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Ravallion, Martin

Works: 478 works in 1,872 publications in 1 language and 14,574 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Honoree, Other, 958
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 381.4564130095492
Publication Timeline
Publications about Martin Ravallion
Publications by Martin Ravallion
Most widely held works by Martin Ravallion
Markets and famines by Martin Ravallion( Book )
16 editions published between 1987 and 1999 in English and held by 548 libraries worldwide
The economics of poverty : history, measurement, and policy by Martin Ravallion( Book )
11 editions published between 2015 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 268 libraries worldwide
"While there is no denying that the world has made huge progress against absolute poverty over the last 200 years, until recent times the bulk of that progress had been made in wealthy countries only. The good news is that we have seen greater progress against poverty in the developing world in recent times-indeed, a faster pace of progress against extreme poverty than the rich world saw over a period of 100 years or more of economic development. However, continuing progress is far from assured. High and rising inequality has stalled progress against poverty in many countries. We are seeing generally rising relative poverty in the rich world as a whole over recent decades. And even in the developing world, there has been less progress in reaching the poorest, who risk being left behind, and a great many people in the emerging middle class remain highly vulnerable to falling back into poverty. The Economics of Poverty strives to support well-informed efforts to put in place effective policies to assure continuing success in reducing poverty in all its dimensions. The book reviews critically the past and present debates on the central policy issues of economic development everywhere. How much poverty is there? Why does poverty exist? What can be done to eliminate poverty? Martin Ravallion provides an accessible new synthesis of current knowledge on these issues. It does not assume that readers know economics already. Those new to economics get a lot of help along the way in understanding its concepts and methods. Economics lives though its relevance to real world problems, and here the problem of global poverty is both the central focus and a vehicle for learning"--
Land in transition : reform and poverty in rural Vietnam by Martin Ravallion( Book )
23 editions published between 2007 and 2012 in English and held by 248 libraries worldwide
Exploring what Vietnam's economic would have looked like without reform, this book offers a set of methods, drawing on the tool kit of modern economics. The book's findings have implications on broader issues of social protection in developing rural economies
Poverty comparisons by Martin Ravallion( Book )
22 editions published between 1993 and 2013 in English and held by 217 libraries worldwide
Poverty comparisons - such as whether poverty has increased, or where it is greatest, are typically clouded in conceptual and methodological uncertainties. How should individual well-being be assessed in deciding who is poor? Is a household survey a reliable guide? Where should the poverty line be drawn, and does the choice matter? This monograph surveys the issues that need to be considered in answering these questions, providing an accessible introduction to the most recent literature. The strengths and weaknesses of past methods are
Poverty lines in theory and practice by Martin Ravallion( Book )
17 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 179 libraries worldwide
Poverty comparisons : a guide to concepts and methods by Martin Ravallion( Book )
9 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 161 libraries worldwide
Income gains for the poor from public works employment : evidence from two Indian villages by Gaurav Datt( Book )
18 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 122 libraries worldwide
Growth and redistribution components of changes in poverty measures : a decomposition with applications to Brazil and India in the 1980s by Martin Ravallion( Book )
11 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 107 libraries worldwide
Reaching the poor through rural public employment : a survey of theory and evidence by Martin Ravallion( Book )
13 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 106 libraries worldwide
Externalities in rural development evidence for China by Martin Ravallion( file )
18 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and Undetermined and held by 83 libraries worldwide
Ravallion tests for external effects of local economic activity on consumption and income growth at the farm-household level using panel data from four provinces of post-reform rural China. The tests allow for nonstationary fixed effects in the consumption growth process. Evidence is found of geographic externalities, stemming from spillover effects of the level and composition of local economic activity and private returns to local human and physical infrastructure endowments. The results suggest an explanation for rural underdevelopment arising from underinvestment in certain externality-generating activities, of which agricultural development emerges as the most important. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to better understand the causes of poverty
Household income dynamics in rural China by Jyotsna Jalan( file )
17 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 82 libraries worldwide
Is effective social protection an investment with long-term benefits? Does inequality impede growth? Household panel data on incomes in rural China offer some answers
Transient poverty in rural China by Jyotsna Jalan( Book )
12 editions published between 1996 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 79 libraries worldwide
June 1996 The authors study transient poverty in a six-year panel dataset for a sample of 5,000 households in post-reform rural China. Half of the mean squared poverty gap is transient, in that it is directly attributable to fluctuations in consumption over time. There is enough transient poverty to treble the cost of eliminating chronic poverty when targeting solely according to current consumption - and to title the balance in favor of untargeted transfers. Transient poverty is low among the chronically poorest, and tends to be high among those near the poverty line. Using censored quantile regression techniques, the authors find that systemic factors determine transient poverty, although they are generally congruent with the determinants of chronic poverty. There is little to suggest that the two types of poverty are created by fundamentally different processes. It appears that the same things that would help reduce chronic poverty - higher and more secure farm yield and higher levels of physical and human capital - would also help reduce transient poverty
Decomposing social indicators using distributional data by Benu Bidani( Book )
12 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 79 libraries worldwide
July 1995 Cross-country comparisons suggest that poor people tend to be in worse health than others, and that their health responds more to differences in public health spending. Are the poor less healthy? Does public health spending matter more to them? Bidani and Ravallion decompose aggregate health indicators using a random coefficients model in which the aggregates are regressed on the population distribution by subgroups, taking account of the statistical properties of the error term and allowing for other determinants of health status, including public health spending. This also allows them to test possible determinants of the variation in the underlying subgroup indicators. They implement the approach with data on health outcomes and poverty measures for 35 developing countries. Bidani and Ravallion find that poor people have appreciably worse health status on average than others--and that differences in public health spending tend to matter more to the poor. This is probably because the nonpoor are in a better position to buy private health care. This paper--a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department--is part of a larger effort in the department to understand the interlinkage between poverty and human development
Is more targeting consistent with less spending? by Martin Ravallion( Book )
12 editions published in 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 77 libraries worldwide
March 1999 Concern about how cuts in public spending affect the poor has led to recommendations that cuts be combined with better targeting to the poor. That should not be difficult if there is broad political support for protecting the poor from cuts. But is it possible to target more, while spending less, when the political support of the nonpoor is crucial-and cannot be counted on? Economists often advise governments to target their spending better when cuts are called for. Ravallion asks whether that advice is consistent with a political economy constraint that limits the welfare losses to the nonpoor from spending cuts. A simple theoretical model shows that the answer is unclear on a priori grounds and so will depend on the specifics of program design and financing. A case study for a World Bank-supported social program in Argentina illustrates how cuts can come with worse targeting performance: The allocation to the poor falls faster than that to the nonpoor. Ravallion draws some lessons for how the poor might be better protected from cuts. This paper a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to better understand how the benefits from public spending are distributed. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under research project Policies for Poor Areas (RPO 681-39). The author may be contacted at
Appraising workfare programs by Martin Ravallion( Book )
13 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 75 libraries worldwide
This paper offers some simple analytic tools for a rapid appraisal of workfare programs. It discusses requirements for successful programs and explains the conditions and information requirements that should be taken into account when designing and implementing such programs. Programs are studied in the abstract and from stylized versions of a range of actual programs
Monitoring targeting performance when decentralized allocations to the poor are unobserved by Martin Ravallion( file )
12 editions published in 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 73 libraries worldwide
March 1999 Program funding and design choices by the central government can greatly affect the targeting performance of decentralized social programs. The allocation to a province should depend on how successful it is at reaching the poor with the extra resources, rather than how poor it is. New measurement tools can help monitor performance with limited data. National antipoverty programs often rely heavily on provincial governments. The center targets poor provinces in the hope that they will reach their own poor. Without successful intraprovincial targeting, however, even dramatic redistribution from rich to poor provinces can have little impact on poverty nationally. However, data for assessing performance at provincial level are often far from ideal. Can a centralized government monitor the performance of decentralized social programs in reaching the poor when their benefit incidence is unobserved? Ravallion shows that the poverty map and the corresponding spending allocation across geographic areas allow one to identify the latent differences in mean allocations to the poor versus the nonpoor. The national measure of targeting performance is also subgroup-decomposable. Ravallion uses an application to an antipoverty program in Argentina (Trabajar II) to assess performance in reaching the poor and to measure the relative contributions to the program's performance-before and after reforms-of the center's provincial reallocation and decentralized targeting. Funding and program design changes led to large gains for the poor, although with diverse performance across provinces. Program funding and design choices by the central government can greatly affect the targeting performance of decentralized social programs. The allocation to a province should depend on how successful it is at reaching the poor with the extra resources, rather than how poor it is. Design choices should provide incentives for provincial governments to target resources to the poor. Finding feasible ways to monitor their performance and adjust central government's efforts accordingly are then crucial to better outcomes for poor people. This paper-a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to provide better tools for monitoring the impact on poverty of World Bank projects. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under research project Policies for Poor Areas (RPO 681-39). The author may be contacted at
Are the poor protected from budget cuts? theory and evidence for Argentina by Martin Ravallion( file )
12 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 73 libraries worldwide
Time-series data for Argentina suggest that action to support propoor social spending is warranted at times of fiscal contraction. Social spending in general - and social spending targeted to the poor in particular - took a heavy hit at times of fiscal austerity
Macroeconomic crises and poverty monitoring a case study for India by Gaurav Datt( file )
16 editions published between 1996 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 73 libraries worldwide
November 1996 This case study for India finds an explanation for the drop in average household consumption in rural areas occurring in the year after the 1991 stabilization program instigated to deal with a macroeconomic crisis. A number of factors contributed to falling average living standards, including inflation, a drop in agricultural yields, and contraction in the non-farm sector. The same factors resulted in high poverty measures, although there was also a sizable unexplained shift in distribution. Despite their having an unusually rich data base, the authors nevertheless are unable to account for a large share of the increase in measured poverty, and cannot rule out the possibility that it was the result of sampling and non-sampling errors. Only about one-tenth of the measured increase in poverty is explicable in terms of the variables that would be expected to transmit shocks to the household level. Soon after, the poverty measures returned to their previous level. The study cautions users of survey-based welfare indicators not to read too much into a single survey, particularly when (as here) its results are difficult to explain in terms of other data on hand. However, the usefulness of objective socioeconomic survey data for longer-term poverty monitoring should not be thrown into doubt by these results
Looking beyond averages in the trade and poverty debate by Martin Ravallion( file )
14 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 72 libraries worldwide
"There has been much debate about how much poor people in developing countries gain from trade openness, as one aspect of 'globalization.' Ravallion views the issue through both 'macro' and 'micro' empirical lenses. The macro lens uses cross-country comparisons and aggregate time series data. The micro lens uses household-level data combined with structural modeling of the impacts of specific trade reforms. The author presents case studies for China and Morocco. Both the macro and micro approaches cast doubt on some wide generalizations from both sides of the globalization debate. Additionally the micro lens indicates considerable heterogeneity in the welfare impacts of trade openness, with both gainers and losers among the poor. The author identifies a number of covariates of the individual gains. The results point to the importance of combining trade reforms with well-designed social protection policies. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the distributional impacts of economywide policies"--World Bank web site
Right-to-work? : assessing India's employment guarantee scheme in Bihar by Puja Dutta( Book )
5 editions published in 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 38 libraries worldwide
India's ambitious National Rural Employment Guarantee Act creates a justiciable 'right to work' by promising up to 100 days of employment per year to all rural households whose adult members want unskilled manual work on public works projects at the stipulated minimum wage. Are the conditions stipulated by the Act met in practice, under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)? What impact on poverty do the earnings from the scheme have? Does the scheme meet its potential? How can it do better? Right to Work? Assessing India's Employment Guarantee Scheme in Bihar studies the MGNREGS's impact across India, then focuses on Bihar, the country's third largest and one of its poorest states. It shows that although the scheme has the potential to substantially reduce poverty through extra earnings for poor families, that potential is not realised in practice. Workers are not getting all the work they want, nor are they getting the full wages due. The intended recipients' awareness of how to obtain work is low. In a controlled experiment, a specially designed fictional movie was used to show how knowledge of rights and processes can be enhanced. Although the movie effectively raised awareness and improved public perceptions of the scheme, it had little effect on actions such as seeking employment when needed. Supplyside constraints in responding to demand for work must also be addressed. A number of specific constraints to work provision are identified, including poor implementation capacity, weak financial management, and inadequate monitoring systems. Addressing these constraints would allow this major antipoverty program to come much closer to reaching its potential
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Alternative Names
Martin Ravallion Australian economist
Martin Ravallion econoom uit Australië
Ravajon, Martin 1952-
Ravallion, M. 1952-
English (269)
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