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Ravallion, Martin

Works: 521 works in 1,848 publications in 1 language and 13,741 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Honoree, Other, 958
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 381.4564130095492
Publication Timeline
Publications about Martin Ravallion
Publications by Martin Ravallion
Most widely held works by Martin Ravallion
Markets and famines by Martin Ravallion( Book )
16 editions published between 1987 and 1999 in English and held by 547 libraries worldwide
Poverty comparisons by Martin Ravallion( Book )
22 editions published between 1993 and 2013 in English and held by 214 libraries worldwide
Poverty comparisons - such as whether poverty has increased, or where it is greatest, are typically clouded in conceptual and methodological uncertainties. How should individual well-being be assessed in deciding who is poor? Is a household survey a reliable guide? Where should the poverty line be drawn, and does the choice matter? This monograph surveys the issues that need to be considered in answering these questions, providing an accessible introduction to the most recent literature. The strengths and weaknesses of past methods are
Land in transition : reform and poverty in rural Vietnam by Martin Ravallion( Book )
20 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 211 libraries worldwide
Exploring what Vietnam's economic would have looked like without reform, this book offers a set of methods, drawing on the tool kit of modern economics. The book's findings have implications on broader issues of social protection in developing rural economies
Poverty comparisons : a guide to concepts and methods by Martin Ravallion( Book )
11 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 161 libraries worldwide
Poverty lines in theory and practice by Martin Ravallion( Book )
16 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 144 libraries worldwide
Income gains for the poor from public works employment : evidence from two Indian villages by Gaurav Datt( Book )
18 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 122 libraries worldwide
The economics of poverty : history, measurement, and policy by Martin Ravallion( Book )
8 editions published between 2015 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 113 libraries worldwide
"While there is no denying that the world has made huge progress against absolute poverty over the last 200 years, until recent times the bulk of that progress had been made in wealthy countries only. The good news is that we have seen greater progress against poverty in the developing world in recent times-indeed, a faster pace of progress against extreme poverty than the rich world saw over a period of 100 years or more of economic development. However, continuing progress is far from assured. High and rising inequality has stalled progress against poverty in many countries. We are seeing generally rising relative poverty in the rich world as a whole over recent decades. And even in the developing world, there has been less progress in reaching the poorest, who risk being left behind, and a great many people in the emerging middle class remain highly vulnerable to falling back into poverty. The Economics of Poverty strives to support well-informed efforts to put in place effective policies to assure continuing success in reducing poverty in all its dimensions. The book reviews critically the past and present debates on the central policy issues of economic development everywhere. How much poverty is there? Why does poverty exist? What can be done to eliminate poverty? Martin Ravallion provides an accessible new synthesis of current knowledge on these issues. It does not assume that readers know economics already. Those new to economics get a lot of help along the way in understanding its concepts and methods. Economics lives though its relevance to real world problems, and here the problem of global poverty is both the central focus and a vehicle for learning"--
Growth and redistribution components of changes in poverty measures : a decomposition with applications to Brazil and India in the 1980s by Martin Ravallion( Book )
11 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 106 libraries worldwide
Reaching the poor through rural public employment : a survey of theory and evidence by Martin Ravallion( Book )
12 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 105 libraries worldwide
Household income dynamics in rural China by Jyotsna Jalan( file )
18 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 96 libraries worldwide
Is effective social protection an investment with long-term benefits? Does inequality impede growth? Household panel data on incomes in rural China offer some answers
Growth and poverty in rural India by Martin Ravallion( Book )
13 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 79 libraries worldwide
January 1995 Higher agricultural yields reduced absolute poverty in rural India, both by raising smallholder productivity and by increasing real agricultural wages. But gains to the poor were far smaller in the short run than in the long run. Unlike most developing countries, consistent poverty measures for India can be tracked over a long time. Ravallion and Datt used 20 household surveys for rural India for the years 1958-90 to measure the effects of agricultural growth on rural poverty and on the rural labor market and to find out how long it takes for the effects to be felt. They found that measures of absolute rural poverty responded elastically to changes in mean consumption. But agricultural growth had no discernible impact -- either positive or negative -- on the share of total consumption going to the poor. For the rural poor, Ravallion and Datt attribute the long-run gains from growth to higher average farm yields, which benefited poor people both directly and through higher real agricultural wages. And the benefits from higher yields were not confined to those near the poverty line -- the poorest also benefited. The process through which India's rural poor participate in the gains from agricultural growth takes time, although about half of the long-run impact comes within three years. The long-run elasticity of the head-count index to farm yield was over 2 -- of which 40 percent came through wages. Short-run elasticities were far smaller. Inflation adversely affected the rural poor by eroding their real wages in the short run. This paper -- a product of the Office of the Vice President, Development Economics -- is one in a series of background papers prepared for World Development Report 1995 on labor. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Poverty in India, 1950-90 (RPO 677-82). The authors may be contacted at or
Who wants to redistribute? : Russia's tunnel effect in the 1990s by Martin Ravallion( Book )
10 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 79 libraries worldwide
Attitudes toward redistribution of wealth in Russia tend to reflect expectations of future mobility, in both directions. Few Russians expected rising living standards in the 1990s, and most expected a decline in living standards, so there was strong demand for redistribution, even among those currently well off but fearful of the future
Decomposing social indicators using distributional data by Benu Bidani( Book )
10 editions published between 1995 and 1997 in English and Undetermined and held by 77 libraries worldwide
Transient poverty in rural China by Jyotsna Jalan( Book )
10 editions published in 1996 in English and Undetermined and held by 76 libraries worldwide
Equity and growth in developing countries : old and new perspectives on the policy issues by Michael Bruno( Book )
12 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
Gainers and losers from trade reform in Morocco by Martin Ravallion( file )
14 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 74 libraries worldwide
"Ravallion and Lokshin use Morocco's national survey of living standards to measure the short-term welfare impacts of prior estimates of the price changes attributed to various trade policy reforms for cereals - the country's main foodstaple. They find small impacts on mean consumption and inequality in the aggregate. There are both gainers and losers and (contrary to past claims) the rural poor are worse off on average after trade policy reforms. The authors decompose the aggregate impact on inequality into a vertical component (between people at different pre-reform welfare levels) and a horizontal component (between people at the same pre-reform welfare level). There is a large horizontal component which dominates the vertical impact of full de-protection. The diverse impacts reflect a degree of observable heterogeneity in consumption behavior and income sources, with implications for social protection policies. This paper -a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the distributional impact of economywide policy reforms"--World Bank web site
Are the poor protected from budget cuts? theory and evidence for Argentina by Martin Ravallion( file )
11 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 73 libraries worldwide
Time-series data for Argentina suggest that action to support propoor social spending is warranted at times of fiscal contraction. Social spending in general - and social spending targeted to the poor in particular - took a heavy hit at times of fiscal austerity
Why have some Indian states done better than others at reducing rural poverty? by Gaurav Datt( file )
12 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 71 libraries worldwide
Can high-inequality developing countries escape absolute poverty? by Martin Ravallion( file )
12 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 68 libraries worldwide
June 1997 At any positive rate of growth, the higher the initial inequality, the lower the rate at which income-poverty falls. It is possible for inequality to be high enough to lead to rising poverty, despite good underlying growth prospects. Do the poor face the same prospects for escaping poverty in high-inequality developing countries as in low-inequality countries? Is it possible for inequality to be so great as to stifle prospects of reducing absolute poverty, even when other initial conditions and policies are favorable to growth? Household survey data for developing countries suggest that initial distribution does affect how much the poor share in rising average incomes. Higher initial inequality tends to reduce growth's impact on absolute poverty. By the same token, higher inequality diminishes the adverse impact on the poor of general economic contraction. Combining this evidence with that from recent investigations of inequality's effect on growth, Ravallion finds that, if inequality is high enough, countries that would have very good growth prospects at low levels of inequality may see little or no overall growth and little progress in reducing poverty - or even a worsening on both counts. (By the same token, factoring in the growth effects magnifies the estimated handicap the poor face in contracting low-inequality countries.) The data Ravallion uses suggest that such cases do occur. The precision with which key parameters have been estimated makes it difficult to say with confidence how common such cases are, but they appear to be in the minority. What appear to be the best available estimates suggest that about one-fifth of the spells between surveys he analyzed were cases in which poverty was rising, yet positive growth in the mean (and hence falling poverty) is predicted at zero inequality. Inequality can be high enough to result in rising poverty despite good underlying growth prospects. This paper - a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department - is part of a larger effort in the department to understand why some economies do better than others in reducing poverty
Right-to-work? : assessing India's employment guarantee scheme in Bihar by Puja Dutta( Book )
5 editions published in 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 37 libraries worldwide
India's ambitious National Rural Employment Guarantee Act creates a justiciable 'right to work' by promising up to 100 days of employment per year to all rural households whose adult members want unskilled manual work on public works projects at the stipulated minimum wage. Are the conditions stipulated by the Act met in practice, under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)? What impact on poverty do the earnings from the scheme have? Does the scheme meet its potential? How can it do better? Right to Work? Assessing India's Employment Guarantee Scheme in Bihar studies the MGNREGS's impact across India, then focuses on Bihar, the country's third largest and one of its poorest states. It shows that although the scheme has the potential to substantially reduce poverty through extra earnings for poor families, that potential is not realised in practice. Workers are not getting all the work they want, nor are they getting the full wages due. The intended recipients' awareness of how to obtain work is low. In a controlled experiment, a specially designed fictional movie was used to show how knowledge of rights and processes can be enhanced. Although the movie effectively raised awareness and improved public perceptions of the scheme, it had little effect on actions such as seeking employment when needed. Supplyside constraints in responding to demand for work must also be addressed. A number of specific constraints to work provision are identified, including poor implementation capacity, weak financial management, and inadequate monitoring systems. Addressing these constraints would allow this major antipoverty program to come much closer to reaching its potential
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Alternative Names
Martin Ravallion Australian economist
Martin Ravallion econoom uit Australië
Ravajon, Martin 1952-
Ravallion, M. 1952-
English (251)
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