Wagner, Richard, 1813-1883.
Wagner on music and drama.
New York, E.P. Dutton, 1964
Richard Wagner; Albert Goldman; Evert Sprinchorn; William Ashton Ellis
|物理形態：||447 pages : illustrations, music, portrait ; 19 cm|
Part I. Cultural decadence of the nineteenth century. Mercury, god of merchants, reigns over modern culture - The rabble and the Philistines set artistic standards - Criticism of the Vienna Opera House - Italian opera-an excuse for conversation and social gatherings - Paris demanded a ballet in Tannhäuser - Jews in music - Christian hypocrisy - Contrast between the present-day theatre and the Greek - The dissolution of the drama - The necessity of revolution - What is utopia? - The revolution --
Part II. The Greek ideal. Greek art and drama - A fellowship of players : communion of players and audience - The fellowship and the community : the priest as actor - The folk creates art - Definition of the folk - Myth as it relates to the folk and to art - The value of myth is its eternal truth - Feeling is the basis of understanding --
Part III. The origins of modern opera, drama, and music. Development of the aria : Gluck's contribution - Mozart and Rossini : the death of opera - Weber's contribution - Nadir of opera : music by Meyerbeer, libretto by Scribe - Opera affirms the separation of the arts - Origin of modern drama : the Romance and Greek drama - Essence of the romance - Myth diluted by Christianity - The Romance versus the drama : romance turns into politics eventually - The state versus the individual : understanding versus feeling - Poetry impossible in modern speech - When language declines, music, a new language of feeling, develops, until poetry becomes either philosophy or blends with music - Haydn and Mozart develop dance music into the modern symphony and make use of folk song and speaking melody - Yet they fail to achieve dramatic pathos or continuity of action-their works are characterized by a "lofty glee" - Beethoven makes music express storm and stress, but absolute music can express only mirth or endless yearning, it lacks the deed, the moral will : the Ninth symphony is the redemption of music into drama - Three descriptive and analytic programs : the importance of identifying the poetic subjects of Beethoven's works : The "Eroica" symphony, the "Coriolan" overture, the Ninth symphony (with parallel passages from the poems of Goethe) --
Part IV. The artwork of the future. Music and reality : Shopenhauer's theory extended by Wagner - Beethoven's symphonies reveal another world, whose logic is the logic of feeling - Poetry will combine with music in drama which also obeys the logic of feeling - Essence of drama is knowing through feeling - Myth represents a concentration of motives ; Summary of relations of myth, drama, feeling, and motives - Word speech must be strengthened to suit mythic drama - From ordinary speech a new art speech must be created, a concise and vigorous style - Rhythm determined not by artificial metrics but by the natural liftings and lowerings of the speaking accent - Alliteration unifies expression : Stabreim defined and illustrated - Poetic value of Stabrein - Use of rhyme : passing over word speech into tone speech - Different functions of the word poet and tone poet - Melody and feeling - Tonality and expression ; Setting Stabreim - Modulation and action - Harmony imparts feeling tone to melody - Poet and musician unite in the orchestra - Orchestra's power of speech : analogy with gesture - Foreboding and rememberance - Example from Lohengrin - The new musicodramatic unity - Relation of the poet to the musician - One artist or two? - Conclusion --
Part V. Wagner's development. Autobiographical sketch - Rienzi - The flying Dutchman : use of myth - Tannhäuser : the conception of higher love - Lohengrin : its novelty ; Elsa and Lohengrin as antithesis, representing the unconcious and the conscious - Siegfried : turning point in Wagner's artistic development, abandons history for myth - Breaks with operatic conventions - Growing inwardness of his art, concluding with Tristan, when only "inner movements of the soul" are depicted - Spiritual crisis : Schopenhauer ; The longing for death - Prelude to Tristan und Isolde - Negation of the will ; Dante ; Buddhism --
Overthrown of humanistic values ; Changes in The ring --
Relation of Tristan to The ring --
Nibelungen myth considered as a "sketch for a drama" --
Commentary on The ring --
Parsifal : letter to Mathilde Wesendonck, May 30, 1959 --
Part VI. The art of performance. Conducting : relation of melody to tempo ; Establishing the correct tempo ; The principle of modifying tempo ; Performing Beethoven's Ninth Symphony - Acting : performing The flying Dutchman - Singing : Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Wagner's ideal Heldentenor --
Part VII. Bayreuth. The founding of the Festspielhaus ; Wagner's speech on the occasion ; The design of the theatre ; Hidden orchestra, perspective arrangement, state space - "Parsifal at Bayreuth," final festival in 1882 ; Acting technique, scenery, rehearsals - The staging of Tristan and Isolde by Appia. Part VIII. Politics. On state and religion : state guarantees stability ; Basic Wahn of political life is patriotism ; Public opinion ; The king and religion ; Dogma and allegory ; The function of art --
German art and German policy ; German and French civilizations contrasted ; Development of the German nation ; The Romantic movement ; The decline of German art ; Need for the German princes to support German art ; German union --
List of sources.
|責任者：||Selected and arranged, and with an introduction, by Albert Goldman and Evert Spinchorn ; translated by H. Ashton Ellis.|