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Voltaire.

Author: John Morley
Publisher: London, Chapman and Hall, 1872.
Edition/Format:   Print book : Document   Computer File : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Morley, John, 1838-1923.
Voltaire.
London, Chapman and Hall, 1872
(OCoLC)809555150
Named Person: Voltaire; Voltaire
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Computer File, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: John Morley
OCLC Number: 649203
Notes: Imperfect: pages xiii and xiv wanting.
Description: xiv, 346 pages 22 cm
Contents: 1. Preliminary --
Importance of Voltaire's name --
Catholicism, Calvinism, and the Renaissance --
Voltairism the Renaissance of the eighteenth century --
His power the result of his sincerity, penetration, and courage --
Different tempers proper for different eras --
Voltaire's freedom from intellectual cowardice --
And from worldly indifference to truth and justice --
Reason and humanity only a single word to him --
His position towards the purely literary life --
Enervating regrets that the movement had not a less violent leader --
The share of chance in providing leaders --
Combinations of favourable circumstances in Voltaire's case --
Occasion and necessity of the movement --
Age of Lewis XIV. entirely loyal to its own ideas --
Subsequent discredit of these ideas --
Preparation for abandonment of the old system by Descartes and Bayle --
Voltaire continues the work, not wholly to the disadvantage of the old system --
No ascetic element in the Voltairean revolt --
Why primarily and intellectual movement --
The hostile memory of Christians for it --
Comte's estimate of it --
The estimate of culture --
Some pleas on the other side --
2. English Influences --
Significance of the journey to England His birth and youthful history --
Ninon de l'Enclos, Chaulieu, and the Regency --
Manner of life from 1716 --
Affront from the Duke of Rohan --
Leaves France --
Had previously been no more than a vague esprit-fort --
Le Pour et le Contre --
Freethinking a reality in England --
Condorcet's account of the effect of England upon Voltaire --
Social and political consequence of men of letters --
Evil effect of this in France --
Freedom of speech --
Newton's discoveries --
Their true influence on Voltaire --
Locke --
Profound effect of Lockian common-sense on Voltaire --
Contrast between social condition of England and France --
Voltaire's imperfect appreciation of the value and working of a popular government --
Confounds two distinct conceptions of civil liberty --
A confusion shared by most of his countrymen --
The church of England --
Quakers --
Voltaire's diligence in study of English literature --
And in mastering one side of the deistical controversy --
Through the influence of the deists on Voltaire, the genius of Protestantism entered France --
Limited consistency of Voltaire's philosophy --
English deism contrasted with that of Leibnitz, and with the atheism of D'Holbach. 3. Literature --
Most just way of criticizing character --
Some traits in Voltaire --
Acquaintance with the Marquise du Chatelet --
Her character --
Voltaire's placableness --
His money transactions --
The life at Cirey --
His attempts in physical science --
Literature his true calling --
Qualities of his style --
Significance of literature as a profession --
Voltaire's dramatic art --
Not deliberately art with a purpose --
His plays a prolongation of the tradition of the great age of Lewis XIV. --
His criticism on Hamlet --
Merits of the French classic drama --
Voltaire compared with Corneille and Racine --
His ideas of dramatic renovation --
His Roman subjects --
His enlargement of dramatic themes --
Failure in comedy --
Arising from want of deep humour --
The Pucelle: offends two modern sentiments --
Its true significance --
Peculiarity of the licence of the eighteenth century --
Sophisms by which it was defended --
Contempt for the middle ages --
The Henriade --
4. Berlin --
Death of Madame du Chatelet --
Voltaire and the court --
He goes to Berlin --
Character of literary activity in Prussia --
The two movements of which Voltaire and the king were chiefs --
Character of Frederick the Great --
Breaking up of the European state-system in 1740 --
The first shock in 1733 --
Frederick raises international relations into the region of real matter --
The situation defined --
Two conceptions of progress --
From which of them the result of the Seven Years' War is seen to be truly progressive --
The Jesuits --
Their repulse after the humiliation of Austria --
Frederick's probable unconsciousness of the ultimate bearings of his policy --
His type of monarchy --
He sprang doubly from the critical school --
Other statesmen affected by this school --
Injustice of stamping Voltaire's influence as merely destructive --
Frederick the Great and France --
Voltaire's life at Berlin --
Maupertuis --
Collision between him and Voltaire --
The Diatribe of Doctor Akakia --
Voltaire's departure from Berlin --
The Frankfort episode --
Unfortunate revelations in the Hirschel affair --
Relations between Frederick and Voltaire henceforth --
Voltaire fears to return to Paris --
Geneva --
The critical school not specially insensible to the picturesque --
Voltaire buys Ferney --
5. Religion --
Two elements underlying Voltaire's enmity to Christianity --
Failure of Catholicism as a social force --
Utility of Protestantism in softening the transition --
Compared with repression of free debate in France --
Voltaire did not assail modern theosophies --
The good inextricably bound up with the bad in the old system --
Jesuits and Jansenists --
Voltaire declared the latter to be the worse foes --
Morellet's manual for Inquisitors --
A reflex of the criminal jurisprudence of the time --
Cases of Rochette, Calas, and Sirven --
Of La Barre --
Fervour of Voltaire's indignation --
Protests against cynical acquiescence --
Disappointment of the philosophers, and their courage --
The reactionary fanaticism a proof of the truth of Voltaire's allegations --
Necessity of transforming spiritual basis of thought --
Voltaire's abstention from the temporal sphere --
His chief defect as leader of the attack --
Crippling his historic imagination --
The just historic calm impossible, until Voltaire had pressed a previous question --
His instruments purely literary and dialectical --
Leaves metaphysics of religion, and fastens on alleged records --
The other side fell back on the least worthy parts of their system --
Hence the narrow and literal character of Voltaire's objections --
His attack essentially the attack of the English deists --
Rationalistic questions in scriptural and ecclesiastical records --
In doctrine --
Argument from comparison with other myths --
His neglect of primitive religions --
His conviction that monotheism is the first religious form --
Difficulties which he thus passed over --
Hume's view --
Voltaire did not assail the general ideas of Christianity --
Such as the idea of evil inherent in matter --
And the idea of a deity as then conceived --
Hence the acerbity of the debate --
And the want of permanence in Voltaire's writings compared with Bossuet or Pascal --
His criticism on Dante --
Voltairean deism --
Never accepted by the mass of men --
Nor is it likely to be accepted by them --
Voltaire's imperfect adherence to the deistical idea --
Reasons for this --
Holds to an attitude of suspense --
Does not accept belief in the immortality of the soul --
Asserts less than Rousseau, and denies less than Diderot --
A popular movement begun by Bayle's dictionary --
Compromising method of Rousseau --
Voltaire's view of an atheistical society --
His belief in the social sufficiency of an analytic spirit --
Synthesis necessary, but more than one is possible --
6. History --
Extraordinary activity in historical composition in the eighteenth century --
Explanation of it --
Circumstances under which Voltaire thought about the philosophy of history --
The three historical styles --
Voltaire's histories of two kinds --
Rousseau's disregard for history --
Voltaire's acute sense --
His diligence in seeking authentic materials --
Throws persons and personal interests into the second place --
Changed view of the true subject matter of history. War always an object of Voltaire's antipathy --
His distrust of diplomacy --
Bossuet's discourse n universal history --
Introduction to the essay on manners --
Irrational disparagement of the Jews --
Panegyric on the Emperor Julian --
False view of the history of the church --
Avoids the error of expressing barbarous activity in terms of civilization --
Real merit of Voltaire's panorama --
He was not alive to the necessity of scientifically studying the conditions of the social union --
7. Ferney --
His life at Ferney --
Madame Denis --
His vast correspondence --
Consulted by Vauvenargues, Chastellux, and others --
Complaisance of his letters --
Sophistical defense of the practice of denying authorship --
Voltaire's just alarm for his own safety --
His Easter communion of 1768 --
Further proceedings with the Bishop of Annecy --
Voltaire made temporal father of the Capucins of Gex --
Voltaire's influence on Rousseau --
Difference between their respective schools --
Their rivalry represents the social dead-lock of the time --
Voltaire the more far-sighted of the two --
Two signal effects of Rousseau's teaching --
Diderot and the encyclopedia --
Voltaire's constant efforts to secure redress for the victims of wrong --
Calas, Sirven, La Barre --
Count Lally --
Admiral Byng --
His interest in the pretended liberation of Greece --
In the partition of Poland --
In the accession of Turgot to power --
Visit to Paris and death.
Responsibility: By John Morley.

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Berlin -- Death of Madame du Chatelet -- Voltaire and the court -- He goes to Berlin -- Character of literary activity in Prussia -- The two movements of which Voltaire and the king were chiefs -- Character of Frederick the Great -- Breaking up of the European state-system in 1740 -- The first shock in 1733 -- Frederick raises international relations into the region of real matter -- The situation defined -- Two conceptions of progress -- From which of them the result of the Seven Years' War is seen to be truly progressive -- The Jesuits -- Their repulse after the humiliation of Austria -- Frederick's probable unconsciousness of the ultimate bearings of his policy -- His type of monarchy -- He sprang doubly from the critical school -- Other statesmen affected by this school -- Injustice of stamping Voltaire's influence as merely destructive -- Frederick the Great and France -- Voltaire's life at Berlin -- Maupertuis -- Collision between him and Voltaire -- The Diatribe of Doctor Akakia -- Voltaire's departure from Berlin -- The Frankfort episode -- Unfortunate revelations in the Hirschel affair -- Relations between Frederick and Voltaire henceforth -- Voltaire fears to return to Paris -- Geneva -- The critical school not specially insensible to the picturesque -- Voltaire buys Ferney -- 5. Religion -- Two elements underlying Voltaire's enmity to Christianity -- Failure of Catholicism as a social force -- Utility of Protestantism in softening the transition -- Compared with repression of free debate in France -- Voltaire did not assail modern theosophies -- The good inextricably bound up with the bad in the old system -- Jesuits and Jansenists -- Voltaire declared the latter to be the worse foes -- Morellet's manual for Inquisitors -- A reflex of the criminal jurisprudence of the time -- Cases of Rochette, Calas, and Sirven -- Of La Barre -- Fervour of Voltaire's indignation -- Protests against cynical acquiescence -- Disappointment of the philosophers, and their courage -- The reactionary fanaticism a proof of the truth of Voltaire's allegations -- Necessity of transforming spiritual basis of thought -- Voltaire's abstention from the temporal sphere -- His chief defect as leader of the attack -- Crippling his historic imagination -- The just historic calm impossible, until Voltaire had pressed a previous question -- His instruments purely literary and dialectical -- Leaves metaphysics of religion, and fastens on alleged records -- The other side fell back on the least worthy parts of their system -- Hence the narrow and literal character of Voltaire's objections -- His attack essentially the attack of the English deists -- Rationalistic questions in scriptural and ecclesiastical records -- In doctrine -- Argument from comparison with other myths -- His neglect of primitive religions -- His conviction that monotheism is the first religious form -- Difficulties which he thus passed over -- Hume's view -- Voltaire did not assail the general ideas of Christianity -- Such as the idea of evil inherent in matter -- And the idea of a deity as then conceived -- Hence the acerbity of the debate -- And the want of permanence in Voltaire's writings compared with Bossuet or Pascal -- His criticism on Dante -- Voltairean deism -- Never accepted by the mass of men -- Nor is it likely to be accepted by them -- Voltaire's imperfect adherence to the deistical idea -- Reasons for this -- Holds to an attitude of suspense -- Does not accept belief in the immortality of the soul -- Asserts less than Rousseau, and denies less than Diderot -- A popular movement begun by Bayle's dictionary -- Compromising method of Rousseau -- Voltaire's view of an atheistical society -- His belief in the social sufficiency of an analytic spirit -- Synthesis necessary, but more than one is possible -- 6. History -- Extraordinary activity in historical composition in the eighteenth century -- Explanation of it -- Circumstances under which Voltaire thought about the philosophy of history -- The three historical styles -- Voltaire's histories of two kinds -- Rousseau's disregard for history -- Voltaire's acute sense -- His diligence in seeking authentic materials -- Throws persons and personal interests into the second place -- Changed view of the true subject matter of history."@en ;
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