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Women in nontraditional industry : the case of steel in Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela

Author: Cathy A Rakowski; Michigan State University. Office of Women in International Development.
Publisher: [East Lansing] : [Office of Women in International Development], Michigan State University, ©1985.
Series: Working paper (Michigan State University. Office of Women in International Development), 104.
Edition/Format:   Print book : State or province government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This paper recounts the experience of the incorporation of women into heavy industry during the employment boom of 1974-1979 in Ciudad Guayana and the decline in female employment in the years following the boom. The first and second sections of the paper outline the features of female incorporation at a specialty steel plant and at the state-owned steel mill which, combined, account for over 70 percent of all  Read more...
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Rakowski, Cathy A.
Women in nontraditional industry.
[East Lansing : Office of Women in International Development], Michigan State University, ©1985
(OCoLC)651867232
Material Type: Government publication, State or province government publication
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Cathy A Rakowski; Michigan State University. Office of Women in International Development.
OCLC Number: 13552824
Notes: "November 1985."
Description: 23 pages ; 28 cm.
Series Title: Working paper (Michigan State University. Office of Women in International Development), 104.
Responsibility: Cathy A. Rakowski.

Abstract:

This paper recounts the experience of the incorporation of women into heavy industry during the employment boom of 1974-1979 in Ciudad Guayana and the decline in female employment in the years following the boom. The first and second sections of the paper outline the features of female incorporation at a specialty steel plant and at the state-owned steel mill which, combined, account for over 70 percent of all manufacturing employment in the city. The third section presents the characteristics of the discrimination to which two groups of women, laborers and engineers, were subjected. The fourth and final section analyzes the effects of discrimination on worker behavior and suggests that both male discriminatory behavior and female coping mechanisms are not only the result of the structural factors of power, opportunity, and numbers identified by Kanter in her classic 1977 study, but are also associate with factors of class, age, and culture. Thus, it is necessary to include considerations of both structural factors and individual or personality characteristics to develop corrective programs in a particular organization or culture.

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