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The World of Peptides : a Brief History of Peptide Chemistry

Author: Theodor Wieland; Miklos Bodanszky
Publisher: Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1991.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

Almost two centuries ago proteins were recognized as the primary materials (proteios = primary) oflife, but the significance and wide role of peptides (from pepsis = digestion) in practically all  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Theodor Wieland; Miklos Bodanszky
ISBN: 9783642758508 3642758509
OCLC Number: 851789401
Description: 1 online resource (xiii, 298 pages 138 illustrations)
Contents: 1 Introduction. Amino Acids and a Few Early Paradigmatic Peptides.- 1.1 The Amino Acid Building Blocks of Proteins.- 1.2 Some Naturally Occurring Peptides.- 1.2.1 Glutathione, Structure and Biochemical Functions.- 1.2.2 Opthalmic Acid.- 1.2.3 Lycomarasmin, Malformin.- 1.2.4 Enniatins.- References.- 2 Syntheses of Peptides. The First Epoch.- 2.1 The Work of Theodor Curtius.- 2.2 Emil Fischer's Work.- 2.3 Fischer Against Curtius.- 2.4 The School of Emil Fischer in the Peptide Field.- 2.4.1 Emil Abderhalden.- 2.4.2 Hermann Leuchs.- 2.4.3 NCA-s and Polyamino Acids.- 2.4.4 Properties of Polyamino Acids.- References.- 3 The Era After Emil Fischer. The Carbobenzoxy Group, Max Bergmann and His Scientific Circle.- 3.1 Max Bergmann and the Rockefeller Institute.- 3.1.1 Chromatographic Separation of Amino Acid Mixtures.- 3.1.2 Peptides and Enzymes.- Enzymatic Peptide Synthesis.- 3.2 New Easily Removable Specific Protecting Groups.- 3.2.1 Acidolysis.- 3.2.2 Photolysis.- 3.2.3 Silico-Organic Compounds.- 3.2.4 Alkaline Reagents.- 3.2.5 Protection of the SH-Group.- References.- 4 A Second Breakthrough: New Methods for the Formation of the Peptide Bond.- 4.1 Anhydrides.- 4.2 Active Esters.- 4.3 Coupling Reagents.- 4.4 Side Reactions During Coupling.- References.- 5 A New Technology: Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis.- References.- 6 Structure Elucidation.- 6.1 Analysis of Amino Acid Sequences.- 6.1.1 End Group Determination.- 6.1.2 Stepwise Degradation.- 6.2 Spectroscopic Methods.- 6.2.1 Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy.- Circular Dichroism.- 6.2.2 Vibrational Spectroscopy. Infrared Absorption. Raman Spectra.- 6.2.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR).- 6.2.4 Electron Spin Resonance.- 6.2.5 Mass Spectroscopy.- 6.3 X-ray Crystallography.- References.- 7 Peptide Hormones.- 7.1 Oxytocin.- 7.1.1 Isolation.- 7.1.2 Structure.- 7.1.3 Synthesis.- 7.1.4 Studies of Relationships between Structure and Biological Activity.- 7.2 Vasopressins.- 7.3 Two Exponents.- 7.3.1 Vincent du Vigneaud.- 7.3.2 Josef Rudinger.- 7.4 Insulin.- 7.4.1 Discovery.- 7.4.2 Structure Elucidation.- 7.4.3 Synthesis.- 7.5 Corticotropin.- 7.6 Gastrointestinal Hormones.- 7.6.1 Gastrin and Cholecystokinin.- 7.6.2 The Secretin Family.- 7.6.3 Motilin.- 7.6.4 Galanin.- 7.7 Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin.- 7.7.1 Parathyroid Hormone (PTH).- 7.7.2 Calcitonin.- 7.8 Somatostatin.- 7.9 Releasing Hormones (Releasing Factors).- References.- 8 Biologically Active Fragments of Proteins.- 8.1 Angiotensin.- 8.2 Bradykinin and Kallidin.- 8.3 Substance P.- 8.4 Biologically Active Peptides from Mollusks, Frogs, Toads, Snakes and Insects.- 8.4.1 Eledoisin.- 8.4.2 Physalaemin and Other Peptides from the Skin of Amphibians.- 8.4.3 Venom Peptides.- 8.5 Opioid Peptides.- 8.6 An Era of Discoveries.- References.- 9 Biologically Active Peptides from Microorganisms and Fungi.- 9.1 Ergot Alkaloids.- 9.1.1 Cyclols.- 9.2 Peptide Antibiotics.- 9.2.1 Penicillins and Cephalosporins.- 9.2.2 Valinomycin.- 9.2.3 Gramicidins.- Cyclization of Linear Peptides.- 9.2.4 Alamethicin.- 9.2.5 Cyclosporin A.- 9.3 The Peptides of Amanita Mushrooms.- 9.3.1 Antamanide.- 9.3.2 Poisonous Peptides from Amanita Mushrooms.- Phallotoxins and Virotoxins.- Actin.- The Amatoxins.- Toxicity.- 9.4 Microcystins.- 9.5 Lantibiotics.- 9.6 Peptides Interacting with Nucleic Acids.- References.- 10 Peptide Research Around the World.- 10.1 Australia.- 10.2 Austria.- 10.3 Belgium.- 10.4 Bulgaria.- 10.5 Canada.- 10.6 China.- 10.7 Czechoslovakia.- 10.8 Denmark.- 10.9 France.- 10.10 Germany.- 10.11 Greece.- 10.12 Hungary.- 10.13 India.- 10.14 Israel.- 10.15 Italy.- 10.16 Japan.- 10.17 New Zealand.- 10.18 Norway.- 10.19 Poland.- 10.20 Portugal.- 10.21 Spain.- 10.22 Sweden.- 10.23 Switzerland.- 10.24 The Netherlands.- 10.25 United Kingdom.- 10.26 USA.- 10.27 USSR.- Author Index.
Responsibility: by Theodor Wieland, Miklos Bodanszky.

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