2.3. Syntactic constraints on causativization --
9.3.2.4. Semantic constraints on causativization --
9.4. Perception-cognition-utterance verbs --
9.4.1. Indicative complements --
9.4.2. Conditional complements --
9.4.3. WH-question complements --
9.4.4. Direct-quote complements --
9.5. Clausal subjects --
9.5.1. Preamble --
9.5.2. Nominalized subjectless clauses as subjects --
9.5.3. Full-size clausal subjects --
10.1. Voice and transitivity --
10.1.1. Overview --
10.1.2. Semantic dimensions of voice --
10.1.3. Pragmatic dimensions of voice --
10.1.4. Syntactic dimensions of voice --
10.2. Reflexive clauses --
10.2.1. simple reflexive --
10.2.1.1. Reflexives in main clauses --
10.2.1.2. Reflexives in complement clauses --
10.2.2. possessive reflexive --
10.3. Reciprocal clauses --
10.4. Middle-voice --
10.5. impersonal passive --
10.5.1. Structural dimensions --
10.5.2. Usage context of the passive in natural text --
10.5.3. passive as middle-voice --
10.6. antipassive --
10.7. inverse voice --
11.1. Orientation --
11.2. diachrony of the Ute -ta passive --
11.3. other passive --
11.4. Conclusion --
12.1. Orientation --
12.2. Functional dimensions --
12.2.1. Definite head nouns: Anaphoric grounding --
12.2.2. Referring indefinite head nouns: Cataphoric grounding --
12.2.3. Non-referring head nouns: Irrealis and the problem of strict co-reference --
12.3. Structural dimensions --
12.4. Subject relative clauses --
12.5. Object relative clauses --
12.6. Indirect-object relative clauses --
12.7. Some text-derived examples --
12.8. Headless relative clauses --
12.9. Non-restrictive relative clauses --
13.1. Introduction --
13.2. Contrastive focus constructions --
13.2.1. Cleft --
13.2.2. Pseudo-cleft --
13.3. Emphatic re-focusing morphemes --
13.3.1. suffix -nukwa --
13.3.2. topicalizing suffix -ga --
13.3.3. emphatic suffix -ku/-gu --
14.1. Introduction --
14.1.1. Orientation --
14.1.2. Speech-acts --
14.2. Manipulative speech-acts --
14.2.1. Imperatives --
14.2.2. Negative imperative --
14.2.3. Exhortatives --
14.2.4. obligative mode --
14.2.5. strong obligative mode --
14.2.6. subjunctive of hope or wish --
14.2.7. Counter-fact hypothetical subjunctive --
14.2.8. counter-fact hypothetical mode --
14.3. Interrogatives --
14.3.1. Yes/no questions --
14.3.1.1. Preliminaries --
14.3.1.2. Affirmative yes/no questions --
14.3.1.3. Negative yes/no questions --
14.3.1.4. use of negative yes/no questions as polite requests --
14.3.2. Constituent (WH- ) question --
14.3.2.1. Preliminaries --
14.3.2.2. Subject WH-questions: Referring vs. non-referring. Note continued: 14.3.2.3. Predicate questions --
14.3.2.4. Object WH-questions and word-order --
14.3.2.5. Object-of-possession WH-questions --
14.3.2.6. Indirect-object and adverbial WH-questions --
14.3.2.7. Possessor WH-questions --
14.3.2.8. Quantity WH-questions --
14.3.3. Cleft and pseudo-cleft WH-questions --
14.3.4. WH-questions and modal uncertainty --
14.3.5. variant WH-question pattern --
15.1. Orientation --
15.2. Inalienable possession --
15.3. Negative inalienable possession --
15.4. Alienable possession --
15.5. Negative alienable possession --
15.6. Existential clauses --
15.7. Negative existential clauses --
16.1. Introduction --
16.2. Comparison of adjectival quality --
16.3. Comparison of manner or extent of verbs --
16.4. Comparison of quantity of objects --
16.5. Comparison of quantity of subjects --
16.6. Downward comparison (less) --
16.6.1. Adjectives --
16.6.2. Verbs and adverbs --
16.6.3. Number or quantity of objects --
16.7. Superlatives --
17.1. Preliminaries --
17.2. Temporal adverbial clauses --
17.3. Relative order of main vs. adverbial clause --
17.4. Conditional adverbial clauses --
17.4.1. Irrealis conditionals --
17.4.2. Counter-fact ('hypothetical') conditionals --
17.5. Concessive clauses --
17.6. Cause or reason clauses --
17.7. Purpose clauses --
17.7.1. Equi-subject purpose clauses --
17.7.2. Switch-subject purpose clauses --
17.8. Participial clauses --
17.8.1. -Ku-marked participial clauses --
17.8.2. -Ga-marked participial clauses --
17.9. Diachronic notes --
17.9.1. adverbial subordinator -ku --
17.9.2. participial subordinator -ga --
Appendix: The use of -ga-marked participial clauses in oral texts --
18.1. Introduction --
18.2. Chain-medial contexts: Maximal continuity, minimal marking --
18.3. Chain-initial contexts: Minimal continuity, maximal marking --
18.4. Flexible word-order and discourse coherence --
18.5. Notes on the diachrony of inter-clausal connectives --
18.5.1. compositional assembly of inter-clausal connectives --
18.5.2. old conjunctive suffix --
19.1. Introduction --
19.2. Noun-producing derivations --
19.2.1. Noun-to-noun derivations --
19.2.1.1. diminutive derivations with -pu/-vu --
19.2.1.2. diminutive derivation with -chi --
19.2.1.3. diminutive derivation with -taa/-raa --
19.2.1.4. 'old' 'defunct' 'departed' derivation with -ga-pu --
19.2.1.5. possessor derivation with -ga 'have' --
19.2.1.6. Noun compounding --
19.2.2. Verb-to-noun derivations (nominalizations) --
19.2.2.1. subject/agent nominalization with -mi-tu --
19.2.2.2. old subject/agent nominalization with -chi --
19.2.2.3. old object nominalization with -pu --
19.2.2.4. object nominalization with -ka-pu --
19.2.2.5. object nominalization with -ka-tu --
19.2.2.6. instrument nominalization with -'na-pu --
19.2.2.7. action nominalization with -pu/-vu --
19.2.2.8. action nominalization with -pi --
19.2.2.9. action nominalization with -ta --
19.3. Verb-producing derivations --
19.3.1. Verb-to-verb derivations --
19.3.1.1. intensive derivation with -'ni --
19.3.1.2. distributive derivation --
19.3.1.3. causative derivation with -ti- --
19.3.1.4. inchoative derivation with -wi- --
19.3.2. Noun/adjective-to-verb derivations --
19.3.2.1. causative derivation with -may- --
19.3.2.2. causative derivation with -ri- --
19.3.2.3. inchoative derivation with -ri- --
19.3.2.4. inchoative derivation with -'ini-/-mani- --
19.3.3. Incorporation as verbal derivation --
19.4. Adjective-producing derivations --
19.4.1. Preliminaries --
19.4.2. potential derivation with -ta-ru --
19.4.3. derivation with -ni --
19.5. Adverb producing derivation.
Series Title: Culture and language use, v. 3.
Responsibility: T. Givón.

Abstract:

Ute is a Uto-Aztecan language of the northernmost (Numic) branch, spoken on three reservations in western Colorado and eastern Utah. This book presents a comprehensive synchronic description of  Read more...

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