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Markman, Ellen M.

Overview
Works: 25 works in 61 publications in 1 language and 2,080 library holdings
Genres: Reference works  History  Handbooks and manuals 
Roles: Author, Thesis advisor, Editor
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Ellen M Markman
Publications by Ellen M Markman
Most widely held works by Ellen M Markman
Categorization and naming in children : problems of induction by Ellen M Markman( Book )
14 editions published between 1989 and 1991 in English and Undetermined and held by 557 libraries worldwide
Handbook of child psychology by E. Mavis Hetherington( Book )
16 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 352 libraries worldwide
" ... A comprehensive report of the current state of developmental psychology."--Page x
Evaluation of institutional and community experiences by successful and unsuccessful parolees by Barry S Brown( Book )
3 editions published between 1969 and 1976 in English and held by 18 libraries worldwide
Cognitive development by John H Flavell( Book )
2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Cutting-edge and "big-picture" in perspective, this popular introduction to cognitive development focuses on both the fascinating nature of children's thinking and the excitement and change in work in this area. Using an integrated topical approach, it explores the developmental aspects of social cognition, perception, memory, and language. Theoretically balanced, it considers the full spectrum of approaches--from Piaget's developmental stages, to information-processing (including connectionism), dynamic systems, contextual, theory-change, neo-Piagetian, evolutionary, neuroscience, and constraint approaches. Infant Perception. Infant Cognition. Representation and Concepts. Reasoning and Problem Solving. Social Cognition/Theory of Mind. Memory. Language. For anyone interested in child development, including parents, students, and those in psychology, social work, education, etc
Language acquisition : core readings by Paul Bloom( Book )
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Language Acquisition offers, in one convenient reader, work by the most outstanding researchers in each field and is intended as a snapshot of the sort of theory and research taking place in language acquisition in the 1990s. All of the articles and chapters were chosen to reflect topics and debates of current interest, and all take an interdisciplinary approach to language development, relating the study of how a child comes to possess language to issues within linguistics, computational theory, biology, social cognition, and comparative psychology. While there are several introductory texts on language development, and countless collections of articles, this reader provides a comprehensive survey of the questions scientists are asking about language acquisition, the important experimental findings, and the key theoretical debates. It is suitable for students at advanced levels and scholars with a range of different perspectives and interests. The readings are organized into six sections: the onset of language development, word learning, syntax and semantics, morphology, acquisition in special circumstances, and alternative perspectives. Each section serves as an introduction to a specific area and provides sufficient background for further reading
Factors affecting the young child's ability to monitor his memory by Ellen M Markman( Book )
5 editions published between 1973 and 1993 in English and held by 5 libraries worldwide
Categorization and Naming in Children: Problems of Induction (MIT Press series in learning, development, and conceptual change) by Ellen M Markman( Book )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The relative strenghts of indirect and direct word learning by Vikram K Jaswal( Article )
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Underst anding Natural Kinds: A Developmental Comparison by Susan A Gelman( Book )
1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
A study investigated how young children understand natural kind terms by examining how 3- and 4-year-olds rely on category membership to draw inductive inferences about objects. One hundred four children (53 girls and 51 boys) from six preschools in California and Michigan participated in the study. The children were shown 10 sets of pictures of natural objects or creatures, told something about the items shown, and asked to draw inferences about other natural kind pictures. Two conditions were added: word only condition and picture only condition. Results suggest that even the youngest children assume that objects with the same name share underlying similarities. When given just labels, the children used them as a base for making inductions, and when labels and appearances conflicted, they relied more on labels than appearances. Even when no labels were given, the children sometimes figured out what categories the pictures belonged to and used this inference to decide about other properties. It is concluded that children are clearly sensitive to the power of language for organizing and extending language, and that words that refer, even common nouns, serve to identify objects as well as foster inductions. (Mse)
Children's pragmatic reasoning from word choice by Alexandra Claire Horowitz( file )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Listeners can learn from not just what speakers say, but also from how they choose to say it. Speech helps communicate both explicit information through the literal meaning of the words produced and also implicit information via pragmatic implications of intended meaning based on context. The ability to pick up on un- stated information conveyed through production choices is an important development for children because it allows them to infer meaning beyond what is said directly. Barner and colleagues (2011) posit that children's ability to compute scalar implicatures (e.g. that "some" implies some but not all) relies on their recognition of implied contrast with stronger lexical alternatives (i.e. that use of the weak quantifier "some" implies that its stronger competitor "all" could not have been used, or else an informative speaker would have said it instead). The Alternatives Hypothesis provides an elegant explanation for children's patterns of performance in scalar implicature tasks, and I extend this hypothesis to suggest that children's general pragmatic reasoning about word choice relies on their recognition of relevant alternatives in order to reason about speakers' intended meaning. I examine the predictions of the Alternatives Hypothesis using two case studies: children's computation of scalar implicatures and their inferences about category members from adjective use. Evidence from these experimental findings gives support that children are more successful at making pragmatic inferences when they are better able to consider relevant alternative descriptions a speaker could have used instead of the ones chosen. The ability to make inferences about speakers' intended meaning based on their production choices can help children learn to communicate more accurately and efficiently
Classes, Collection, and Principles of Psychological Organization by Ellen M Markman( Book )
1 edition published in 1979 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This paper discusses research on how concepts differ in their internal organization and how these differences interact with and affect cognitive processing in children. Two types of natural concepts are focused on: classes (nouns with class-inclusion organization, such as "trees, ""students, ""soldiers" and collections (nouns with part-whole structures, such as "forest, ""army, ""class, ""team"). Collections are said to have a greater psychological integrity and to be easier to conceive as an aggregate or organized totality than classes. To test the psychological reality and implications of this distinction, several tasks that require treating objects as organized into aggregates rather than as individuals were given to children. Children's ability to answer the Piagetian class inclusion problem was considerably improved when the question was phrased in terms of collection rather than class labels. Similarly, children's performance on the number conservation problem was improved when the objects were described as collections rather than classes. Collection labels allowed children to use the cardinality principle on a number problem which they otherwise would have failed. These results indicate a relation between how children organized or represent information and their subsequent ability to operate on that representation. The problem on these tasks is that children do not have the ability to impose the appropriate organization, not that they need to be taught new skills. Details of the research are not provided. (Author/SS)
Constraints children place on word meanings by Ellen M Markman( Book )
1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The effect of context on children's understanding of negation by Ann E Nordmeyer( file )
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Words like "and", "or", "not", and "if" are powerful tools of human cognition, allowing us to form connections between expressions and reason about the world around us. Past work on children's acquisition of these words suggests a puzzle: Children begin producing these words at a very young age, but struggle on comprehension tasks for several years. In this dissertation, I focus on negation to explore two possible pieces to this puzzle: context and processing demands. I present several experiments demonstrating that context influences our understanding and use of negation. My data indicate that both adults and children expect negative sentences to be produced in relevant and informative contexts, and comprehension is reduced when negative sentences are presented without any context. I also present work suggesting that children have difficulty processing negative sentences, even when the sentences are presented in an informative context. This work collectively suggests that both context and processing demands are important factors to consider in order to understand children's acquisition of complex words
Preschoolers' use of communicative cues to guide inductive inference by Lucas Payne Butler( file )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
In constructing a conceptual understanding of the world, children must actively evaluate what information is idiosyncratic or superficial, and what represents generalizable, essential information about kinds and categories. In six experiments (N = 312), preschoolers observed identical evidence about a novel object's function produced in subtly different manners: accidentally, intentionally, or demonstrated communicatively and pedagogically. This subtle distinction had a powerful impact on children's inductive inferences. In Part One, this distinction influenced not only the strength of children's inferences about generalizability, but resulted in a fundamentally different conception of a novel kinds as defined not by superficial appearances but by deeper, functional properties. In Part Two, children showed surprising sophistication in navigating pedagogical interactions, judiciously identifying which specific actions in an ongoing interaction were meant as communicative demonstrations for their benefit. Taken together, these experiments illustrate a powerful learning mechanism for facilitating children's conceptual development
Vision and revision : cue-triggered perceptual reorganization of two-tone images in US preschoolers and adults by Jennifer Marie Yoon( file )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Two-tones are a class of detail-poor ambiguous images that are puzzles for the mind's eye. The images first confuse, then surprise and delight with a flash of perceptual "insight" when the puzzle is solved and the image transforms in the observer's mind into an easily recognizable figure. Such "aha!" moments are achieved without transforming the original two-tone in any way, but instead by simply providing a clue which allows the observer to "solve" the two-tone, for example by verbally labeling the image, or by showing the corresponding photo from which the two-tone was derived. More precisely, we can call this process cue-triggered perceptual reorganization. Drawing on data contrasting effortless performance in adults with striking failures in preschool-aged children and adults from a remote culture, I argue that this phenomenon may be a unique and important case study in visual enculturation. This framing is in contrast to culture-invariant processes such as high-level visual expertise and visual cortical maturation. Instead, I emphasize the core component process of representation revision, arguably a fundamental component of social cognition broadly as well as in specific material symbolic cultural pursuits such as reading. At least three component processes of representational extraction, alignment, and selection are required for successful cue-triggered perceptual reorganization. Cognitive manipulations that simplify these component processes improve preschoolers' performance, consistent with the argument that cue-triggered perceptual reorganization is a problem of representation revision, which itself may be entrained by a material symbolic culture. The data supporting the claims above are laid out in three chapters. Chapter 1 includes five studies demonstrating the robustness of children's difficulties in cue-triggered perceptual reorganization and culminates in the development of an experimental procedure and analysis method for quantifying this effect. Chapter 2 includes two experiments testing children's recognition across a continuous series of images that increase in difficulty from original full grayscale to two-tone in order to see if we can more precisely identify the point at which recognition breaks down, and instead find evidence that this recognition threshold is not absolute, but depends in part on children's mental representation of the photo cue. Chapter 3 includes four different manipulations of children's understanding of the relationship between the photo cue and two-tone image, revealing that cognitive interventions in the same age group and without stimulus simplification can improve recognition performance. Together these studies support the existence of a striking failure of cue-triggered perceptual reorganization in children that can best be understood as a failure of visual representation revision, a cognitive process already achievable by the preschool years, but not yet fully entrained by US culture
Leveraging intuitive theories to teach nutrition to young children by Sarah Gripshover( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
A large body of research in cognitive development suggests that from early in life, children construct coherent belief systems, or intuitive theories, to understand, predict, and explain the world. Gripshover and Markman (2013) harnessed this insight to create an intervention tailored for teaching young children that foods have different nutritional profiles--no one food provides all the nutrients the body needs--and therefore we need a variety of healthy foods. Learning this framework required children to overcome gaps and misconceptions in their developing intuitive theories, but children nevertheless learned and generalized this new theory, used it to explain the importance of variety, and even ate more vegetables at snack time. The current research demonstrates that the materials are likely to be appropriate educational for a wide range of populations of preschool to first-grade children (Study 1), that children spontaneously appeal to the conceptual framework to explain a wide range of novel facts and claims (Study 2), and that the intervention may even encourage children to recognize the importance of individual ingredients in determining the health value of composite dishes, such as stew and salad (Study 3). Together, these results provide a model of how to construct and evaluate health education materials that teach young children the science behind health-related domains such as nutrition
Monolingual and bilingual children's integration of multiple cues to understand a speaker's referential intent : the role of experience in cognitive development by Wei Quin Yow( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Children growing up in a dual-language environment have to constantly monitor the dynamic communicative context to determine what the speaker is trying to say and how to respond appropriately. Such self-generated efforts to monitor speakers' communicative needs may heighten children's sensitivity to and allow them to make better use of communicative cues to figure out a speaker's referential intent. Chapter 1 of this paper reviews the current models of bilingualism and literature on the impact of growing up bilingual, including benefits to the cognitive and communicative development of children. Chapter 2 presents a series of studies to examine how the experience of growing up bilingual may foster children's ability to integrate multiple cues to understand a speaker's referential intent, and how the experience of a communication breakdown of a bilingual nature may increase children's sensitivity to communicative cues. Overall, results provide evidence that growing up in a bilingual environment facilitates a more sophisticated understanding of the demands in a communicative context and support the hypothesis that children's self-generated efforts to cope with communicative challenges heighten their sensitivity to a speaker's communicative intent and foster their cognitive and linguistic development
Children's Use of Extensional and Intensional Information in theAcquisition of Basic and Superordinate Categories by Marjorie S Horton( Book )
1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Forty-eight nursery school and kindergarten children participated in a study of concept learning. The study focused on children's use of intensional and extensional information in the acquisition of basic and superordinate categories. The intension of a concept is its definition or set of defining attributes; its extension is the set of all exemplars. The children completed a concept training task using natural categories assigned into basic and superordinate levels. Each child was trained on two categories at the same level, one through extensional information alone and one through combined extensional and intensional information. After training on both categories, each child participated in two successive tests for each category: a discrimination test that measured learning in terms of the child's ability to identify old training exemplars as positive, to generalize to new exemplars, and to discriminate between exemplars and distractors; and a sorting exercise that required the children to sort a series of pictures used in the training task into groups of positive exemplars and nonexemplars. The results indicated that the children acquired basic level categories more easily than superordinate categories, that intensional information benefited the acquisition of categories only at the superordinate level, and that children's ability to take advantage of the intensional information for their acquisition of superordinate categories developed with age. (Fl)
Appearance questions can be misleading : a discourse-based account of the appearance-reality problem by Ellen M Markman( Article )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Children's reasoning about unconventional opinions as evidence for naive realism by Taylor Fore Holubar( file )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
It has long been argued in the literature on the development of theory of mind that children possess a precocious understanding of desires. One distinctive feature of desires is their subjectivity: different people want different things, and even if someone wants something unconventional, that person is not wrong and that want is not invalid. Contrary to this normative description, recent evidence suggests that both adults and preschoolers are susceptible to the influence of naive realism--the belief that "I see the world as it really is"--And in fact treat unconventional desires as unacceptable. Given this tension, in this dissertation, I explore the bounds of children's understanding of desires' subjectivity. I argue that children treat desires as subjective when they are able to analyze desires in terms of goal-directed behavior. In Study 1, children appropriately predict the behavior of that a character's desire will elicit, even when that desire is highly unconventional. In Study 2, I present preliminary evidence that children judge at least some unconventional desires to be acceptable when they are framed in the context of a goal. Taken together, these findings add important nuance to our understanding of children's desire psychology, highlighting the ways in which preschoolers' theory of mind may build on their understanding of goal-directed behavior
 
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Alternative Names
Ellen Markman American psychologist
Languages
English (54)
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