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Trajtenberg, Manuel

Overview
Works: 75 works in 374 publications in 2 languages and 3,776 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  History 
Roles: Honoree
Classifications: T211, 608
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Manuel Trajtenberg
Publications by Manuel Trajtenberg
Most widely held works by Manuel Trajtenberg
Patents, citations, and innovations a window on the knowledge economy by Adam B Jaffe( file )
14 editions published between 1992 and 2005 in English and held by 1,323 libraries worldwide
The book lays out the conceptual foundations for such research and provides a range of interesting applications, such as examining the geographic pattern of knowledge spillovers and evaluating the impact of university and government patenting. It also describes statistical tools designed to handle methodological problems raised by the patent and citation processes. The book includes a CD with complete data on 3 million patents with more than 16 million citations and a range of author-devised measures of the importance, generality, and originality of patented innovations
Economic analysis of product innovation : the case of CT scanners by Manuel Trajtenberg( Book )
8 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 369 libraries worldwide
A time to sow and a time to reap : growth based on general purpose technologies by Elhanan Helpman( Book )
15 editions published between 1994 and 1998 in English and held by 113 libraries worldwide
We develop a model of growth driven by successive improvements in 'General Purpose Technologies' (GPT's), such as the steam engine, electricity, or micro-electronics. Each new generation of GPT's prompts investments in complementary inputs, and impacts the economy after enough such compatible inputs become available. The long-run dynamics take the form of recurrent cycles: during the first phase of each cycle output and productivity grow slowly or even decline, and it is only in the second phase that growth starts in earnest. The historical record of productivity growth associated with electrification, and perhaps also of computerization lately, may offer supportive evidence for this pattern. In lieu of analytical comparative dynamics, we conduct simulations of the model over a wide range of parameters, and analyze the results statistically. We extend the model to allow for skilled and unskilled labor, and explore the implications for the behavior over time of their relative wages. We also explore diffusion in the context of a multi-sector economy
Empirical implications of physician authority in pharmaceutical decisionmaking by Scott Stern( Book )
14 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 99 libraries worldwide
This paper studies the consequences of physician authority on pharmaceutical prescribing. Physicians engage in a costly process of particular conditions and characteristics. The relative efficiency of this matching process results from the diagnostic skill of the physician along with the investments made by the doctor in learning about different drugs. While the underlying level of physician skill or knowledge cannot be observed, differences among physicians in terms of these attributes are reflected in their prescribing behavior. We provide evidence for two major findings regarding the exercise of physician authority in this context. First, there is substantial variation in the degree to which physician prescribing is concentrated (i.e., some physicians prescribe a more diverse portfolio of drugs than others). Second, this concentration is correlated with observable drug characteristics. In particular, concentrated prescribers tend to prescribe drugs with high levels of advertising, low prices, and high (lagged) market shares. Our empirical results provide evidence for the importance of both physician effort and diagnostic ability in the prescribing process. In particular, physicians who differentiate among their patients more finely are more likely to have less concentrated prescribing portfolios and to be less sensitive to information sources which promote the use of drugs for the
Is Canada missing the "technology boat"? : evidence from patent data by Manuel Trajtenberg( Book )
9 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and French and held by 93 libraries worldwide
A general purpose technology at work : the Corliss steam-engine in the late 19th century U.S. by Nathan Rosenberg( Book )
16 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 93 libraries worldwide
The steam engine is widely regarded as the icon of the Industrial Revolution and a prime example of a 'General Purpose Technology, ' and yet its contribution to growth is far from transparent. This paper examines the role that a particular innovative design in steam power, the Corliss engine, played in the intertwined processes of industrialization and urbanization that characterized the growth of the US economy in the late 19th century. Waterpower offered abundant and cheap energy, but restricted the location of manufacturing just to areas with propitious topography and climate. Steam engines offered the possibility of relaxing this severe constraint, allowing industry to locate where key considerations such as access to markets for inputs and outputs directed. The enhanced performance of the Corliss engine as well as its fuel efficiency helped tip the balance in favor of steam in the fierce contest with waterpower. With the aid of detailed data on the location of Corliss engines and waterwheels and a two-stage estimation strategy, we show that the deployment of Corliss engines indeed served as a catalyst for the massive relocation of industry away from rural areas and into large urban centers, thus fueling agglomeration economies, and attracting further population growth. This illustrates what we believe is an important aspect of the dynamics of GPTs, whether it is electricity in the early 20th century or Information Technologies in the present era: the fact that GPTs induce the widespread and more efficient relocation of economic activity, which in turn fosters long-term growth
Patient welfare and patient compliance : an empirical framework for measuring the benefits from pharmaceutical innovation by Paul Ellickson( Book )
14 editions published between 1998 and 2001 in English and Undetermined and held by 92 libraries worldwide
The main goal of this paper is to develop an empirical framework for evaluating the patient welfare benefits arising from pharmaceutical innovation. Extending previous studies of the welfare benefits from innovation (Trajtenberg, 1990; Hausman, 1996), this paper unpacks the separate choices made by physicians and patients in pharmaceutical decisionmaking and develops an estimable econometric model which reflects these choices. Our proposed estimator for patient welfare depends on (a) whether patients comply with the prescriptions they receive from physicians and (b) the motives of physicians in their prescription behavior. By focusing on compliance behavior, the proposed welfare measure reflects a specific economic choice made by patients. We review evidence that the rate of noncompliance ranges up to 70%, suggesting an important gulf between physician prescription behavior and realized patient welfare. Since physicians act as imperfect but interested agents for their patients, the welfare analysis based on compliance must account for the nonrandom selection of patients into drugs by their physicians. The key contribution of this paper resides in integrating the choices made by both physicians and patients into a unified theoretical framework and suggesting how the parameters of such a model can be estimated from data
Quality-adjusted prices for the American automobile industry, 1906-1940 by Daniel M. G Raff( Book )
12 editions published between 1995 and 1997 in English and held by 90 libraries worldwide
We push the span of hedonic price calculations for automobiles backwards towards the industry's birth. Most of the real change that occurred between 1906 and 1982 occurred between 1906 and 1940. During these years, hedonic prices fell at an average annual rate of 5%. The pace was brisker still during the first 8-12 years. Our measured declines can be decomposed into price and quality components. Our calculations suggest that 60% of the overall decline 1906-1940 was due to process innovation and only 40% to product innovation or quality change per se. Regressors representing mechanical systems matter in these calculations
Diffusion of general purpose technologies by Elhanan Helpman( Book )
13 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 90 libraries worldwide
History and theory alike suggest that General Purpose Technologies (GPT's), such as the steam engine or electricity, may play a key role in economic growth. In a previous paper (Helpman and Trajtenberg, 1994) we incorporated this notion into a Grossman-Helpman growth model, and explored the economy-wide dynamics that a GPT generates. The present paper deals with the diffusion of the GPT over heterogeneous final-good sectors. We show that the gradual adoption of the GPT by each user sector generates a sequence of two-phased cycles, culminating in a bringing about a spell of sustained growth. We also analyze the welfare implications of the order of adoption, by way of numerical simulations. As a diffusion of the transistor (the first embodiment of semiconductors, the dominant GPT of our era), and seek to characterize both the early adopters and the laggards in terms of the parameters of the model
International knowledge flows : evidence from patent citations by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
10 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 88 libraries worldwide
This paper explores the patterns of citations among patents taken out by inventors in the U.S., the U.K., France, Germany and Japan. We find (1) patents assigned to the same firm are more likely to cite each other, and come sooner than other citations; (2) patents in the same patent class are approximately 100 times as likely to cite each other as patents from different patent classes there is not a strong time pattern to this effect; (3) patents whose inventors reside in the same country are typically 30 to 80% more likely to cite each other than inventors from other countries, and these citations come sooner; and (4) there are clear country-specific citation tendencies; e.g., Japanese citations typically come sooner than those of other countries
Innovation in Israel, 1968-97 : a comparative analysis using patent data by Manuel Trajtenberg( Book )
13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 87 libraries worldwide
The israeli high tech sector is widely regarded as a hotbed of cutting-edge technologies, and as the growth engine of the israeli economy in the nineties and beyond. In this paper we present a close-up portrait of innovation in Israel for the past 30 years, with the aid of highly detailed patent data. We use for that purpose all israeli patents taken in the US (over 7,000), as well as US patents and patents from other countries for comparative purposes. The time path of israeli patenting reveals big jumps in the mid eighties and then again in the early nineties, reflecting underlying shocks' in policy and in the availability of relevant inputs. Israeli ranks high in terms of patents per capita, compared to the G7, the Asian Tigers' and a group of countries with similar GDP per capita. Finland is strikingly similar, Taiwan's patenting has grown extremely fast and is now on par with Israel, South Korea is rapidly closing the gap. The technological composition of israeli innovations reflects quite well world-wide technological trends, except that Computers and Communications, the fastest growing field in the US, has grown even faster in Israel. The weak side resides in the composition of israeli assignees, the actual owners of the intellectual property rights: just 35% of israeli patents were assigned to israeli corporations, a much lower percentage than in most other countries. Relatively large shares went to foreign assignees, to Universities and the Government, and to private inventors. On the other hand israeli patents are of good quality' in terms of citations received (and getting better over time): US patents command on average more citations, but not in Computers and Communications or in Biotechnology, and Israeli patents are significantly better than those of the reference group of countries
Universities as a source of commercial technology : a detailed analysis of university patenting 1965-1988 by Rebecca Henderson( Book )
9 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and held by 85 libraries worldwide
This paper explores changes in university patenting behavior between 1965 and 1988. We show that university patents have increased 15-fold while real university research spending almost tripled. The causes of this increase are unclear, but may include increased focus on commercially relevant technologies, increased industry funding of university research, a 1980 change in federal law that facilitated patenting of results from federally funded research, and the widespread creation of formal technology licensing offices at universities. Up until approximately the mid-1980s, university patents were more highly cited, and were cited by more technologically diverse patents, than a random sample of all patents. This difference is consistent with the notion that university inventions are more important and more basic than the average invention. The differences between the two groups disappeared, however, in the middle part of the 1980s, partly due to a decline in the citation rates for all universities, and partly due to an increasing share of patents going to smaller institutions, whose patents are less highly cited throughout this period. Moreover at both large and small institutions there was a large increase in the fraction of university patents receiving zero citations. Our results suggest that the rate of increase of important patents from universities is much less than the overall rate of increase of university patenting in the period covered by our data
The NBER patent citations data file : lessons, insights and methodological tools by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
18 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 84 libraries worldwide
This paper describes the database on U.S. patents that we have developed over the past decade, with the goal of making it widely accessible for research. We present main trends in U.S. patenting over the last 30 years, including a variety of original measures constructed with citation data, such as backward and forward citation lags, indices of 'originality' and 'generality', self-citations, etc. Many of these measures exhibit interesting differences across the six main technological categories that we have developed (comprising Computers and Communications, Drugs and Medical, Electrical and Electronics, Chemical, Mechanical and Others), differences that call for further research. To stimulate such research, the entire database about 3 million patents and 16 million citations is now available on the NBER website. We discuss key issues that arise in the use of patent citations data, and suggest ways of addressing them. In particular, significant changes over time in the rate of patenting and in the number of citations made, as well as the inevitable truncation of the data, make it very hard to use the raw number of citations received by different patents directly in a meaningful way. To remedy this problem we suggest two alternative approaches: the fixed-effects approach involves scaling citations by the average citation count for a group of patents to which the patent of interest belongs; the quasi-structural approach attempts to distinguish the multiple effects on citation rates via econometric estimation
Market segmentation and the sources of rents from innovation : personal computers in the late 1980's by Timothy F Bresnahan( Book )
12 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 84 libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates the sources of transitory market power in the market for personal computers (PCs) during the late 1980's. Our analysis is motivated by the coexistence of low entry barriers into the PC industry and high rates of innovative investment by a small number of PC manufacturers. We attempt to understand these phenomena by measuring the role that different principles of product differentiation (PDs) played in segmenting this dynamic market. Our first PD measures the substitutability between Frontier (386-based) and Non- Frontier products, while the second PD measures the advantage of a brand-name reputation (e.g., by IBM). Building on advances in the measurement of product differentiation, we measure the separate roles that these PDs played in contributing to transitory market power. In so doing, this paper attempts to account for the market origins of innovative rents in the PC industry. Our principal finding is that, during the late 1980's, the PC market was highly segmented along both the Branded (B versus NB) and Frontier (F versusNF) dimensions. The effects of competitive events in any one cluster were confined mostly to that particular cluster, with little effect on other clusters. For example, less than 5% of the market share achieved by a hypothetical entrant would be market-stealing from other clusters. In addition, the product diffe- rentiation advantages of B and F were qualitatively different. The main advantage of F was limited to the isolation from NF competitors it provided; Brandedness both shifted out the product demand curve as well as segmenting B products from NB competition. These results help explain how transitory market power (arising from market segmentation) shaped the underlying incen- tives for innovation in the PC industry during the mid to late 1980s
Market value and patent citations : a first look by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
15 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 83 libraries worldwide
As patent data become more available in machine-readable form, an increasing number of researchers have begun to use measures based on patents and their citations as indicators of technological output and information flow. This paper explores the economic meaning of these citation-based patent measures using the financial market valuation of the firms that own the patents. Using a new and comprehensive dataset containing over 4800 U.S. Manufacturing firms and their patenting activity for the past 30 years, we explore the contributions of R & D spending, patents, and citation-weighted patents to measures of Tobin's Q for the firms. We find that citation-weighted patent stocks are more highly correlated with market value than patent stocks themselves and that this fact is due mainly to the high valuation placed on firms that hold very highly cited patents
Flows of knowledge from universities and federal labs : modeling the flow of patent citations over time and across institutional and geographic boundaries by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
9 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
The meaning of patent citations : report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
10 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
A survey of recent patentees was conducted to elicit their perceptions regarding the importance of their inventions, the extent of their communication with other inventors, and the relationship of both importance and communication to observed patent citations. A cohort of 1993 patentees were asked specifically about 2 patents that they had cited, and a third placebo' patent that was similar but which they did not cite. One of the two cited inventors was also surveyed. We find that inventors report significant communication, at least some of which is in forms that suggests spillovers from the cited inventor to the citing inventor. The perception of such communication was substantively and statistically significantly greater for the cited patents than for the placebos. There is, however, a large amount of noise in citations data; it appears that something like one-half of all citations do not correspond to any perceived communication, or even necessarily to a perceptible technological relationship between the inventions. We also find a significant correlation between the number of citations a patent received and its importance (both economic and technological) as perceived by the inventor
Defense R & D policy in the anti-terrorist era by Manuel Trajtenberg( Book )
3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
This paper seeks to analyze the nature of the terrorist threat following 9/11, and to explore the implications for defense R & D policy. First it reviews the defining trends of defense R & D since the cold war, and brings in pertinent empirical evidence: The US accumulated during the 1990s a defense R & D stock 10 times larger than any other country, and almost 30 times larger than Russia. Big weapon systems, key during the cold war but of dubious significance since then still figure prominently, commanding 30% of current defense R & D spending, vis a vis just about 13% for intelligence and antiterrorism. The second part of the paper examines the nature of the terrorist threat, focusing on the role of uncertainty, the lack of deterrence, and the extent to which security against terrorism is (still) a public good. I develop for that purpose a simple model of terrorism, cast in a nested discrete choice framework. Two strategies are considered: fighting terrorism at its source, and protecting individual targets, which entails a negative externality. Contrary to the traditional case of national defense, security against terrorism becomes a mixed private/public good. A key result of the model is that the government should spend enough on fighting terrorism at its source, so as to nullify the incentives of private targets to invest in their own security. Intelligence emerges as the key aspect of the war against terrorism and, accordingly, R & D aimed at providing advanced technological means for intelligence is viewed as the cornerstone of defense R & D. This entails developing computerized sensory interfaces, and increasing the ability to analyze vast amounts of data. Both have direct civilian applications, and therefore the required R & D is mostly dual use'. Indeed, there is already a private market for these systems, with a large number of players. R & D programs designed to preserve this diversity and to encourage further competition may prove beneficial both for the required R & D, and for the economy at large
Uncovering GPTS with patent data by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
8 editions published between 2004 and 2005 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
"This paper asks the question: Can we see evidence of General Purpose Technologies in patent data? Using data on three million US patents granted between 1967 and 1999, and their citations received between 1975 and 2002, we construct a number of measures of GPTs, including generality, number of citations, and patent class growth, for patents themselves and for the patents that cite the patents. A selection of the top twenty patents in the tails of the distribution of several of these measures yields a set of mostly ICT technologies, of which the most important are those underlying transactions on the internet and object-oriented software. We conclude with a brief discussion of the problems we encountered in developing our measures and suggestions for future work in this area"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The "names game" harnessing inventors' patent data for economic research by Manuel Trajtenberg( file )
13 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
The goal of this paper is to lay out a methodology and corresponding computer algorithms, that allow us to extract the detailed data on inventors contained in patents, and harness it for economic research. Patent data has long been used in empirical research in economics, and yet the information on the identity (i.e. the names and location) of the patents' inventors has seldom been deployed in a large scale, primarily because of the "who is who" problem: the name of a given inventor may be spelled differently across her/his patents, and the exact same name may correspond to different inventors (i.e. the "John Smith" problem). Given that there are over 2 million patents with 2 inventors per patent on average, the "who is who" problem applies to over 4 million "records", which is obviously too large to tackle manually. We have thus developed an elaborate methodology and computerized procedure to address this problem in a comprehensive way. The end result is a list of 1.6 million unique inventors from all over the world, with detailed data on their patenting histories, their employers, co-inventors, etc. Forty percent of them have more than one patent, and 70,000 have more than 10 patents. We can trace those multiple inventors across time and space, and thus study the causes and consequences of their mobility across countries, regions, and employers. Given the increasing availability of large computerized data sets on individuals, there may be plenty of opportunities to deploy this methodology to other areas of economic research as well
 
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Alternative Names
טרכטנברג, מנואל
Languages
English (232)
French (2)
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