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Hall, Bronwyn H.

Works: 188 works in 999 publications in 2 languages and 6,208 library holdings
Genres: Patents  Handbooks and manuals 
Roles: Author, Editor, Contributor, Creator
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Publications about Bronwyn H Hall
Publications by Bronwyn H Hall
Most widely held works by Bronwyn H Hall
Handbook of the economics of innovation by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
40 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 261 libraries worldwide
Economists examine the genesis of technological change and the ways we commercialize and diffuse it. The economics of property rights and patents, in addition to industry applications, are also surveyed through literature reviews and predictions about fruitful research directions
How effective are fiscal incentives for R & D? : a review of the evidence by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
12 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
This paper surveys the econometric evidence on the effectiveness of fiscal incentives for R & D. We describe the effects of tax systems in OECD countries on the user cost of R & D - the current position, changes over time and across different firms in different countries. We describe and criticize the methodologies used to evaluate the effect of the tax system on R & D behavior and the results from different studies. In the current (imperfect) state of knowledge we conclude that a dollar in tax credit for R & D stimulates a dollar of additional R & D
The NBER patent citations data file : lessons, insights and methodological tools by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
24 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
This paper describes the database on U.S. patents that we have developed over the past decade, with the goal of making it widely accessible for research. We present main trends in U. S. patenting over the last 30 years, including a variety of original measures constructed with citation data, such as backward and forward citation lags, indices of 'originality' and 'generality', self-citations, etc. Many of these measures exhibit interesting differences across the six main technological categories that we have developed (comprising Computers and Communications, Drugs and Medical, Electrical and Electronics, Chemical, Mechanical and Others), differences that call for further research. To stimulate such research, the entire database about 3 million patents and 16 million citations is now available on the NBER website. We discuss key issues that arise in the use of patent citations data, and suggest ways of addressing them. In particular, significant changes over time in the rate of patenting and in the number of citations made, as well as the inevitable truncation of the data, make it very hard to use the raw number of citations received by different patents directly in a meaningful way. To remedy this problem we suggest two alternative approaches: the fixed-effects approach involves scaling citations by the average citation count for a group of patents to which the patent of interest belongs; the quasi-structural approach attempts to distinguish the multiple effects on citation rates via econometric estimation
Innovation and market value by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
19 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
Recent research on financial market valuation of the knowledge assets of publicly traded firms is surveyed. The motivation for using a market value equation to price knowledge assets is discussed and the theory behind this equation is briefly presented. Then the empirical literature that relates Tobin's q or the market to book value ratio to R&D and patent measures is surveyed and new results based on United States data through 1995 are presented. The conclusion is that the market value of the modern manufacturing corporation is strongly related to its knowledge assets, and that patent measures contain information about this value above and beyond that conveyed by the usual R&D measures
The patent paradox revisited : determinants of patenting in the US semiconductor industry, 1980-94 by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
14 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 73 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the patenting behavior of firms in an industry characterized by rapid technological change and cumulative innovation. Recent evidence suggests that semiconductor firms do not rely heavily on patents, despite the strengthening of US patent rights in the early 1980s. Yet the propensity of semiconductor firms to patent has risen dramatically over the past decade. This paper explores this apparent paradox by analyzing the patenting activities of almost 100 US semiconductor firms during 1980-94. The results suggest that stronger patents may have facilitated entry by firms in niche product markets, while spawning patent portfolio races' among capital-intensive firms
Firm-level investment in France and the United States : an exploration of what we have learned in twenty years by Jacques Mairesse( Book )
21 editions published between 1998 and 2000 in English and held by 73 libraries worldwide
Our two related goals in this paper are the following: Firstly and mainly, we want to examine the effects of major changes in modelling strategy and econometric methodology, over the past twenty years, on estimation of firm-level investment equations using panel data. Secondly, we try to assess whether the differences in the estimated investment equations, as between recent years and ten to twenty years go in the French and U.S. Manufacturing industries, are real' and economically meaningful. Thus our paper consists of a series of comparisons: a simple accelerator-profit specification versus one with error correction, traditional between- and within-firm estimation versus GMM estimation, the investment behavior of French firms versus that of U.S. firms, and investment behavior in recent years versus ten to twenty years ago. Although the important econometric advances of the past twenty years have been far from being as successful as we had hoped for, we do find some significant improvement in the specification, estimation and interpretation of firm investment equations; we also fin some real changes in the investment behavior of French and U.S. firms during these twenty years
Universities as research partners by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
16 editions published between 2000 and 2002 in English and held by 72 libraries worldwide
Universities are a key institution in the US innovation system and an important aspect of their involvement is the role they play in Private-Public Partnering activities. This study seeks to gain a better understanding of the performance of university-industry research partnerships using a sample survey of pre-commercial research projects funded the U.S. government's Advanced Technology Program. Although results must be interpreted cautiously due to the small size of the sample, the study finds that projects with university involvement tend to be in areas involving new' science and therefore experience more difficulty and delay but also are more likely not to be aborted prematurely. We interpret this finding to imply that universities are contributing to basic research awareness and insight among the partners in ATP-funded projects
Market value and patent citations : a first look by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
22 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 72 libraries worldwide
As patent data become more available in machine-readable form, an increasing number of researchers have begun to use measures based on patents and their citations as indicators of technological output and information flow. This paper explores the economic meaning of these citation-based patent measures using the financial market valuation of the firms that own the patents. Using a new and comprehensive dataset containing over 4800 U.S. Manufacturing firms and their patenting activity for the past 30 years, we explore the contributions of R & D spending, patents, and citation-weighted patents to measures of Tobin's Q for the firms. We find that citation-weighted patent stocks are more highly correlated with market value than patent stocks themselves and that this fact is due mainly to the high valuation placed on firms that hold very highly cited patents
Heart of darkness : modeling public-private funding interactions inside the R & D black box by Paul A David( Book )
20 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 69 libraries worldwide
This paper is a first step toward closing the analytical gap in the extensive literature on the results of interactions between public and private R&D expenditures, and their joint effects on the economy. Econometric studies in this area report a plethora of sometimes confusing and frequently contradictory estimates of the response of company financed R&D to changes in the level and nature of public R&D expenditure, but the necessary theoretical framework within which the empirical results can be interpreted is seldom provided. A major cause of inconsistencies' in the empirical literature is the failure to recognize key differences among the various policy experiments' being considered depending upon the economy in which they are embedded, and the type of public sector R&D spending that is contemplated. Using a simple, stylized structural model, we identify the main channels of impact of public R&D. We thus can characterize the various effects, distinguishing between short-run and long-run impacts that would show up in simple regression analyses of nominal public and private R&D expenditure variables. Within the context of our simple model it is possible to offer interpretations that shed light on recent cross-section and panel data findings at both high (i.e. national) and low (specific technology area) levels of aggregation
Employment, innovation, and productivity : evidence from Italian microdata by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
20 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and Italian and held by 68 libraries worldwide
Italian manufacturing firms have been losing ground with respect to many of their European competitors. This paper presents some empirical evidence on the effects of innovation on employment growth and therefore on firms' productivity with the goal of understanding the roots of such poor performance. We use firm level data from the last three surveys on Italian manufacturing firms conducted by Mediocredito-Capitalia, which cover the period 1995-2003. Using a slightly modified version of the model proposed by Harrison, Jaumandreu, Mairesse and Peters (HJMP 2005), which separates employment growth rates into those associated with old and new products, we find no evidence of significant employment displacement effects stemming from process innovation. The sources of employment growth during the period are split equally between the net contribution of product innovation and the net contribution from sales growth of old products. However, the contribution of product innovation to employment growth is somewhat lower than in the four European countries considered in HJMP 2005, and the contribution of innovation in general to productivity growth is almost nil in Italy during this period
Is public R & D a complement or substitute for private R & D? : a review of the econometric evidence by Paul A David( Book )
12 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
Abstract: Is public R & D spending complementary and thus "additional" to private R & D spending, or does it substitute for and tend to "crowd out" private R & D? Conflicting answers are given to this question. We survey the body of available economectric evidence accumulated over the past 35 years. A framework for analysis of the problem i is developed to help organize and summarize the findings of econometric studies based on time series and cross-section data from various levels of aggregation (laboratory, firm, industry, country). The findings overall are ambivalent and the existing literature as as a whole is subject to the criticim that the nature of the "experiment(s)" that the investigators envisage is not adequately specified. We conclude by offering suggestions for improving future empirical research on this issue
Estimating the productivity of research and development : an exploration of GMM methods using data on French and United States manufacturing firms by Jacques Mairesse( Book )
15 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide
A comparative study of the contribution of R&D to firm-level productivity in French and United States manufacturing firms in the 1980s is presented. The study uses two large panels of approximately 1000 manufacturing firms covering over half of all R&D spending in each country and focuses on the estimation and interpretation of the relationship between output growth and the growth of R&D investment in the presence of simultaneity and firm heterogeneity. We use GMM methods to control for both sources of estimation bias, and we find 1) overall, the contribution of R&D to sales productivity growth appears to have declined during the 1980s, and 2) the role of simultaneity bias is higher in the U.S. than in France, possibly reflecting the greater importance of liquidity constraints for R&D investment in that country
The financing of research and development by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
15 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 59 libraries worldwide
Abstract: Evidence on the 'funding gap' for R & D is surveyed. The focus is on financial market reasons for underinvestment in R & D that persist even in the absence of externality-induced underinvestment. The conclusions are that 1) small and new innovative firms experience high costs of capital that are only partly mitigated by the presence of venture capital; 2) evidence for high costs of R & D capital for large firms is mixed, although these firms do prefer internal funds for financing these investments; 3) there are limits to venture capital as a solution to the funding gap, especially in countries where public equity markets are not highly developed; and 4) further study of governmental seed capital and subsidy programs using quasi-experimental methods is warranted
Business method patents, innovation, and policy by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
13 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 54 libraries worldwide
The trickle of business method patents issued by the United States Patent Office became a flood after the State Street Bank decision in 1998. Many scholars, both legal and economic, have critiqued both the quality of these patents and the decision itself. This paper discusses the likely impact of these patents on innovation. It first reviews the facts about business method and internet patents briefly and then explores what economists know about the relationship between the patent system and innovation. It concludes by finding some consensus in the literature about the problems associated with this particular expansion of patentable subject matter, highlighting remaining areas of disagreement, and suggesting where there are major gaps in our understanding of the impact of these patents
Exploring the patent explosion by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
14 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 53 libraries worldwide
This paper looks more closely at the sources of patent growth in the United States since 1984. It confirms that the increase is largely due to US patenters, with an earlier surge in Asia, and some increase in Europe. Growth has taken place in all technologies, but not in all industries, being concentrated in the electrical, electronics, computing, and scientific instruments industries. It then examines whether these patents are valued by the market. We know from survey evidence that patents in these industries are not usually considered important for appropriability, but are sometimes considered necessary to secure financing for entering the industry. I compare the market value of patents held by entrant firms to those held by incumbents (controlling for R & D). Using data on publicly traded firms 1980-1989, I find that in industries based on electrical and mechanical technologies the market value of entrants' patents is positive in the post-1984 period (after the patenting surge), but not before, when patents were relatively unimportant in these industries. Also, the value of patent rights in complex product industries (where each product relies on many patents held by a number of other firms) is much higher for entrants than incumbents in the post-1984 period. For discrete product industries (where each product relies on only a few patents, and where the importance of patents for appropriability has traditionally been higher), there is no difference between incumbents and entrants
Adoption of new technology by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
13 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 52 libraries worldwide
The contribution of new technology to economic growth can only be realized when and if the new technology is widely diffused and used. Diffusion itself results from a series of individual decisions to begin using the new technology, decisions which are often the result of a comparison of the uncertain benefits of the new invention with the uncertain costs of adopting it. An understanding of the factors affecting this choice is essential both for economists studying the determinants of growth and for the creators and producers of such technologies. Section II of this article discusses the modeling of diffusion and Sections III to, explore the determinants of diffusion and the evidence for their importance
Prospects for improving U.S. patent quality via post-grant opposition by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
15 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 52 libraries worldwide
The recent surge in U.S. patenting and expansion of patentable subject matter has increased patent office backlogs and raised concerns that in some cases patents of insufficient quality or with inadequate search of prior art are being issued. At the same time patent litigation and its costs are rising. This paper explores the potential of a post-grant review process modeled on the European opposition system to improve patent quality, reveal overlooked prior art, and reduce subsequent litigation. We argue that the welfare gains to such a system may be substantial
Measuring the returns to R & D : the depreciation problem by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
17 editions published between 2007 and 2010 in English and held by 36 libraries worldwide
Measuring the private returns to R & D requires knowledge of its private depreciation or obsolescence rate, which is inherently variable and responds to competitive pressure. Nevertheless, most of the previous literature has used a constant depreciation rate to construct R & D capital stocks and measure the returns to R & D, a rate usually equal to 15 per cent. In this paper I review the implications of this assumption for the measurement of returns using two different methodologies: one based on the production function and another that uses firm market value to infer returns. Under the assumption that firms choose their R & D investment optimally, that is, marginal expected benefit equals marginal cost, I show that both estimates of returns can be inverted to derive an implied depreciation rate for R & D capital. I then test these ideas on a large unbalanced panel of U.S. manufacturing firms for the years 1974 to 2003. The two methods do not agree, in that the production function approach suggests depreciation rates near zero (or even appreciation) whereas the market value approach implies depreciation rates ranging from 20 to 40 per cent, depending on the period. The concluding section discusses the possible reasons for this finding
Research and development data needs proceedings of a workshop by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
6 editions published between 1900 and 2005 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
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Alternative Names
Hall, B. H. 1945-
Hall, Brownyn 1945-
Hall, Brownyn H.
Hall, Brownyn H. 1945-
English (327)
Italian (1)
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