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Feenberg, Daniel

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Works: 24 works in 147 publications in 1 language and 1,241 library holdings
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
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Publications about Daniel Feenberg
Publications by Daniel Feenberg
Most widely held works by Daniel Feenberg
The effect of increased tax rates on taxable income and economic efficiency : a preliminary analysis of the 1993 tax rate increases by Martin S Feldstein( Book )
9 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 97 libraries worldwide
The 1993 tax legislation raised marginal tax rates to 36 percent from 31 percent on taxable incomes between $140,000 and $250,000 and to 39.6 percent on incomes above $250,000. This paper uses recently published IRS data on taxable incomes by adjusted gross income class to analyze how the 1993 tax rate increases affected taxable income, tax revenue, and economic efficiency. Our estimates are based on a difference-in-difference procedure comparing growth of taxable incomes among taxpayers with AGIs over $200,000 to the growth of incomes of lower income taxpayers. We use the NBER TAXSIM model to adjust for interyear differences in the composition of the two taxpayer groups. The results show that high income taxpayers would have reported 7.8 percent more taxable income in 1993 than they did if their tax rates had not increased. Because of the high threshold for the increase in tax rates, this decline in taxable income caused the Treasury to lose more than half of the extra revenue that would have been collected if taxpayers had not changed their behavior. The deadweight loss caused by the higher marginal tax rates (including the effects on labor supply and on consumption of goods and services favored by deductions and exclusions) is approximately twice as large as the $8 billion in revenue raised by the 1993 tax rate. Several possible statistical biases could cause the estimated effect of the tax changes to either underestimate or overestimate the true long-run effect. The paper concludes with a discussion of these problems and of plans for future analysis
The taxation of two earner families by Martin S Feldstein( Book )
10 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 95 libraries worldwide
The present paper examines the efficiency and revenue effects of several alternative tax treatments of two earner families using estimates of the compensated elasticities of the labor supply of married women based on the experience with the 1986 tax rate reductions. The analysis of alternatives is based on the NBER TAXSIM model which has been modified to incorporate separate estimates of the earnings of spouses. The marginal tax rates explicitly incorporate the Social Security payroll taxes net of the present actuarial value of future retirement benefits. Three general conclusions emerge in this paper. First, the existing high marginal tax rates on married women cause big eadweight losses that can be reduced by alternative tax rules that lower marginal tax rates. Second, the behavioral responses to the lower marginal tax rates induce additional tax payments that offset large fractions of the 'static' revenue losses. Third, there are substantial differences in cost- effectiveness among these options, i.e. in the revenue cost per dollar of reduced deadweight loss. Several of the options are sufficiently cost- effective that they could probably be combined with other ways of raising revenue to produce a net reduction in the deadweight loss of the tax system as a whole. We are aware, however, that the current framework is very restrictive in three ways. It ignores the response of the primary earner to any change in tax rates on spousal income. It defines the labor supply response narrowly in terms of participation and hours, excluding other dimensions of labor supply. Taxes affect not only the labor supply of men and women but also change taxable income through changes in excluded income and deductions. These changes in taxable income are the key variable for influencing tax revenue and the deadweight loss of alternative tax rules
Distributional effects of adopting a national retail sales tax by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
10 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and held by 91 libraries worldwide
This paper describes a new household-level data file based on merged information from the IRS Individual Tax File, the Current Population Survey, the National Medical Expenditure Survey, and the Consumer Expenditure Survey. This new file includes descriptive data on household income as well as consumption. The data file can be linked to the NBER TAXSIM program and used to evaluate the distributional effects of changing the federal income tax code, as well as the distributional effects of replacing the individual income tax with a consumption tax. We use this data file to analyze the long-run distributional effects of adopting a national retail sales tax that raises enough revenue to replace the current federal individual income tax and corporation income tax, as well as federal estate and gift taxes. Our results highlight the sensitivity of the change in distributional burdens to provisions such as lump sum transfers, sometimes called demogrants, ' the retail sales tax plan, and to the choice between income and consumption as a basis for categorizing households in distribution tables
The significance of federal taxes as automatic stabilizers by Alan J Auerbach( Book )
10 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 91 libraries worldwide
Using the TAXSIM model for the period 1962-95, we consider the federal tax system's impact as an automatic stabilizer. Despite the many changes in the tax system, there has been relatively little change in its role as an automatic stabilizer. We estimate that individual federal taxes offset perhaps as much as 8 percent of initial shocks to GDP. We also suggest that the progressive income tax may help to stabilize output via its effect on the supply of labor, an additional effect that may even be of similar magnitude to the more traditional path of stabilization through aggregate demand
The income and tax share of very high income households, 1960-1995 by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
13 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 86 libraries worldwide
This paper presents new information on the fraction of adjusted gross income, and of wages and salaries, that is reported by taxpayers in the top one half of one percent of the income distribution. This corresponds to roughly five hundred thousand households in the late 1990s. This paper relies on data from the Treasury's Individual Income Tax Model for the period 1960-1995. The definition of adjusted gross income is standardized, so that changes in the tax law do not affect the measured concentration of AGI. The results suggest that the share of AGI reported by the highest income households increased significantly between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s, with most of the increase taking place in the years immediately following the Tax Reform Act of 1986. While we find some evidence of transitory changes in the concentration of income around major tax changes, which may be the result of income retiming by high income taxpayers, re-timing does not seem to explain most of the changes since 1986
Recent developments in the marriage tax by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
8 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 84 libraries worldwide
The new tax law increases tax rates of high income individuals, and expands the earned income tax credit for low income individuals. We use a sample of actual tax returns to compute estimates of the 'marriage tax' - the change in couples joint tax upon marriage - under this new law. We predict that in 1994 52 percent of American couples will pay a marriage tax, with an average of about $1,244; 38 percent will receive a subsidy averaging about $1,399. These aggregate figures mask a considerable amount of dispersion in the population. Under the new law, the marriage tax for certain low-income families can exceed $3,000 annually; for certain very high income families it can exceed $10,000 annually
Improving the accessibility of the NBER's historical data by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
7 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 83 libraries worldwide
During the early years of its existence, the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) assembled an extensive data set on all aspects of the pre-WWII macroeconomy. Until 1978, this data set existed only on the handwritten sheets to which the early NBER researchers copied the data from original sources. In 1978, the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) transferred the data to magnetic tape. A number of researchers have used the ICPSR tape, but two key problems discourage many from taking advantage of this unique data set. The first is that modern econometric software does not have the ability to read the obsolete ICPSR format. The second is that the process of transferring the data from the NBER's handwritten sheets to the ICPSR tape introduced a number of mistakes. We have eliminated these two impediments to the use of the NBER data set by converting the ICPSR tape to a portable format and by verifying the accuracy of the data using the NBER's original handwritten sheets. The data set is now available on the Internet and can be accessed using standard gopher or web-browser software
The alternative minimum tax and effective marginal tax rates by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
8 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
"This paper examines the impact of the Alternative Minimum Tax on the weighted average marginal tax rates that apply to various components of taxable income. It also considers the impact of several AMT reform proposals on the number of AMT taxpayers, the total revenue collected from the AMT, and the weighted average marginal tax rates that apply to wages, capital income, and deductions such as state and local taxes and charitable gifts. The paper uses the NBER TAXSIM model to project federal personal income tax liabilities as well as AMT liabilities between 2003 and 2013. The AMT has only a modest impact on the average marginal tax rates for most sources of income because some AMT taxpayers face higher marginal tax rates, and others lower tax rates, as a result of the tax. The projections show that modest increases in the AMT exclusion level have substantial effects on the number of AMT taxpayers, and that indexing the AMT parameters would reduce the number of AMT payers in 2010 by more than sixty percent. These changes would also reduce the AMT's impact on average marginal tax rates"--NBER website
Income inequality and the incomes of very high income taxpayers : evidence from tax returns by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
9 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
This paper uses tax return data for the period 1951-1990 to investigate the rising share of adjusted gross income (AGI) that is reported on very high income tax returns. We find that most of the increase in the share of AGI reported by high-income taxpayers is due to an increase in reported income for the one quarter of one percent of taxpayers with the highest AGIs. The share of total AGI reported by these taxpayers rose slowly in the early 1980s, and increased sharply in 1987 and 1988. This pattern suggests that at least part of the increase in the income share of high-AGI taxpayers was due to the changing tax incentives that were enacted in the 1986 Tax Reform Act. By lowering marginal tax rates on top-income households from 50% to 28%, TRA86 reduced the incentive for these households to engage in tax avoidance activities. We also find substantial differences in the growth of the income share of the highest one quarter of one percent of taxpayers, and the share of other very high income taxpayers. This suggests that the increasing inequality of reported incomes at very high levels may not be driven by the same factors that have generated widening wage inequality throughout the income distribution and over a longer time period
The risk and duration of catastrophic health care expenditures by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
7 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 57 libraries worldwide
Catastrophic medical expenses are an important economic risk facing the elderly. Little is known about the persistence of such out-of-pocket medical costs. We measure the time-series property of medical costs using information on medical deductions from a panel of tax returns. During the period of analysis, 1968-73, taxpayers could deduct medical expenses above 3 percent of income. We correct for the resulting censoring bias using multivariate Tobit estimated with a variant of the smoothed simulated maximum likelihood (SSML) method. The data suggest that the burden of out-of-pocket medical expenses is substantially larger for lower income families. Furthermore, the estimated coefficients suggest substantial time-persistence in out-of-pocket medical care costs; a $1 increase in out-of-pocket medical spending is predicted to increase future spending by an additional $2.80. These results may shed light both on the social value of catastrophic health insurance as well on aggregate saving behavior
Which households own municipal bonds? : evidence from tax returns by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
10 editions published between 1991 and 1992 in English and held by 52 libraries worldwide
This paper uses data from 1988 federal income tax returns, which asked taxpayers to report their tax-exempt interest income as an information item, to analyze the distribution of tax-exempt asset holdings. More than three quarters of the tax-exempt debt held by households was held by those with marginal tax rates of 28% or more. The paper reports two measures of the average marginal tax rate on tax-exempt debt. The first measures the increase in taxes if a small fraction of each taxpayer's exempt interest income were converted to taxable interest. This weighted average of 'first-dollar" marginal tax rates was 25.8%. A second calculation finds that if all tax-exempt interest were reported as taxable interest, taxes would rise by 27.6% of the increase in taxable interest. Many taxpayers who have substantial tax-exempt interest receipts, but low first-dollar marginal tax rates, would be driven into higher tax brackets if the exemption were eliminated but their portfolios remained the same
A note on revenue forecasting during the Dukakis administrations by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
5 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 47 libraries worldwide
Critics of Governor Michael Dukakis have suggested that this year?s $400 million overestimate of tax revenues in Massachusetts casts doubt on his putative managerial skills. In this paper, we carefully examine the entire Dukakis forecasting record. We find that the 1988 experience was "unusual? in the sense that on average, revenue forecasts produced by his administration have been too low rather than too high. In addition, we find that there is no significant difference between the quality of the Dukakis forecasts and those of his predecessors in Massachusetts. Hence, those who seek to discover anything extraordinarily positive or negative about Dukakis? managerial capabilities should shift their attention to skills other than revenue forecasting
The impact of the 1986 Tax Reform Act on personal saving by Jonathan Skinner( Book )
4 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 44 libraries worldwide
Abstract: viewed by some as discouraging saving. But conventionally measured personal
Sources of IRA saving by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
6 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 44 libraries worldwide
To address the question of whether IRA5 contribute to capital formation, we use the IRS/University of Michigan taxpayer sample for income tax returns during 1980-84. By matching families across a five-year period, we can estimate the dynamic interactions of IRA purchases and other types of saving, correct for individual differences, and test whether IRA purchases are in part offset by other (net) asset sales. The "reshuffling" hypothesis implies that taxpayers who enroll in IRAs should, over time, experience a drop in net taxable interest and dividend income as their taxable assets (or new loans) are used to purchase IRAs. Conversely, the "new saving" view of IRAs implies that taxable interest and dividend income should be unaffected by IRA purchases. We find little or no evidence which favors the view that IRAs are funded by cashing out existing taxable assets. In fact, individuals who purchased IRAs in each year between 1982-84 increased their asset holdings by more than those who did not purchase IRAs. In one sense, our results strongly confirm the studies by Venti and Wise and Hubbard that IRA saving represents new saving. But shuffling could still occur, albeit on a secondary level: families who are accumulating both taxable assets and IRAs might have accumulated even more taxable assets had IRA5 not been available
Capping individual tax expenditure benefits by Martin S Feldstein( Computer File )
4 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 39 libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes a new way of reducing the major individual tax expenditures: capping the total amount that tax expenditures as a whole can reduce each individual's tax burden. More specifically, we examine the effect of limiting the total value of the tax reduction resulting from tax expenditures to two percent of the individual's adjusted gross income. Each individual can benefit from the full range of tax expenditures but can receive tax reduction only up to 2 percent of his AGI. Simulations using the NBER TAXSIM model project that a 2 percent cap would raise $278 billion in 2011. The paper analyzes the revenue increases by AGI class. The 2 percent cap would also cause substantial simplification by inducing more than 35 million taxpayers to shift from itemizing their deductions to using the standard deduction. For any taxpayer for whom the 2 percent cap is binding, a cap would reduce the volume of wasteful spending and the associated deadweight loss. Even for those taxpayers for whom the cap is not binding but who are induced by the cap to shift from itemizing to using the standard deduction, the deadweight loss associated with deductible expenditures would be completely eliminated
Testing the rationality of state revenue forecasts by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
4 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 37 libraries worldwide
In recent months, the governors of several states have suffered major political embarrassments because actual revenues fell, substantially short of the predictions in their respective budgets. Such episodes focus attention on the question of whether states do a "good" job of forecasting revenues. In modern economics, forecasts are evaluated on the basis of whether or not they are "rational"--Do the forecasts optimally incorporate all information that is available at the tune they are made? This paper develops a method for testing the rationality of state revenue forecasts, and applies it to the analysis of data from New Jersey, Massachusetts, arid Maryland. One of our main findings is that in all three states, the forecasts of own revenues are systematically biased downward
Is there a regional bias in federal tax subsidy rates for giving? by Charles T Clotfelter( Book )
5 editions published between 1988 and 1991 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
This study examines regional variation in average subsidy rates for charitable donations. Because the tax incentive for contributions is embodied in an itemized deduction, the subsidy rate for an individual depends on the taxpayer's itemization status and marginal tax rate. It is well know that this subsidy rate rises with income. On a regional level, one would expect that subsidy rates would be higher in wealthier regions. What is not clear is the extent of such variation or whether subsidy rates vary systematically independent of income. In order to examine the various sources of variation, we decompse subsidy rates. We find significant variation in subsidy rates independent of income, in what appears to be an unintended regional bias in the federal policy toward charitable giving. If most contributions remain in the state or region of the donor, this bias will tend to affect the regional development of the nonprofit sector
Promises, promises : the states' experience with income tax indexing by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
2 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
The paper discusses five early approaches to the price (and quantity) index number problem. The five approaches are: (1) the fixed basket approach; (ii) the statistical approach; (iii) the test or axiomatic approach; (iv) the Divisia approach and (v) the economic approach. The economic approach makes use of the assumption of optimizing behavior under constraint and the approach is discussed under four subtopics: (i) basic theoretical definitions; (ii) the theory of bounds; (iii) exact index numbers and (iv) econometric estimation of preferences. The paper also discusses several topics raised by Jack Triplett in a recent paper, including: (i) the merits of the test approach to index number theory, (ii) the chain principle and alternatives to it; (iii) the substitution bias and (iv) the new good bias. Although the paper is for the most part an extensive historical survey, there are a few new results in section 8 on multilateral alternatives to the chain principle. Also in section 6.3, it is shown that the Paasche, Laspeyres and all superlative indexes will satisfy the circularity test to the first order
Tax structure and public sector growth by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
3 editions published in 1986 in English and held by 27 libraries worldwide
It has been hypothesized that a jurisdiction's tax structure exerts an independent effect upon the growth of its public sector. We test this hypothesis by examining the relationship between the growth of state general expenditure and the elasticity of tax revenues with respect to income. The work takes advantage of a very careful set of income elasticities for the personal income and sales tax systems for each state, for every year from 1978 to 1983. The main conclusion is that the data do not support the notion that the form of the tax structure exerts an independent effect on public sector growth
State personal income and sales taxes : 1977-1983 by Daniel Feenberg( Book )
5 editions published between 1985 and 1987 in English and held by 25 libraries worldwide
The two main workhorses of state tax systems are levies on sales and individual incomes. In this paper we develop and implement a coherent methodology for characterizing these systems. The measures thus generated are used to show how the various systems differ across states, and how they evolved over the seven year period 1977-1983. We consider the systems' revenue elasticities with respect to income, average and marginal tax rates at various income levels, and several other issues as well
 
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Alternative Names
Feenberg, Dan
Feenberg, Daniel R.
Feenburg, Daniel
Languages
English (139)
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