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Berndt, Ernst R.

Works: 202 works in 839 publications in 2 languages and 10,509 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other, Contributor, Redactor
Classifications: HB139, 330.015195
Publication Timeline
Publications about Ernst R Berndt
Publications by Ernst R Berndt
Most widely held works by Ernst R Berndt
The practice of econometrics : classic and contemporary by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
50 editions published between 1990 and 2000 in 3 languages and held by 609 libraries worldwide
This book/disk package provides hands-on experience of econometrics with estimation and inference. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the economic theory underlying the application
Fifty years of economic measurement : the jubilee of the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth by Conference on Research in Income and Wealth( Book )
21 editions published between 1990 and 2008 in English and held by 424 libraries worldwide
This volume contains papers presented at a conference in May 1988 in Washington, D.C., commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth (CRIW). The call for papers emphasized assessments of broad topics in economic measurement, both conceptual and pragmatic. The organizers desired (and succeeded in obtaining) a mix of papers that, first, illustrate the range of measurement issues that economics as a science must confront and, second, mark major milestones of CRIW accomplishment. The papers concern prices and output (Griliches, Pieper, Tr
Output measurement in the service sectors by Zvi Griliches( Book )
13 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 421 libraries worldwide
Is the fall in overall productivity growth in the United States and other developed countries related to the rising share of the service sectors in the economy? Since services represent well over half of the U.S. gross national product, it is also important to ask whether these sectors have had a slow rate of growth, as this would act as a major drag on the productivity growth of the overall economy and on its competitive performance. In this timely volume, leading experts from government and academia argue that faulty statistics have prevented a clear understanding of these issues
Dynamic econometric modeling by William A Barnett( Book )
19 editions published between 1988 and 2006 in English and held by 394 libraries worldwide
Modeling and measuring natural resource substitution by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
12 editions published in 1981 in English and Italian and held by 357 libraries worldwide
Medical care output and productivity by David M Cutler( Book )
16 editions published between 2001 and 2007 in English and held by 305 libraries worldwide
Annotation With the United States and other developed nations spending as much as 14 percent of their GDP on medical care, economists and policy analysts are asking what these countries are getting in return. Yet it remains frustrating and difficult to measure the productivity of the medical care service industries. This volume takes aim at that problem, while taking stock of where we are in our attempts to solve it. Much of this analysis focuses on the capacity to measure the value of technological change and other health care innovations. A key finding suggests that growth in health care spending has coincided with an increase in products and services that together reduce mortality rates and promote additional health gains. Concerns over the apparent increase in unit prices of medical care may thus understate positive impacts on consumer welfare. When appropriately adjusted for such quality improvements, health care prices may actually have fallen. Provocative and compelling, this volume not only clarifies one of the more nebulous issues in health care analysis, but in so doing addresses an area of pressing public policy concern
Hard-to-measure goods and services : essays in honor of Zvi Griliches ( Book )
16 editions published between 2005 and 2009 in English and held by 295 libraries worldwide
The celebrated economist Zvi Griliches's entire career can be viewed as an attempt to advance the cause of accuracy in economic measurement. His interest in the causes and consequences of technical progress led to his pathbreaking work on price hedonics
U.S. markets for vaccines : characteristics, case studies, and controversies by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 237 libraries worldwide
Uniform pharmaceutical pricing : an economic analysis by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 138 libraries worldwide
Price indexes for acute phase treatment of depression by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
12 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 83 libraries worldwide
Although broad trends in medical spending in the U.S. over the last decade have received widespread attention from policymakers, very little attention has focused on the components of those changes. For many other industries, economists typically divide nominal expenditures by an official government price index to decompose these expenditures into price and quantity components. In this paper we construct a new price index for the treatment of one illness depression. Making use of results from the published clinical literature and from official treatment guideline standards, we identify therapeutically similar treatment bundles. These bundles can then be linked and weighted to construct price indexes for specific forms of major depression. In doing so, we construct CPI and PPI-like medical price indexes that deal with prices of treatment episodes rather than prices of discrete inputs, that are based on transaction rather than list prices, that take quality changes and expected outcomes into account employ current, time-varying expenditure weights in the aggregation computations. We find that regardless of which index number procedure is employed time period the treatment price index for the acute phase of major depression has hardly changed remaining at 1.00 or falling slightly to around 0.97. This index grows considerably less rapidly than the various official PPIs -- thus the price index for the treatment of the acute phase of major depression has fallen over the 1991-95 time period. A hedonic approach to price index measurement yields broadly similar results. These results imply that given a budget for treatment of depression accomplished in 1995 than in 1991. Our results suggest that at least in the case of acute phase major depression, aggregate spending increases are due to a larger number of effective treatments being provided
Energy prices and productivity trends in the Canadian manufacturing sector, 1957-76 : some exploratory results by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
10 editions published in 1981 in English and Undetermined and held by 79 libraries worldwide
Price indexes for the treatment of depression by Richard G Frank( Book )
13 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
We construct price indexes for treatment of a specific illness, acute phase major depression, using treatment episodes of care (rather than fixed input bundles) to define quantity. We identify different treatment service bundles that combine varying quantities of prescription drugs, medical management and psychotherapy. We make use of results from clinical research and official government guidelines for standards of care to identify therapeutically similar treatment bundles. We then employ various index number formulae that involve differing assumptions on the extent of ex ante substitutability among these treatment bundles. Rather than using list prices, we utilize actual transactions data based on a MEDSTAT retrospective medical claims data base covering more than 400,000 individuals over the 1991-95 time period. We distinguish between consumers' direct payments (a CPI index) and total payments received by providers (a PPI). Although not directly comparable to BLS indexes indicating 15-25% price growth 1991-95, our CPI and PPI price indexes decline 20-30%, implying an average annual price differential from BLS indexes of about -15%
Price indexes for medical care goods and services : an overview of measurement costs ( Book )
12 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 67 libraries worldwide
The roles of marketing, product quality and price competition in the growth and composition of the U.S. anti-ulcer drug industry by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
14 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
The introduction of Tagamet in the United States in 1977 represented both a revolution in ulcer therapy and the beginning of an important new industry. Today there are four prescription H2- antagonist drugs: Tagamet, Zantac, Pepcid and Axid, and they comprise a multi-billion dollar market for the treatment of ulcers and other gastric acid conditions. In this paper, we examine the determinants of sales in this market, using a carefully constructed data set made possible by IMS America. We concentrate particularly on the marketing of these drugs to physicians through detailing and medical journal advertising, and we make an innovative attempt to distinguish between 'industry-expanding' and 'rivalrous' marketing efforts. We find that the impact of total marketing on the expansion of overall industry sales declines as the number of products on the market increases. In addition, we find that the stock of industry-expanding marketing depreciates at a near-zero rate, while the stock of marketing oriented towards rivalrous market share competition depreciates at a 40% annual rate. We also find that the products' sales are affected significantly by price, quality attributes (such as number of FDA- approved indications and number of adverse drug interactions), and order of entry into the market
Is price inflation different for the elderly? : an empirical analysis of prescription drugs ( Book )
12 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
Using annual IMS data from 1990 to 1996, we examine empirically whether whether elderly-nonelderly price inflation differentials exist for one medical item, namely, prescription pharmaceuticals. We assess prices for Rx for Rx drugs destined for ultimate use by the elderly vs. the nonelderly at three points in the distribution chain: initial sales from manufacturers, intermediate purchases by retail pharmacies, and final sales from retail pharmacies to patients/payors. We find that at the initial point in the distribution chain, there are no differences in price inflation for the aggregate of drugs destined for use by the elderly vs. the nonelderly. At the intermediate sell-in to pharmacy distribution point, we examine antibiotics (ABs), antidepressants (ADs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). For ABs, since 1992 elderly price inflation is somewhat greater than for the young, reflecting in part the elderly's more intensive use of newer branded products having fewer side effects, adverse drug interactions and more convenient dosing--attributes of particular importance to the elderly. For ADs, elderly price inflation is considerably less than for the young, due in large part to the elderly's greater use of older generic products. For CCBs, elderly- nonelderly differentials are negligible. None of these differentials adjusts for variations in quality. At the final retail sell-out point, we only examine ADs. We find that since retailers obtain larger gross margins on generic than on branded products, and because the elderly are disproportionately large users of generic ADs, the elderly-nonelderly price inflation differential benefiting the elderly at the intermediate point is reduced considerably at final sale
Costs, institutional mobility barriers, and market structure : advertising agencies as multiproduct firms by Alvin J Silk( Book )
12 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide
The question of what accounts for the diversity and limited concentration that has long characterized the organization of the advertising agency industry is addressed by treating an advertising agency as a multiproduct firm. The paper formulates a set of three hypotheses relating to the realization of product-specific scale and scope economies. The first two posit that given low fixed costs and minimal entry barriers, both media-specific scale and scope economies are available and can be exploited by relatively small-size agencies. The third suggests that large agencies may experience diseconomies of scope as a consequence of excessive diversification induced by two pervasive industry phenomena: "bundling" of agency services, which matches client demand for a mix of media advertising, and "conflict policy," which prohibits an agency from serving competing accounts and constrains mobility. Utilizing a multiproduct cost function, the paper estimates media-specific scale and scope economies for a cross-section of 401 U.S. agencies in 1987. It concludes with a discussion of the implications of these finds for the restructuring currently underway in the industry, particularly the resurgence of interest in small agencies and the trend away from longstanding reliance on fixed commission rates
Alternative insurance arrangements and the treatment of depression : what are the facts? by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
13 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
Using insurance claims data from nine large self-insured employers offering 26 alternative health benefit plans, we examine empirically how the composition and utilization for the treatment of depression vary under alternative organizational forms of insurance (indemnity, preferred provider organization networks or PPOs, and mental health carve-outs), and variations in patient cost-sharing (copayments for psychotherapy and for prescription drugs). Although total outpatient mental health/substance abuse (MHSA) expenditures per treated individual do not vary significantly across insurance forms, the depressed outpatient is more likely to receive anti-depressant drug (ADD) medications in PPOs and carve-outs than under indemnity insurance. Those individuals facing higher copayments for psychotherapy are more likely to receive ADD medications. For those receiving ADD treatment, increases in prescription drug copay tend to increase the share of ADD medication costs accounted for by the newest (and more costly) generation of drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Consumption externalities and diffusion in pharmaceutical markets : antiulcer drugs by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
13 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
We examine the role of consumption externalities in the demand for pharmaceuticals at both the brand level and over a therapeutic class of drugs. These effects emerge when use of a drug by others affects its value, and/or conveys information abut efficacy and safety to patients and physicians. This can affect that rate of market diffusion for a new entrant, and can lead to herb behavior whereby a particular drug can dominate the market despite the availability of close substitutes. We use data for H2-antagonist antiulcer drugs to estimate a dynamic demand model and quantify these effects. The model has three components: an hedonic price equation that measures how the aggregate usage of a drug, as well as conventional attributes, affect brand valuation; equations relating equilibrium market shares to quality-adjusted prices and marketing levels; and diffusion equations describing the dynamic adjustment process. We find that consumption externalities influence both valuations and rates of diffusion, but that they operate at the brand and not the therapeutic class level
The medical treatment of depression, 1991-1996 : productive inefficiency, expected outcome variations, and price indexes by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
13 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 61 libraries worldwide
We examine the price of treating episodes of acute phase major depression over the 1991-1996 time period. We combine data from a large retrospective medical claims data base (MarketScanTM, from the MedStat Group) with clinical literature and expert clinical opinion elicited from a two-state Delphi procedure. This enables us to construct a variety of treatment price indexes that include variations over time in the proportion of off-frontier' production, as well as the corresponding variations in expected treatment outcomes. We also incorporate the fact that the no treatment option (waiting list') frequently results in spontaneous remission of depressive symptoms. We find that in general the incremental cost of successfully treating an episode of acute phase major depression has generally fallen over the 1991-96 time period. Based on hedonic regression equations that account for the effects of changing patient mix, we find price reductions that range from about -1.66% to -2.13% per year. An implication of this is that, since expenditures on depression are thought to be increasing since at least 1991, the source of the spending increases is volume (quantity) increases, and not price increases
Intermedia substitutability and market demand by national advertisers by Alvin J Silk( Book )
12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 52 libraries worldwide
We assess substitutable and complementary relationships among eight national advertising media classes, as well as the magnitude of their own-price elasticities. We use a translog demand model, whose parameters we estimate by three-stage least squares, based on 1960-94 annual U.S. data.We find aggregate demand by national advertisers for each of the eight media is own-price inelastic, and that cross-price elasticities suggest slightly more substitute than complementary relationships, although both are rather weak. These patterns are consistent with long prevailing institutional arrangements and media selection practices
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Alternative Names
Berndt, E. R.
Berndt, E. R. (Ernst R.)
Berndt, Ernst
Berndt, Ernst R.
Berndt, Ernst Rudolf
Berndt, Ernst Rudolph
English (281)
Italian (1)
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