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Markman, Ellen M.

Works: 22 works in 49 publications in 1 language and 1,976 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author, Thesis advisor, Editor
Classifications: BF723.C5, 155.413
Publication Timeline
Publications about Ellen M Markman
Publications by Ellen M Markman
Most widely held works by Ellen M Markman
Categorization and naming in children : problems of induction by Ellen M Markman( Book )
15 editions published between 1989 and 1991 in English and Undetermined and held by 563 libraries worldwide
Cognitive development ( Book )
10 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 322 libraries worldwide
Handbook of child psychology : formerly Carmichael's Manual of child psychology ( Book )
3 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 19 libraries worldwide
Evaluation of institutional and community experiences by successful and unsuccessful parolees by Barry S Brown( Book )
3 editions published between 1969 and 1976 in English and held by 17 libraries worldwide
Language acquisition : core readings by Paul Bloom( Book )
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Language Acquisition offers, in one convenient reader, work by the most outstanding researchers in each field and is intended as a snapshot of the sort of theory and research taking place in language acquisition in the 1990s. All of the articles and chapters were chosen to reflect topics and debates of current interest, and all take an interdisciplinary approach to language development, relating the study of how a child comes to possess language to issues within linguistics, computational theory, biology, social cognition, and comparative psychology. While there are several introductory texts on language development, and countless collections of articles, this reader provides a comprehensive survey of the questions scientists are asking about language acquisition, the important experimental findings, and the key theoretical debates. It is suitable for students at advanced levels and scholars with a range of different perspectives and interests. The readings are organized into six sections: the onset of language development, word learning, syntax and semantics, morphology, acquisition in special circumstances, and alternative perspectives. Each section serves as an introduction to a specific area and provides sufficient background for further reading
Cognitive development by John H Flavell( Book )
1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 5 libraries worldwide
Children's Use of Extensional and Intensional Information in theAcquisition of Basic and Superordinate Categories by Marjorie S Horton( Book )
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Forty-eight nursery school and kindergarten children participated in a study of concept learning. The study focused on children's use of intensional and extensional information in the acquisition of basic and superordinate categories. The intension of a concept is its definition or set of defining attributes; its extension is the set of all exemplars. The children completed a concept training task using natural categories assigned into basic and superordinate levels. Each child was trained on two categories at the same level, one through extensional information alone and one through combined extensional and intensional information. After training on both categories, each child participated in two successive tests for each category: a discrimination test that measured learning in terms of the child's ability to identify old training exemplars as positive, to generalize to new exemplars, and to discriminate between exemplars and distractors; and a sorting exercise that required the children to sort a series of pictures used in the training task into groups of positive exemplars and nonexemplars. The results indicated that the children acquired basic level categories more easily than superordinate categories, that intensional information benefited the acquisition of categories only at the superordinate level, and that children's ability to take advantage of the intensional information for their acquisition of superordinate categories developed with age. (Fl)
Constraints children place on word meanings by Ellen M Markman( Book )
1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Factors affecting the young child's ability to monitor his memory by Ellen M Markman( Book )
1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The relative strenghts of indirect and direct word learning by Vikram K Jaswal( Article )
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Preschoolers' use of communicative cues to guide inductive inference by Lucas Payne Butler( file )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
In constructing a conceptual understanding of the world, children must actively evaluate what information is idiosyncratic or superficial, and what represents generalizable, essential information about kinds and categories. In six experiments (N = 312), preschoolers observed identical evidence about a novel object's function produced in subtly different manners: accidentally, intentionally, or demonstrated communicatively and pedagogically. This subtle distinction had a powerful impact on children's inductive inferences. In Part One, this distinction influenced not only the strength of children's inferences about generalizability, but resulted in a fundamentally different conception of a novel kinds as defined not by superficial appearances but by deeper, functional properties. In Part Two, children showed surprising sophistication in navigating pedagogical interactions, judiciously identifying which specific actions in an ongoing interaction were meant as communicative demonstrations for their benefit. Taken together, these experiments illustrate a powerful learning mechanism for facilitating children's conceptual development
Richer language experience leads to faster understanding links between language input, processing efficiency, and vocabulary growth by Adriana Weisleder Grynspan( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
How do children's early environments influence the development of language skills known to be critical for later academic success? Three studies examine how the early language experiences of low-SES Latino children contribute to the development of their productive vocabulary and skill in interpreting spoken language, two critical aspects of language development. In Study 1, recordings of children's language environments over a typical day in the home revealed striking differences among families in the amount of talk directed to children. These differences in children's exposure to language were related to other aspects of their early environments, such as the amount of time they spent in different activities, the number of different adults and children with whom they interacted, and their exposure to electronic media. Importantly, the amount of talk that was directed to children, but not the amount of talk overheard by children, predicted children's vocabulary outcomes. Study 2 examined the development of children's efficiency in spoken language understanding, investigating potential causes of individual differences in language-processing skills as well as considering their consequences. Differences in infants' speech processing efficiency at 19 months predicted children's productive vocabulary at 24 months, such that those infants who were relatively faster and more reliable in interpreting familiar words early on were those with larger productive vocabularies 5 months later. These differences in children's language processing skills were linked to variability in early experience with language at home: Infants who experienced richer language input at 19 months were more efficient in real-time language processing at 24 months. But more importantly, differences in processing skill mediated the robust link between early language experience and later vocabulary. This suggests that language interactions with attentive caregivers help advance children's vocabularies by supporting the development of critical language-processing skills. In Study 3, differences in early language input predicted children's skill in inferring the referent of a novel label in an ambiguous context. Children who experienced richer language interactions at 19 months were more likely to map a novel word to a novel object at 32 months. This suggests that early language experience may support the development of word-learning skills, and thus further advance vocabulary growth. Together, these studies show that language experience has a pervasive influence on the development of children's language skills. On the one hand, they reveal the cost to children without rich language experiences at home, in terms of missed opportunities for learning. But they also suggest that increased opportunities for language interaction early in life have the potential to alter the course of language growth, with cascading advantages for children's academic and vocational outcomes
Appearance questions can be misleading : a discourse-based account of the appearance-reality problem by Ellen M Markman( Article )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
HANDBOOK OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY; Paul H. Mussen editor, etc by Leonard Carmichael( Book )
1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The importance of linguistic and non-linguistic context in early language understanding and word learning by Ricardo A. H Bion( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
In this dissertation, I propose that some of the mechanisms used by adults to resolve ambiguity in sentence processing might also be exploited by children to interpret language and resolve referential ambiguity in word learning. I present the findings of four studies focusing on how young children make use of words other than labels (i.e., the semantic context of sentences) to help disambiguate the referent of familiar and novel words. In Study 1, 30-month-olds were able to use their knowledge about verbs and actions to rapidly determine the objects a speaker was talking about, even when these objects were unfamiliar. In addition to determining the objects being talked about, children took advantage of these opportunities to map two novel words to two unfamiliar objects, and they remembered these mapping for over a week. Moreover, children's memory for the object names was related both to their vocabulary skill and to their proficiency in establishing reference incrementally based on information at the verb. In Study 2, children used their knowledge about familiar objects and the locations in which they typically appear to rapidly establish reference. Children's proficiency in making this kind of inference was related to their vocabulary skills. In Study 3, children combined their knowledge about the names of locations and the names of objects to interpret complex spoken sentences, guiding their attention to an object even before it was named. Children's predictive listening was again related to their vocabulary skills. In Study 4, children used their knowledge about locations to rapidly guide their attention to objects in their environment, even when the objects were unfamiliar. And again, children took advantage of these opportunities to map novel words to the unfamiliar objects. As in Study 1, children's ability to remember the names of the unfamiliar objects was related to their proficiency in establishing reference based on the names of locations. These studies show that words other than object names can guide children's attention to familiar or novel objects, providing opportunities to create or strengthen connections between words and objects
Vision and revision cue-triggered perceptual reorganization of two-tone images in US preschoolers and adults by Jennifer Marie Yoon( file )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Two-tones are a class of detail-poor ambiguous images that are puzzles for the mind's eye. The images first confuse, then surprise and delight with a flash of perceptual "insight" when the puzzle is solved and the image transforms in the observer's mind into an easily recognizable figure. Such "aha!" moments are achieved without transforming the original two-tone in any way, but instead by simply providing a clue which allows the observer to "solve" the two-tone, for example by verbally labeling the image, or by showing the corresponding photo from which the two-tone was derived. More precisely, we can call this process cue-triggered perceptual reorganization. Drawing on data contrasting effortless performance in adults with striking failures in preschool-aged children and adults from a remote culture, I argue that this phenomenon may be a unique and important case study in visual enculturation. This framing is in contrast to culture-invariant processes such as high-level visual expertise and visual cortical maturation. Instead, I emphasize the core component process of representation revision, arguably a fundamental component of social cognition broadly as well as in specific material symbolic cultural pursuits such as reading. At least three component processes of representational extraction, alignment, and selection are required for successful cue-triggered perceptual reorganization. Cognitive manipulations that simplify these component processes improve preschoolers' performance, consistent with the argument that cue-triggered perceptual reorganization is a problem of representation revision, which itself may be entrained by a material symbolic culture. The data supporting the claims above are laid out in three chapters. Chapter 1 includes five studies demonstrating the robustness of children's difficulties in cue-triggered perceptual reorganization and culminates in the development of an experimental procedure and analysis method for quantifying this effect. Chapter 2 includes two experiments testing children's recognition across a continuous series of images that increase in difficulty from original full grayscale to two-tone in order to see if we can more precisely identify the point at which recognition breaks down, and instead find evidence that this recognition threshold is not absolute, but depends in part on children's mental representation of the photo cue. Chapter 3 includes four different manipulations of children's understanding of the relationship between the photo cue and two-tone image, revealing that cognitive interventions in the same age group and without stimulus simplification can improve recognition performance. Together these studies support the existence of a striking failure of cue-triggered perceptual reorganization in children that can best be understood as a failure of visual representation revision, a cognitive process already achievable by the preschool years, but not yet fully entrained by US culture
Leveraging intuitive theories to teach nutrition to young children by Sarah Gripshover( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
A large body of research in cognitive development suggests that from early in life, children construct coherent belief systems, or intuitive theories, to understand, predict, and explain the world. Gripshover and Markman (2013) harnessed this insight to create an intervention tailored for teaching young children that foods have different nutritional profiles--no one food provides all the nutrients the body needs--and therefore we need a variety of healthy foods. Learning this framework required children to overcome gaps and misconceptions in their developing intuitive theories, but children nevertheless learned and generalized this new theory, used it to explain the importance of variety, and even ate more vegetables at snack time. The current research demonstrates that the materials are likely to be appropriate educational for a wide range of populations of preschool to first-grade children (Study 1), that children spontaneously appeal to the conceptual framework to explain a wide range of novel facts and claims (Study 2), and that the intervention may even encourage children to recognize the importance of individual ingredients in determining the health value of composite dishes, such as stew and salad (Study 3). Together, these results provide a model of how to construct and evaluate health education materials that teach young children the science behind health-related domains such as nutrition
Children's pragmatic reasoning from word choice by Alexandra Claire Horowitz( file )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Listeners can learn from not just what speakers say, but also from how they choose to say it. Speech helps communicate both explicit information through the literal meaning of the words produced and also implicit information via pragmatic implications of intended meaning based on context. The ability to pick up on un- stated information conveyed through production choices is an important development for children because it allows them to infer meaning beyond what is said directly. Barner and colleagues (2011) posit that children's ability to compute scalar implicatures (e.g. that "some" implies some but not all) relies on their recognition of implied contrast with stronger lexical alternatives (i.e. that use of the weak quantifier "some" implies that its stronger competitor "all" could not have been used, or else an informative speaker would have said it instead). The Alternatives Hypothesis provides an elegant explanation for children's patterns of performance in scalar implicature tasks, and I extend this hypothesis to suggest that children's general pragmatic reasoning about word choice relies on their recognition of relevant alternatives in order to reason about speakers' intended meaning. I examine the predictions of the Alternatives Hypothesis using two case studies: children's computation of scalar implicatures and their inferences about category members from adjective use. Evidence from these experimental findings gives support that children are more successful at making pragmatic inferences when they are better able to consider relevant alternative descriptions a speaker could have used instead of the ones chosen. The ability to make inferences about speakers' intended meaning based on their production choices can help children learn to communicate more accurately and efficiently
Children's reasoning about unconventional opinions as evidence for naive realism by Taylor Fore Holubar( file )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
It has long been argued in the literature on the development of theory of mind that children possess a precocious understanding of desires. One distinctive feature of desires is their subjectivity: different people want different things, and even if someone wants something unconventional, that person is not wrong and that want is not invalid. Contrary to this normative description, recent evidence suggests that both adults and preschoolers are susceptible to the influence of naive realism--the belief that "I see the world as it really is"--And in fact treat unconventional desires as unacceptable. Given this tension, in this dissertation, I explore the bounds of children's understanding of desires' subjectivity. I argue that children treat desires as subjective when they are able to analyze desires in terms of goal-directed behavior. In Study 1, children appropriately predict the behavior of that a character's desire will elicit, even when that desire is highly unconventional. In Study 2, I present preliminary evidence that children judge at least some unconventional desires to be acceptable when they are framed in the context of a goal. Taken together, these findings add important nuance to our understanding of children's desire psychology, highlighting the ways in which preschoolers' theory of mind may build on their understanding of goal-directed behavior
Monolingual and bilingual children's integration of multiple cues to understand a speaker's referential intent the role of experience in cognitive development by Wei Quin Yow( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Children growing up in a dual-language environment have to constantly monitor the dynamic communicative context to determine what the speaker is trying to say and how to respond appropriately. Such self-generated efforts to monitor speakers' communicative needs may heighten children's sensitivity to and allow them to make better use of communicative cues to figure out a speaker's referential intent. Chapter 1 of this paper reviews the current models of bilingualism and literature on the impact of growing up bilingual, including benefits to the cognitive and communicative development of children. Chapter 2 presents a series of studies to examine how the experience of growing up bilingual may foster children's ability to integrate multiple cues to understand a speaker's referential intent, and how the experience of a communication breakdown of a bilingual nature may increase children's sensitivity to communicative cues. Overall, results provide evidence that growing up in a bilingual environment facilitates a more sophisticated understanding of the demands in a communicative context and support the hypothesis that children's self-generated efforts to cope with communicative challenges heighten their sensitivity to a speaker's communicative intent and foster their cognitive and linguistic development
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