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Markusen, James R. 1948-

Works: 159 works in 901 publications in 2 languages and 7,790 library holdings
Roles: Author, Other, Editor, Honoree
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Publications about James R Markusen
Publications by James R Markusen
Most widely held works by James R Markusen
Multinational firms and the theory of international trade by James R Markusen( Book )
17 editions published between 2002 and 2004 in English and held by 510 libraries worldwide
Markusen begins with the simplest possible partial equilibrium models and works systematically towards a full-fledged general equilibrium model with both horizontal and vertical foreign direct investment. He offers empirical tests of hypotheses derived from the theoretical models. The notation is unified throughout, distinctions between models are explained with thoroughly explained derivations, and numerous graphs support the analysis
International trade : theory and evidence by James R Markusen( Book )
20 editions published between 1995 and 2005 in English and held by 379 libraries worldwide
A comprehensive, balanced text, International Trade: Theory and Evidence is the perfect book for International Trade courses at the undergraduate level. It is appropriate either as part of a two-term International sequence (trade and finance) or in advanced courses in Trade that follow a one-term International Economics course. It can also be used as a background text for beginning graduate courses. Intermediate Microeconomics is an assumed pre-requisite for students using this text
The theory of international trade by James R Markusen( Book )
11 editions published between 1988 and 1989 in English and Undetermined and held by 243 libraries worldwide
Speculation and monopoly in urban development : analytical foundations with evidence for Toronto by James R Markusen( Book )
11 editions published in 1977 in English and held by 215 libraries worldwide
Productivity, competitiveness, trade performance and real income : the nexus among four concepts by James R Markusen( Book )
10 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 134 libraries worldwide
The theory of international trade and its Canadian applications by James R Markusen( Book )
6 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 126 libraries worldwide
Understanding the home market effect and the gravity equation : the role of differentiating goods by Robert C Feenstra( Book )
21 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 100 libraries worldwide
This paper argues that the theoretical foundations for the gravity equation are general, while the empirical performance of the gravity equation is specific to the type of goods examined. Most existing theory for the gravity equation depends on the assumption of differentiated goods. We show that the gravity equation can also be derived from a reciprocal dumping' model of trade in homogeneous goods. The different theories have different testable implications. Theoretically, the gravity equation should have a lower domestic income elasticity for exports of homogeneous goods than of differentiated goods, because of a home market' effect which depends on barriers to entry. We quantify the home market effect empirically using cross-sectional gravity equations, and find that domestic income export elasticities are indeed substantially higher for differentiated goods than for homogeneous goods
Learning on the quick and cheap : gains from trade through imported expertise by James R Markusen( Book )
21 editions published between 2004 and 2005 in English and held by 99 libraries worldwide
Gains from productivity and knowledge transmission arising from the presence of foreign firms has received a good deal of empirical attention, but micro-foundations for this mechanism are weak . Here we focus on production by foreign experts who may train domestic unskilled workers who work with them. Gains from training can in turn be decomposed into two types: (a) obtaining knowledge and skills at a lower cost than if they are self-taught at home, (b) producing domestic skilled workers earlier in time than if they the domestic economy had to rediscover the relevant knowledge through reinventing the wheel'. We develop a three-period model in which the economy initially has no skilled workers. Workers can withdraw from the labor force for two periods of self study and then produce as skilled workers in the third period. Alternatively, foreign experts can be hired in period 1 and domestic unskilled labor working with the experts become skilled in the second period. We analyze how production, training, and welfare depend on two important parameters: the cost of foreign experts and the learning (or absorptive') capacity of the domestic economy
The theory of endowment, intra-industry, and multinational trade by James R Markusen( Book )
22 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 96 libraries worldwide
We consider a trade model combining a 2x2x2 Heckscher-Ohlin structure, monopolistic competition, transport costs, and multinational corporations. We demonstrate how the mix of national and multinational firms that operate in equilibrium depends on technology and on the division of the world endowment between countries. Multinationals are more likely to exist the more similar are countries in both relative and absolute endowments. Where multinationals exist they reduce the volume of trade and raise world welfare (although not necessarily that of both countries). They also reduce the agglomeration forces that arise when international factor mobility is allowed
Foreign direct investment in services and the domestic market for expertise by James R Markusen( Book )
23 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 93 libraries worldwide
How important to welfare and growth in developing countries are restraints on foreign providers of producer services? Limiting such services not only may limit growth but may hurt some of the very people - domestic skilled workers in such service sectors - those restraints are designed to protect
Liberalization and incentives for labor migration : theory with applications to NAFTA by James R Markusen( Book )
21 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 85 libraries worldwide
One of the motivations for NAFTA from the US point of view was to reduce the" incentives for Mexican migration into the US. Unskilled rural males are a primary source of" illegal immigration and also Mexico's relatively abundant factor. This group should therefore" be made better off by trade and investment liberalization according to the traditional" Heckscher-Ohlin model. Existing evidence, along with best guesses of many experts in the" area, suggest that NAFTA is unlikely to have a significant positive impact on this group least not within the time frame of several decades. We draw on a number of recent theoretical" contributions in order to offer reasons why NAFTA may not raise the wages of unskilled" Mexican workers
Costly pollution abatement, competitiveness, and plant location decisions by James R Markusen( Book )
15 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and German and held by 78 libraries worldwide
This quote contains two separate policy suggestions: (1) Trade barriers insulate production and welfare from any adverse responses to costly environmental restrictions. (2) Banning multinationals would insulate production and welfare from any adverse effects of costly environmental restrictions. This paper adapts an oligopoly model, in which multinationals (multi-plant firms) can arise endogenously, to examine this position. This paper finds that: (1) Trade barriers insulate production but not welfare from adverse effects of costly environmental restrictions. (2) Banning multinationals does not insulate production and welfare from any adverse effects of these restrictions or regulations. On the contrary, multinationals appear to smooth production effects, but this is because multinationals arise in equilibrium when trade costs are high. In addition, the paper finds that the form taken by cost increases is crucial: restrictions that fall on fixed costs (e.g., more efficient burners and motors) have much smaller effects on production and welfare than restrictions that fall on marginal costs (e.g., cleaner fuels)
Trade versus investment liberalization by James R Markusen( Book )
15 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
Despite several theoretical contributions and considerable informal empirical evidence" to the contrary, a notion that trade and investment are substitutes persists in trade policy" analysis. This paper considers the liberalization of commodity trade versus liberalization" allowing direct investment versus the two together. For a relatively skilled-labor-scarce" economy, I show that trade and investment liberalization are quite different together are in a sense complements. The intuition may be that direct investment provides such" a country with crucial inputs (knowledge-intensive producer services) without which the" country cannot effectively exploit its abundant factors in certain industries."
Discrete plant-location decisions in an applied general-equilibrium model of trade liberalization by James R Markusen( Book )
20 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
Theoretical and applied work in industrial-organization approaches to international trade typically assume either that there are fixed numbers of firms, or that there is free entry and exit with a continuum of firms. This paper makes a first step toward a more realistic approach in which firms face discrete choices about the numbers and locations of their plants. The model is applied to the North American auto industry in the context of the draft North American Free Trade Agreement. Results include: (1) production appears to be excessively geographically diversified initially; (2) autos are produced in fewer locations as trade barriers are lowered; (3) a 'non-monotonicity' case is produced in which a plant is first closed and then reopened as trade barriers are progressively lowered; (4) an example of the misleading nature of marginalist analysis is presented in which plants in Canada and Mexico increase production when locations are fixed but closed down when locations are endogenous and optimized
Contracts, intellectual property rights, and multinational investment in developing countries by James R Markusen( Book )
13 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 75 libraries worldwide
The institution and enforcement of property rights and contracts have been an important policy issue for the developing countries, the transition economies, and the developed countries in the 1990s. This has led to the development of a literature on technology transfer and how property rights might affect such transfers and host-country welfare. Much of this literature is non-strategic, with large numbers of northern' innovative firms and southern' imitators, and focusses on endogenous R&D and imitation levels. This paper takes a different and complementary approach, developing a strategic model in which local managers learn the multinational's technology and can defect to start a rival firm. If contract enforcement leads the MNE to shift from exporting to producing inside the host country, both the host country and the MNE are better off. If the MNE had established a subsidiary prior to the establishment of enforcement, the host country is indifferent or worse off by enforcement. In the latter case, rents are transferred from the local manager to the MNE
Estimating the knowledge-capital model of the multinational enterprise by David L Carr( Book )
12 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
Abstract: What we term the firm includes three principal assumptions. First, services of knowledge-based and knowledge-generating activities, such as R & D, can be geographically separated from production and supplied to production facilities at low cost. Second, these knowledge-intensive activities are skilled-labor intensive relative to production. These characteristics give rise to vertical multinationals, which fragment production and locate activities according to factor prices and market size. Third, knowledge-based services have a (partial) joint-input characteristic that they can be supplied to additional production facilities at low cost. This characteristic gives rise to horizontal multinationals, which produce the same goods or services in multiple locations. In this paper, we note how this model predicts relationships between affiliate sales and country characteristics. We then subject these predictions to empirical tests
A unified treatment of horizontal direct investment, vertical direct investment, and the pattern of trade in goods and services by James R Markusen( Book )
17 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 72 libraries worldwide
This paper contributes to research endogenizing multinational firms in general-equilibrium trade models. We attempt to integrate separate contributions on horizontal multinationals which produce the same final product in multiple locations, with work on vertical multinationals, which geographically fragment production by stages. Previously derived results now emerge as special cases of a more general model. Vertical multinationals dominate when countries are very different in relative factor endowments. Horizontal multinationals dominate when the countries are similar in size and in relative endowments, and trade costs are moderate to high. In some cases, foreign investment or trade liberalization leads to a reversal in the direction of trade. Investment liberalization can also lead to an increase in the volume of trade and produces a strong tendency toward factor-price equalization. Thus direct investment can be a complement to trade in both a volume-of-trade sense and in a welfare sense
Foreign direct investment as a catalyst for industrial development by James R Markusen( Book )
12 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 71 libraries worldwide
How does an FDI project affect local firms in the same industry? Competition in the" product and factor markets tends to reduce profits of local firms, but linkage effects to supplier" industries may reduce input costs and raise profits. This paper develops an analytical framework" to assess these effects. Circumstances in which FDI is complementary to local industry are" established, and it is shown how FDI may lead to the establishment of local industrial sectors. " These sectors may grow to the point where local production overtakes and forces out FDI plants. " Our results are consistent with the experience of a number of industrial sectors in the NICs."
Multinational firms : reconciling theory and evidence by James R Markusen( Book )
12 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 71 libraries worldwide
An important component of Robert Lipsey's work has been his research on multinational firms, and his careful documentation of their behavior in terms of production and intra-firm trade. In this paper, we extend recent theory referred to as the knowledge-capital model', which simultaneously generates motives for both horizontal and vertical multinational production. We use this model to derive predictions about foreign affiliates' pattern of production for local markets versus production for exports as functions of country characteristics such as market sizes, size differences, and relative endowment differences. These predictions are then taken to data on affiliate production and trade. Results confirm several hypotheses. The ratio of production for export sales to production for local sale by affiliates of foreign multinationals depends negatively on market size, investment and trade costs in the host country, and positively on the relative skilled-labor abundance of the parent country (skilled-labor scarcity of the host country)
Export-platform foreign direct investment by Karolina Ekholm( Book )
20 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 68 libraries worldwide
Export-platform foreign direct investment in which the affiliate's output is (largely) sold in third markets rather than in the parent or host markets has received empirical attention recently, but little theoretical analysis. This paper is an attempt to make some sense of this phenomenon. We use a three-region model in which there are two identical, large, high-cost economies and a small low-cost economy. Pure export-platform production arises in a symmetric case, when a firm in each of the high-cost economies has a plant at home, and a plant in the low-cost country (the South) to serve the other high-cost country. This occurs when trade costs for intermediates (components) and plant-fixed costs are moderate and the South has a moderate cost advantage in assembly. Another interesting and empirically important case arises when there is trade liberalization between one of the high-cost countries and the small, low-cost country. The outside high-cost country may wish to build a branch plant inside the free trade area due to market size, but chooses the low-cost country on the basis of cost. Or a firm headquartered in the large country inside the free-trade area might build a single plant in its low-wage partner in order to serve their joint free-trade area and to export to the outside high-cost country
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Alternative Names
James R. Markusen economist (University of Colorado; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR))
James R. Markusen Wirtschaftswissenschaftler (Tätig an der Univ. Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spanien ; Prof. an der Univ. of Western Ontario ; Univ. College Dublin)
Markusen, J.
Markusen, J. R.
Markusen, J. R. 1948-
Markusen, J. R. (James R.), 1948-
Markusen, James
Markusen, James 1948-
Markusen, James R.
Markusen, James Roell 1948-
Roell Markusen, James 1948-
マークセン, J. R
English (317)
German (1)
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