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Flower, Linda

Works: 61 works in 177 publications in 1 language and 6,832 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: PE1404, 808.042
Publication Timeline
Publications about Linda Flower
Publications by Linda Flower
Most widely held works by Linda Flower
Problem-solving strategies for writing by Linda Flower( Book )
26 editions published between 1981 and 1997 in English and held by 801 libraries worldwide
Reading-to-write : exploring a cognitive and social process by Linda Flower( Book )
13 editions published in 1990 in English and Undetermined and held by 451 libraries worldwide
This theoretical work focuses on the processes of reading (when one's purpose is to create a text of one's own) and writing (which includes a response to the work of others)
The construction of negotiated meaning : a social cognitive theory of writing by Linda Flower( Book )
11 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 346 libraries worldwide
Based on five years of close observation of students, writing and collaborative planning -- the practice in which student writers take the roles of planner and supporter to help each other develop a more rhetorically sophisticated writing plan --foremost cognitive composition researcher Linda Flower redefines writing in terms of an interactive social and cognitive process and proposes a convincing and compelling theory of the construction of negotiated meaning. Flower seeks to describe how writers construct meaning. Supported by the emerging body of social and cognitive research in rhetoric, education, and psychology, she portrays meaning making as a literate act and a constructive process. She challenges traditional definitions of literacy, adding to that concept the elements of social literate practices and personal literate acts. In Flowerʹs view, this social cognitive process is a source of tension and conflict among the multiple forces that shape meaning: the social and cultural context, the demands of discourse, and the writerʹs own goals and knowledge. -- Publisher description
Community literacy and the rhetoric of public engagement by Linda Flower( Book )
9 editions published in 2008 in English and Undetermined and held by 265 libraries worldwide
"Community Literacy and the Rhetoric of Public Engagement explores the critical practice of intercultural inquiry and rhetorical problem-solving that encourages urban writers and college mentors alike to take literate action."--Jacket
Making thinking visible : writing, collaborative planning, and classroom inquiry by Linda Flower( Book )
7 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 244 libraries worldwide
Surveying a project that was conducted through the Center for the Study of Writing at Carnegie Mellon University, this book details the classroom inquiries conducted during the 4-year project (1988-1992) by 33 teacher-researchers from secondary and postsecondary classrooms. The articles and their authors are: (1) "Teachers as Theory Builders" (Linda Flower); (2) "Creating a Context for Collaboration: A Thumbnail History of the Making Thinking Visible Project" (Linda Norris and Linda Flower); (3) "Writers Planning: Snapshots from Research" (Linda Flower); (4) "Teaching Collaborative Planning: Creating A Social Context for Writing" (David L. Wallace); (5) "Interactions of Engaged Supporters" (Rebecca E. Burnett); (6) "Transcripts as a Compass to Discovery" (Leslie Byrd Evans); (7)"Using Information for Rhetorical Purposes: Two Case Studies of Collaborative Planning" (David L. Wallace); (8) "Experiencing the Role of the Supporter for the First Time" (Leonard R. Donaldson); (9) "Collaborative Planning and the Senior Research Paper: Text Conventions and Other Monsters" (Karen W. Gist); (10) "Note Taking: An Important Support for Productive Collaborative Planning" (Andrea S. Martine); (11) "Exploring Planner's Options: A Collaborative Tool for Inexperienced Writers" (Thomas Hajduk); (12) "Rewriting Collaborative Planning" (Linda Flower); (13) "Measuring Students' Attitudes about Collaborative Planning" (David L. Wallace); (14) "Using the Writing Attitude Survey" (James Brozick); (15) "Questioning Strategies and Students Reflecting on Planning Tapes" (Theresa Marshall); (16) "Initial Expectations, Problems, and What Is Success?" (Marlene Bowen); (17) "Transferring Talk to Text" (Jane Zachary Gargaro); (18) "Collaborative Planning and the Classroom Context: Tracking, Banking, and Transformations" (Jean A. Aston); (19) "Supporting Students' Intentions for Writing" (David L. Wallace); (20) "Learning about Reflection" (Lois Rubin); (21) "Do Supporters Make a Difference?" (Linda Flower); (22) "Productive and Unproductive Conflict in Collaboration" (Rebecca E. Burnett); (23) "Representation and Reflection: A Preservice Teacher's Understanding of Collaborative Planning" (Linda Flower); (24) "Collaborative Planning: A Context for Defining Relationships" (Michael A. Benedict); (25) "The Community Literacy Center: Bridging Community- and School-Based Literate Practices" (Wayne C. Peck); (26) "Reflecting on HELP at the Pittsburgh Community Literacy Center" (Philip Flynn); and "Rana's Reflections ... and Some of My Own: Writing at the Community Literacy Center" (Elenore Long). (Contains approximately 90 references to works cited and an annotated bibliography of 12 items.) (NKA)
Learning to rival : a literate practice for intercultural inquiry by Linda Flower( Book )
5 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 208 libraries worldwide
The authors of this book set out on an expedition of sorts to study rival hypothesis thinking or "rivaling," an important literate practice in which people explore open questions through an analysis of multiple perspectives and evidence
Reading texts : reading, responding, writing by Kathleen McCormick( Book )
4 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 108 libraries worldwide
The writing of arguments across diverse contexts : final report by Linda Flower( Book )
1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 108 libraries worldwide
Interpretive acts : cognition and the construction of discourse by Linda Flower( Book )
5 editions published between 1987 and 1990 in English and held by 95 libraries worldwide
Foundations for creativity in the writing process : rhetorical representations of ill-defined problems by L. J Carey( Book )
5 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 91 libraries worldwide
This report examines the composing processes of expert writers to determine which cognitive processes in expository writing produce an opportunity for a creative response. The first section considers how the ill-defined nature of many writing problems and the cognitive processes experts use to solve these problems interact to provide an opportunity for creative thinking. The second section examines how differences in writers' representation of their task can affect the originality and overall quality of their final products. The final two sections explore how writers' planning and revision processes can provide opportunities for working creatively in expository genres. The paper also reports on two case studies which compare novices to experts to examine how writers build an integrated problem representation and use diagnosis to develop solution strategies. Three figures are included, and 26 references are attached. (Keh)
Planning in writing : the cognition of a contructive process by Linda Flower( Book )
5 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 91 libraries worldwide
Planning in writing is a strategic response to both the writing situation and the writer's own knowledge. This paper describes the process adult writers bring to ill-defined, expository tasks, such as writing essays, articles, reports and proposals. In planning, writers draw on (nest and integrate) three executive level strategies: knowledge-driven planning, script- or schema-driven planning, and constructive planning. research in both instructional and academic writing suggests that writers may fail to turn to a constructive strategy even when ill-defined tasks demand it. This paper presents a theory of constructive planning based on a detailed analysis of expert and novice writers. It isolates five critical features of this constructive strategy, in which writers must create a unique network of working goals and deal with the special problems of integration, conflict resolution and instantiation this constructive process entails. The paper describes the strategies writers use to meet these demands and some expert/novice differences that affect the integration of the entire plan. This theoretical framework also suggests some goals for instruction and the support of planning. Keywords: Cognition. (SDW)
The role of task representation in reading-to-write by Linda Flower( Book )
5 editions published between 1987 and 1989 in English and held by 89 libraries worldwide
Collaboration and the construction of meaning by Linda Flower( Book )
3 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 89 libraries worldwide
Cognition, context, and theory building by Linda Flower( Book )
4 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 88 libraries worldwide
The writing of arguments across diverse contexts. final report by Linda Flower( Book )
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 82 libraries worldwide
Part of an account of a community experiment in Pittsburgh trying to address the contested issue of landlords and tenants through explicitly rhetorical strategies for planning and deliberation, a study focused on conflict and how community collaboration handled difference. Four subjects, landlords and/or tenants who represented a range of socioeconomic and educational backgrounds, met for four sessions to explore the causes of landlord/tenant conflicts while representing either a landlord or tenant perspective (as opposed to articulating only their personal beliefs). Subjects were asked to use their analyses and discussions to write a "memorandum of understanding" that could be used as a tool for action. Each session was recorded on audiotape and videotape, and subjects recorded"self-interviews" and participate in a final interview. Results indicated that, knowingly or unknowingly, members of the group used a variety of strategies to transform how their ideas were received by other members of the group. These rhetorical strategies were successful in ensuring that voices were heard. For this group, reaching consensus meant reaching a point where conflicts are hidden to create a solid foundation for moving to action. Findings suggest that the process observed was not a consensus building process, but a constructive one which gave rise to active strategies for negotiating the conflicts the process raised. (Contains 13 references, 7 notes, and one figure of data.) (Rs)
Final report, the writing of arguments across diverse contexts by Lorraine Higgins( Book )
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
A study described college student writers as they constructed arguments, creating a picture of school-based argument drawn not from ideal models of arguments as envisioned by educators, but from experiences of students themselves. A three-part framework that synthesizes rhetorical perspectives on argument with a social-cognitive view of the writing process serves as the basis for the description of both larger patterns as well as individual differences in argument. Subjects, nine female students (ages 18-36) enrolled in a developmental English course (part of a college reentry program in an inner-city Pittsburgh campus of a community college), wrote six essays summarizing, responding to, synthesizing, and arguing about issues of racism and prejudice based on an interview with a former Klansman and three articles on the social and psychological causes of racism and prejudice. Subjects' writing portfolios were evaluated. Results indicated that the influential features of the argument situation were not limited to social cues and material resources but also the writer's prior knowledge, values, cultural experience, and personal goals. Results also indicated that: (1) the degree to which writers must construct knowledge via strategies of selecting, connecting, and organizing claims and evidence was never entirely predictable; (2) the students had difficulty translating and managing personal knowledge when putting their arguments on paper; and (3) a great deal of metacognitive knowledge hard to capture with texts or protocols came into view when the students were asked to reflect on their goals, strategies, and conflicts. (Contains 74 references and 9 figures of data. Interview questions are attached. (Rs)
Making thinking visible : an introduction to collaborative planning by Linda Flower( Book )
2 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
This project book, part of a set of materials written by the members of the Making Thinking Visible Project, reflects the discoveries of 30 elementary, high school, college, and community teachers' collaborative inquiry into students' thinking and the process of classroom observation and reflection. The document explains collaborative planning--a writing strategy that helps students develop a piece of writing by discussing key rhetorical considerations with a partner--and suggests ways that teachers may want to use this technique as part of the way they teach writing. The document has four sections: (1) Defining "The Making Thinking Visible Project"; (2) Introduction to Collaborative Planning; (3) Initiating Collaborative Planning: Some Practical Suggestions for Designing a Class; and (4) Classroom Inquiry: An Introduction to Research Based on Observation and Reflection. Objectives and goals, benefits and limitations, teaching strategies, teaching methods, and principles of collaborative planning are discussed in detail. Three figures are included; lists of the project members are attached. (Pra)
Problem-solving strategies for writing in college and community by Linda Flower( Book )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 72 libraries worldwide
Writers at work : strategies for communicating in business & professional settings by Linda Flower( Book )
5 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 70 libraries worldwide
Appropriate as a primary text for business communication and professional writing, this book presents key strategies for communicating in a variety of professional settings. The text highlight collaborative learning exercises, invention strategies for business writing, ethical decision making and scenarios as writing models. A unique application of cognitive learning theory to professional communication, this text represents the first social/cognitive rhetoric for business writing
Community literacy by Wayne C Peck( Book )
3 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 69 libraries worldwide
Defining "community literacy" as literate acts that could yoke community action with intercultural education, strategic thinking and problem solving, and with observation-based research and theory building, this paper articulates this "generative and tension-filled" vision of community literacy. The paper begins by examining the social/historical context of urban settlement houses, a context from which the Community Literacy Center (CLC) emerges and yet seeks to reinvent in particular ways. The paper notes that the CLC is a community/university collaboration between the Community House (one of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's oldest settlement houses) and the National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy at Carnegie Mellon. The second part of the paper examines the theoretical context of the CLC, examining how the concept of community literacy is positioned within other established theories of literacy as they relate to community building. The paper concludes with an examination of a set of guiding principles that have emerged after 5 years of reflecting on community literacy in practice on the Northside of Pittsburgh
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Associated Subjects
Academic writing--Study and teaching Action research in education Authorship Business communication Business writing Cognition Cognition--Social aspects College readers Commercial correspondence Community education Composition (Language arts) Composition (Language arts)--Study and teaching Conflict management Creative writing Creative writing--Study and teaching English language--Business English English language--Composition and exercises English language--Composition and exercises--Research English language--Composition and exercises--Study and teaching (Higher) English language--Composition and exercises--Study and teaching--Research English language--Discourse analysis English language--Rhetoric English language--Rhetoric--Research English language--Rhetoric--Study and teaching English language--Rhetoric--Study and teaching (Higher) English language--Rhetoric--Study and teaching--Research Exposition (Rhetoric)--Study and teaching Flower, Linda Intercultural communication Krashen, Stephen D Literacy Literacy programs Literacy--Social aspects Meaning (Psychology) Metacognition Minority college students Multiculturalism Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh Reading, Psychology of Reading (Higher education) Report writing Report writing--Study and teaching Report writing--Study and teaching (Higher) Rhetoric Rhetoric and psychology Rhetoric--Study and teaching (Higher) United States Written communication Written communication--Psychological aspects Written communication--Study and teaching
Alternative Names
Flower, Linda
Linda Flower American Rhetoric theorist
English (120)
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