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United States Federal Aviation Administration Office of Environment and Energy

Works: 179 works in 351 publications in 1 language and 5,109 library holdings
Genres: Periodicals 
Roles: Sponsor
Classifications: TD886.7, 628.532
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Atmospheric programs bulletin ( serial )
in English and held by 107 libraries worldwide
Noise measurement flight test of five light helicopters ( Book )
2 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 90 libraries worldwide
The U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, (U.S. DOT/FAA), along with the U.S. DOT, Research and Special Programs Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (RSPA/ volpe Center) conducted a helicopter noise measurement flight test in Champaign, Illinois, during the period July 22 through 26, 1991. The primary objective of the study was to obtain the field data necessary to examine the feasibility of a Bimplified helicopter-noise-certification procedure (screening test). Acoustic data were measured by and stored on a hand-held sound-level meter (on-line processing) and recorded on digital tape for later off-line processing. A comparison of the measured on-line acoustic data with the acoustic data processed off-line provided the foundation necessary to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed screening test. In addition to acoustic measurements, meteorological data and helicopter tracking and performance data were also obtained ... Helicopter, Noise Measurement, Acoustic, Configuration, Meteorological
Potential environmental effects of aircraft emissions by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory( Book )
2 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 84 libraries worldwide
An assessment is provided of the potential environmental effects of fleets of subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. A general discussion of photochemical and transport modeling techniques is included along with a description of the LLL one-dimensional transport-kinetics model that was used in the assessment. Model simulations of the natural and perturbed stratosphere are used to compare theory with observations as a means of verification of model processes. A review is provided of engine emission indexes and 1990 fleet projections. Assessments of the potential effects of subsonic and supersonic aircraft fleets indicate a small increase in total ozone. However, the change in total ozone is the net difference between regions of ozone increase (in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere) and ozone decrease (in the upper stratosphere). The percent change in the local ozone concentration is much larger than the change in total ozone. The effect of a proposed hydrogen fueled hypersonic transport fleet is a small reduction in total ozone. A study is made of the effect on these results of uncertainties in chemical rate coefficients, speculative chemical reactions, temperature feedback, hydrostatic adjustment, and various model parameters. The potential effect on ozone of aircraft emissions is compared with potential changes due to other anthropogenic perturbations. (Author)
Impact of aircraft emissions on air quality in the vicinity of airports ( Book )
3 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 84 libraries worldwide
Impacts of "proposed standby gasoline conservation plan no. 1" on general aviation fuel consumption : final report ( Book )
2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 82 libraries worldwide
Environmental data bank ( Book )
4 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 79 libraries worldwide
On the interpretation of infrared solar spectra for altitude distribution of atomospheric trace constituents by United States( Book )
4 editions published in 1978 in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
The quantitative interpretation of infrared sunset spectra in terms of mixing ratio profiles of atmospheric constituents requires a detailed consideration of the airmass and pressure distribution along the sunset ray. A comptuer program has been developed for determining the airmass and pressure distribution along this ray. Since infrared absorptions are pressure-dependent, a technique has been developed for treating this pressure dependence in analyzing absorption over such paths. The technique uses an approximation which maintains computational accuracy for such paths while reducing the computer time required for the calculations. The interpretation of such spectra is further complicated if the concentration of the constituent of interest varies with solar zenith angle (e.g. NO). Calculations were performed using time-varying profiles for NO and NO2. These calculations show that, if this time variability is not taken into account, the inferred profiles are greatly in error in the case of NO and marginally in error for NO2
Assessment of the environmental compatibility of differing helicopter noise certification standards ( Book )
3 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
Areas having the heaviest helicopter activity in the U.S. were visited and environmental noise measurement made in order to evaluate the impact of possible relaxed noise emission standards for helicopters restricted to remote regions. Measurement results showed that an average of 10 flyovers per hour produced a one-hour energy-averaged sound level (Leq) of 54.5 dBA, a level 2.5 dBA above ambient. An average of 34 events per hour adjacent to heliports produced a one-hour Leq of 63.1 dBA, which was 13.3 dBa above ambient. If emission levels were increased by 10 dBA, projected Leq values of 57.0 and 71.2 dBA resulted for the flyover and heliport conditions, respectively. Sixty-four percent of those responding to a questionnaire stated that they had not experienced a problem from helicopter noise. The degree to which the remaining respondents were bothered ranged from 'slightly' to 'very annoyed' with no significant preference for either category. (Author)
Recent developments in the estimation of potential effects of high altitude aircraft emissions on ozone and climate by R. C Oliver( Book )
4 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
Energy conservation potential of general aviation activity by United States( Book )
3 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
The High Altitude Pollution Program (1976-1982) by N Sundararaman( Book )
4 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
The High Altitude Pollution Program (HAPP) was initiated by the Federal Aviation Administration in 1976 in order to assess the effects of aircraft engine emissions on the upper atmosphere. Its predecessor, the Climatic Impact Assessment Program (1971-1975) conducted by the U.S. Department of Transportation, focused international attention on the ozone depletion problem. This final report documents the conclusions of the studies funded by HAPP from 1976 until the program was terminated in 1982. Scientific considerations of the impacts of aircraft engine emissions on the stratosphere and troposphere are discussed. Major HAPP accomplishments in the areas of engine emissions, laboratory studies, field measurements, and modeling are summarized. Current evaluations of the effects of aircraft engine NOx emissions (through 1984) are also contained in the report. Based upon the studies undertaken, it appears that there is no immediacy of concern with regard to ozone and climatic changes that may result from the operations of civilian aircraft at this time
Analysis of ozone and water vapor field measurement data by Rudolf Penndorf( Book )
3 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
In this report the field measurements of atmospheric ozone and water vapor in the stratosphere are critically reviewed, using information available as of summer 1978. Our data sources are the results of field measurements published in the journal literature. Preliminary data have been excluded. We also eliminated some of the older data after a critical analysis had shown that their accuracy is very low or that an unreliable technique had been used. The available data have been analyzed to derive periodic and aperiodic variations, such as natural variability, diurnal and seasonal variations, and long-term trends. Latitudinal variations exist, caused by transport within the stratosphere from the source regions to the sinks. The results of transport through the tropopause are evaluated and described although no independent studies have been conducted by the author. Global inventories have been derived from the vertical profiles of concentrations. No comparison has been made between field measurement data and models
High altitude pollution program stratospheric measurement system laboratory performance capability report chemical conversion techniques by High Altitude Pollution Program (U.S.)( Book )
2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
This report documents the laboratory measurements made to resolve specificity questions concerning the chemical conversion techniques for measurement of stratospheric trace species NO2, N2O5, and HNO3 to NO (Which is the measurable species). Particular emphasis was placed on the conversion of NO2 to NO by both catalytic and photolytic converters, thermal conversion of N2O5 and HNO3 to N02 with and without possible interfering gases, and the feasibility of measuring total odd-nitrogen concentration using catalytic thermal conversion to NO. The laboratory measurements were generally carried out at ppm concentrations at STP conditions. The GEARS/EPISODE computer code was used to model both the laboratory reactions and the behavior of the technique at stratospheric conditions. The laboratory measurement and stratospheric simulations lead to the recommendation to develop a flight prototype of a Hybrid Gas Conversion System consisting of a number of instrumentation modules. The first module would be a Total Odd-Nitrogen module (and NO) based on high temperature catalytic conversion of the odd-nitrogens and chemiluminescent detection of NO. The second module would be an NO2/NO module based on NO2 photolysis and NO chemiluminescent detection. Other modules could consist of an O3 UV photometer, and N2O gas chromatograph, and other appropriate modules that are ready at flight time. (Author)
The perturbation of some atmospheric mechanisms by emissions from aircraft by G. D Robinson( Book )
2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 73 libraries worldwide
The logical basis of the equations which are solved numerically in models of atmospheric structure and composition is examined, with the conclusion that even the most advanced examples must be regarded as empirical devices to be judged by results (some of which are impressive). The question of possible change of climate resulting from aircraft propulsion emissions into the high atmosphere is briefly reviewed. It is concluded that in the foreseen future, any impact of high altitude commercial flight on climate will be very small and not detectable against the background of natural fluctuations. Measurements of the water vapor content of air in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are reviewed. They are interpreted to indicate that significant upward movement of air through a pressure level of about 100 mb, by processes of any scale, occurs only in equatorial latitudes, but they leave uncertain the mechanism of the upward transfer. Using this hypothesis, the mass balance of the nitrogen species is calculated and differences in the results of various modeling procedures are exposed. Two phenomena peculiar to the immediate wake of the aircraft are very briefly considered - the first, the possible rapid conversion of NO to HNO3 in the hot highly concentrated exhaust, the second, formation of condensation trails. It is suggested that in neither problem can an investigation be profitably reopened at this time. (Author)
Parameters for ozone photolysis as a function of temperature at 280-330 NM by John E Davenport( Book )
6 editions published between 1980 and 1982 in English and held by 71 libraries worldwide
This study was undertaken to obtain the parameters for ozone photolysis in the 280-330 nm region as a function of temperature in the 200-300 K range. The absolute absorption coefficients for O3 were measured at 298, 271, 225, and 206 K and were tabulated at 1-nm intervals over the 250-270 nm wavelength range. Uncertainties in the absorption coefficients range from 2% at room temperature to about 14% at 206 K and mainly fall in the 3-7% range. Pressure of 0.02-100 torr ozone were used, and no pressure effect was observed up to 800 torr N2. The relative 0(1D) quantum yeild resulting from laser pulse photolysis of ozone was measured at 300, 260, and 198 K, in the 280-310 nm region by direct observation of the O(1D) fluorescence at 630 nm. This was the first measurement of the O(1D) quantum yields based on direct observation of O(1D) emission. These measurements were put on an absolute basis by measuring the primary quantum yield of O(3P) at the same temperatures using the O(3P) resonance fluorescence triplet at 310 nm. This was accomplished by examining the time behavior of the O(3P) signal in the presence of an excess of N2, and in the presence of ozone alone. In general, we found that the time dependence for both O(3P) and O(1D) signals were as expected from rate constants in the literature. At room temperature we found about 5 + or - 2% O(3P) formation at 290 nm, and 8 + or - 3% at 270 nm. The implications of the data concerning the detailed photolysis mechanism of ozone and the atmospheric modeling of this process are discussed. (Author)
On the applicability of two- and one-dimensional parameterizations of atmospheric tracer transports to prognostic photochemical models of the stratosphere by Henry Hidalgo( Book )
2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 69 libraries worldwide
This paper deals with the applicability of empirical parameterizations of stratospheric transports of chemically inert tracers to predictive or prognostic two- and one-dimensional photochemical models of the stratosphere and troposphere for the forecasting of anthropogenic effects on atmospheric ozone. The scope of this paper therefore includes: (1) a critical review and assessment of the prognostic utility of the parent Reed and German (1965) 2-D parameterization of stratospheric transports; (2) the implied assumption in representative subsidiary 2D parameterizations used or for use in 2-D photochemical models; (3) use of GCM/tracer model data for a chemically inert tracer for the assessment of the prognostic utility of both 2-D and 1-D parameterizations of stratospheric transports; and (4) the outlook for the development of prognostic parameterizations of stratospheric transports. (Author)
Status of representative two-dimensional models of the stratosphere and troposphere as of mid-1978 by Henry Hidalgo( Book )
2 editions published in 1978 in English and held by 67 libraries worldwide
This paper reviews ongoing efforts aimed at solution of basic problems dealing with ozone chemistry and atmospheric mass transports in representative two-dimensional (altitude and latitude) photochemical models of the troposphere and stratosphere. Emphasis is placed on the impact of recent measurements of the reaction rate coefficients for HO2 + NO yields OH + NO2 and HO2 + 03 yields OH + 2 02 on: (a) the balance between ozone production and destruction on both ozone concentrations and columns at middle northern latitudes during summer for an oxygen-hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere; (b) calculation of NO sub x concentrations in the upper troposphere which are important for the effects of high-altitude subsonic flight on the ozone column; and (c) estimates of the tropospheric NO sub x and OH concentrations as well as the removal rates of water-soluble species in the lower troposphere from considerations of the tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide budgets. The severe limitations of arbitrary extensions of available 2-D parameterizations of the dynamics to an upper troposphere and lower stratosphere assumed to be perturbed by large emissions of engine effluents are brought out from numerical solutions of the primitive equations for instantaneous and continuous sources of inert material in the lower stratosphere. The paper includes preliminary 2-D results based on the revised ozone chemistry for the trend of subsonic and supersonic flight effects ozone
Noise levels and data correction analysis for seven general aviation propeller aircraft by David W Ford( Book )
2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 67 libraries worldwide
This document reports noise levels of a general aviation propeller aircraft noise test at the FAA National Aviation Facility Experimental Center located in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The test was performed to acquire noise data on general aviation type aircraft and examine how these noise levels are influenced by variables such as distance, aircraft speed, power settings, and propeller speeds. Aircraft were tested during takeoff, approach, and flyover modes and data are given in EPNL and in 'A'-weighted decibels. All measurements were performed in accordance with FAR 36 Appendix C and Appendix F procedures. (Author)
Study of cost/benefit tradeoffs available in helicopter noise technology applications : final report by R. H Spencer( Book )
2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
This study investigated cost/benefit tradeoffs using the case histories of four helicopters for which design and development were complete, and in three cases, have undergone substantial flight testing. The approach to quieting each helicopter was an incremental reduction of each source as required to obtain reductions in flyover noise with modifications to other secondary systems only as necessary. The methodology used to predict the effects of the design modifications on acquisition, maintenance, and operating costs were typical of those employed by rotorcraft manufacturers. The reduction of helicopter flyover noise generally was achieved through reductions in rotor tip speed. Performance characteristics were maintained to specified minimums for each aircraft in the study. (Author)
Disproportionation reactions of small inorganic radicals in the context of intermediate complex formation by Wing Tsang( Book )
2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
The reactions: HO2 + NO yields HO + NO2, ClO + NO yields Cl + NO2, HO2 + HO2 yields H2O2 + O2, and HO2 + OH yields H2O + O2 have been analyzed within the framework of the formation of an intermediate complex. On the basis of RRKM calculations it is possible to infer that the first two reactions will not show any pressure dependence under stratospheric or tropospheric conditions. The observed small inverse temperature dependences are in accord with behavior of radical combination processes. However, despite exploration of wide range of parameters, it has not been possible to reproduce the observed pressure dependences for the last tow processes through such calculations. The proper interpretation of the experiments and the nature of the H2O4 and H2O3 complexes are thus open to question. (Author)
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controlled identity United States. Federal Aviation Administration. Office of Environmental Quality

United States. Federal Aviation Administration. Office of Environmental and Energy
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