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MacGarvie, Megan

Works: 9 works in 55 publications in 1 language and 301 library holdings
Genres: History  Academic theses 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1,
Publication Timeline
Publications about Megan MacGarvie
Publications by Megan MacGarvie
Most widely held works by Megan MacGarvie
Early academic science and the birth of industrial research laboratories in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry by Megan MacGarvie( Book )
10 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"The establishment and growth of industrial research laboratories is one of the key organizational innovations affecting technological progress in the United States in the 20th century. In this paper, we investigate the rise of industrial research laboratories in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry between 1927 and 1946. Our evidence suggests that institutional factors, namely the presence of universities dedicated to research, played a significant role in the establishment and diffusion of private pharmaceutical research laboratories. Specifically, we document that the growth of industrial pharmaceutical laboratories between 1927 and 1946 is positively and significantly correlated with the extent of local university research, after controlling for other observable factors likely to influence the geographic distribution of industrial research. We supplement our core results with case histories illustrative of early university-industry interaction and an examination of the determinants of university-industry research cooperation. Our qualitative historical evidence and analyses of the birth of chemical engineering programs suggest that industry also played a role in influencing university research agendas. We correct for feedback effects from industry to universities using instrumental variables. Overall, our analyses suggest that while the presence of industrial facilities helped shape the direction of university research programs, there was a significant, positive, and causal effect running from university research to the growth of pharmaceutical research laboratories in the first half of the twentieth century in the United States"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The private value of software patents by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 22 libraries worldwide
We investigate the value creation or destruction associated with the introduction of software patents in the United States in two ways. The first looks at the cumulative abnormal returns to ICT firms around the time of important court decisions impacting software patents, and the second analyzes the relationship between firms' stock market value, the sector in which they operate, and their holdings of software patents cross-sectionally. We find that the extension of patentability to software was initially negative for software firms, especially for those producing application software or services. We also find that software patents are positively and significantly associated with Tobin's Q, and that the market's valuation of software patents increased following changes in the USPTO's treatment of software patents in 1995
Entry, exit and patenting in the software industry by Iain Cockburn( Book )
9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 20 libraries worldwide
We examine the effects of software patents on entry and exit in 27 narrowly-defined classes of software products, using a dataset with comprehensive coverage of both mature public firms and small privately held firms between 1994 and 2004. Reflecting the complex economics underlying the relationship between patent protection, entry costs and industry structure, we find that patents have a mixture of effects on entry and exit. Controlling for firm and market characteristics, firms are less likely to enter product classes in which there are more software patents. However, all else equal, firms that hold software patents are more likely to enter these markets. The net effect on entry of increasing the number of software patents is difficult to measure precisely: estimates of the effect of an across-the-board 10% increase in patent holdings on the number of entrants into the average market in this sample range from -5% to +3.5%, with quite large standard errors. Evidence on exit and survival is consistent with these findings - holding patents appears to enhance the survival prospects of firms after entering a market
Patents, thickets, and the financing of early-stage firms : evidence from the software industry by Iain Cockburn( Book )
8 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
The impact of stronger intellectual property rights in the software industry is controversial. One means by which patents can affect technical change, industry dynamics, and ultimately welfare, is through their role in stimulating or stifling entry by new ventures. Patents can block entry, or raise entrants' costs in variety of ways, while at the same time they may stimulate entry by improving the bargaining position of entrants vis-̉-vis incumbents, and supporting a "market for technology" which enables new ventures to license their way into the market, or realize value through trade in their intangible assets. One important impact of patents may be their influence on capital markets, and here we find evidence that the extraordinary growth in patenting of software during the 1990s is associated with significant effects on the financing of software companies. Start-up software companies operating in markets characterized by denser patent thickets see their initial acquisition of VC funding delayed relative to firms in markets less affected by patents. The relationship between patents and the probability of IPO or acquisition is more complex, but there is some evidence that firms without patents are less likely to go public if they operate in a market characterized by patent thickets
Essays on the economics of knowledge spillovers by Megan MacGarvie( file )
5 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
This dissertation is an empirical analysis of the relationship between international trade and the diffusion of technical knowledge. It uses patent citations and surveys to measure knowledge flows, and examines the relationship between trade and these knowledge flows at both the aggregate and micro levels. It begins by characterizing the types of knowledge diffusion that patent citations measure through a comparison of citations with firms' responses to a survey (the Innovation Survey, or CIS-I) about their acquisition and dissemination of new technology. The types of learning for which citations are a proxy include learning through RD collaboration, technology licensing, equipment purchases, and mergers and acquisitions. Using aggregate bilateral patent citations as a measure of knowledge diffusion, I find that international trade is positively and significantly correlated with knowledge flows after controlling for a variety of factors one would expect to affect technological diffusion. Other variables that are significantly associated with bilateral patent citations include language similarities, geographic proximity, investment flows, and similarities between countries in the mix of patented technologies. Looking at firm-level data, I find that exporters and importers cite more foreign patents than similar non-exporters and non-importers. Exporters' patents are cited abroad more often than those of non-exporters, and foreign inventors cite patents held by French importers more often than patents held by non-importers. The results suggest that firms with more important or more valuable patents make more citations to foreign patents and are cited more often abroad, highlighting the role of the firm's existing knowledge base in learning about foreign technology. Results from the Innovation Survey corroborate the findings discussed above and help shed light on the specific channels through which diffusion takes place. After controlling for endogeneity and selection bias in the relationship between trade and citations using instrumental variables, the relationship between imports and citations remains statistically significant but the independent effect of exporting is eliminated. While firms do not see an increase in citations relative to similar firms after entering export markets, they do cite more foreign patents after beginning to import. I suggest that importers and exporters differ in the ways they learn about foreign technology, and that this may explain why importing appears to have a causal effect on learning as measured by patent citations while exporting does not. Evidence from the Innovation Survey supports this claim, since the types of new technology acquisition most highly correlated with patent citations are the ones most often associated with importing
Patent thickets, licensing and innovative performance by Iain Cockburn( Book )
3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
Dead poets' property - how does copyright influence price by Xing Li( file )
4 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
This article exploits a differential increase in copyright under the UK Copyright Act of 1814 - in favor of books by dead authors - to examine the influence of longer copyrights on price. Difference-in-differences analyses, which compare changes in the price of books by dead and living authors, indicate a substantial increase in price in response to an extension in copyright length. By comparison, placebo regressions for books by dead authors that did not benefit from the extension indicate no differential increase. Historical evidence suggests that longer copyrights increase price by improving publishers' ability to practice intertemporal price discrimination
Copyright and the Profitability of Authorship Evidence from Payments to Writers in the Romantic Period by Megan MacGarvie( Book )
5 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
Proponents of stronger copyright terms have argued that stronger copyright terms encourage creativity by increasing the profitability of authorship. Empirical evidence, however, is scarce, because data on the profitability of authorship is typically not available to the public. Moreover at current copyright lengths of 70 years after the author's death, further extensions may not have any effects on the profitability of authorship. To investigate effects of copyright at lower pre-existing levels of protection, this chapter introduces a new data set of publishers' payments to authors of British fiction between 1800 and 1830. These data indicate that payments to authors nearly doubled following an increase in the length of copyright in 1814. These findings suggest that - starting from low pre-existing levels of protection - policies that strengthen copyright terms may, in fact, increase the profitability of authorship
Patent thickets, licensing and innovative performance ( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
We examine the relationship between fragmented intellectual property (IP) rights and the innovative performance of firms, taking into consideration the role played by in-licensing of IP. We find that firms facing more fragmented IP landscapes have a higher probability of in-licensing. For firms with small patent portfolios we also find a positive association between fragmentation and licensing costs as a share of sales. We observe a negative relationship between IP fragmentation and innovative performance, but only for firms that engage in in-licensing. In contrast, greater IP fragmentation is associated with higher innovative performance for firms that do not in-license. Furthermore, the effects of fragmentation on innovation also appear to depend on the size of a firm's patent portfolio. These results suggest that the effects of fragmentation of upstream IP rights are not uniform, and instead vary according to the characteristics of the downstream firm. -- patent thickets ; licensing ; innovative performance
Alternative Names
Mac Garvie, Megan
MacGarvie, Megan J.
MacGarvie, Megan Jill
McGarvie, Megan
English (55)
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