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Ravallion, Martin

Works: 490 works in 1,923 publications in 1 language and 16,176 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Honoree, Other, 958
Publication Timeline
Publications about Martin Ravallion
Publications by Martin Ravallion
Most widely held works by Martin Ravallion
Markets and famines by Martin Ravallion( Book )
16 editions published between 1987 and 1999 in English and held by 539 libraries worldwide
The economics of poverty : history, measurement, and policy by Martin Ravallion( Book )
17 editions published between 2015 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 370 libraries worldwide
"While there is no denying that the world has made huge progress against absolute poverty over the last 200 years, until recent times the bulk of that progress had been made in wealthy countries only. The good news is that we have seen greater progress against poverty in the developing world in recent times-indeed, a faster pace of progress against extreme poverty than the rich world saw over a period of 100 years or more of economic development. However, continuing progress is far from assured. High and rising inequality has stalled progress against poverty in many countries. We are seeing generally rising relative poverty in the rich world as a whole over recent decades. And even in the developing world, there has been less progress in reaching the poorest, who risk being left behind, and a great many people in the emerging middle class remain highly vulnerable to falling back into poverty. The Economics of Poverty strives to support well-informed efforts to put in place effective policies to assure continuing success in reducing poverty in all its dimensions. The book reviews critically the past and present debates on the central policy issues of economic development everywhere. How much poverty is there? Why does poverty exist? What can be done to eliminate poverty? Martin Ravallion provides an accessible new synthesis of current knowledge on these issues. It does not assume that readers know economics already. Those new to economics get a lot of help along the way in understanding its concepts and methods. Economics lives though its relevance to real world problems, and here the problem of global poverty is both the central focus and a vehicle for learning"--Provided by publisher
Land in transition : reform and poverty in rural Vietnam by Martin Ravallion( Book )
23 editions published between 2007 and 2012 in English and held by 253 libraries worldwide
Exploring what Vietnam's economic would have looked like without reform, this book offers a set of methods, drawing on the tool kit of modern economics. The book's findings have implications on broader issues of social protection in developing rural economies
Poverty comparisons by Martin Ravallion( Book )
25 editions published between 1993 and 2017 in English and Undetermined and held by 218 libraries worldwide
Poverty comparisons - such as whether poverty has increased, or where it is greatest, are typically clouded in conceptual and methodological uncertainties. How should individual well-being be assessed in deciding who is poor? Is a household survey a reliable guide? Where should the poverty line be drawn, and does the choice matter? This monograph surveys the issues that need to be considered in answering these questions, providing an accessible introduction to the most recent literature. The strengths and weaknesses of past methods are
Poverty lines in theory and practice by Martin Ravallion( Book )
17 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 186 libraries worldwide
Income gains for the poor from public works employment : evidence from two Indian villages by Gaurav Datt( Book )
19 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 128 libraries worldwide
Growth and redistribution components of changes in poverty measures : a decomposition with applications to Brazil and India in the 1980s by Martin Ravallion( Book )
11 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 108 libraries worldwide
Reaching the poor through rural public employment : a survey of theory and evidence by Martin Ravallion( Book )
13 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 106 libraries worldwide
With the limited set of policy instruments typically available in the rural sectors of developing countries, imperfect coverage of the poor and leakage to the non-poor must be expected from even the most well intentioned poverty alleviation scheme. Labor intensive rural public works projects have the potential to both screen and protect the poor, as well as to create and maintain rural infrastructure. The limited evidence for South Asia suggests that few non-poor persons want to participate, and that both direct and indirect transfer and insurance benefits to the poor can be sizable. However, details of the project selection, design and financing, are crucial to success in poverty alleviation, both in the short and long run. Benefits to the poor can be rapidly dissipated by a badly conceived and executed project
Externalities in rural development evidence for China by Martin Ravallion( file )
18 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and Undetermined and held by 83 libraries worldwide
Ravallion tests for external effects of local economic activity on consumption and income growth at the farm-household level using panel data from four provinces of post-reform rural China. The tests allow for nonstationary fixed effects in the consumption growth process. Evidence is found of geographic externalities, stemming from spillover effects of the level and composition of local economic activity and private returns to local human and physical infrastructure endowments. The results suggest an explanation for rural underdevelopment arising from underinvestment in certain externality-generating activities, of which agricultural development emerges as the most important. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to better understand the causes of poverty
Household income dynamics in rural China by Jyotsna Jalan( file )
18 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 83 libraries worldwide
Is effective social protection an investment with long-term benefits? Does inequality impede growth? Household panel data on incomes in rural China offer some answers
Are the poor protected from budget cuts? : theory and evidence for Argentina by Martin Ravallion( file )
12 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 74 libraries worldwide
Time-series data for Argentina suggest that action to support propoor social spending is warranted at times of fiscal contraction. Social spending in general - and social spending targeted to the poor in particular - took a heavy hit at times of fiscal austerity
Targeted transfers in poor countries revisiting the tradeoffs and policy options by Martin Ravallion( file )
14 editions published between 2003 and 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 74 libraries worldwide
Two tradeoffs have been widely seen to severely constrain the scope for attacking poverty using redistributive transfers in poor countries: an equity-efficiency tradeoff and an insurance-efficiency tradeoff. Ravallion provides a critical overview of recent theoretical and empirical work that has called into question the extent of these tradeoffs in poor countries. He argues that these aggregate tradeoffs are often exaggerated. Indeed, they may not even be binding constraints in practice, given market failures. There appears to be scope for using carefully designed transfer schemes as an effective tool against both transient and chronic poverty. However, the same factors that weaken the tradeoffs also suggest that efficient redistributive policies might look rather different to the programs often found in practice. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to better understand the tradeoffs faced in development policymaking
Gainers and losers from trade reform in Morocco by Martin Ravallion( file )
13 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
"Ravallion and Lokshin use Morocco's national survey of living standards to measure the short-term welfare impacts of prior estimates of the price changes attributed to various trade policy reforms for cereals - the country's main foodstaple. They find small impacts on mean consumption and inequality in the aggregate. There are both gainers and losers and (contrary to past claims) the rural poor are worse off on average after trade policy reforms. The authors decompose the aggregate impact on inequality into a vertical component (between people at different pre-reform welfare levels) and a horizontal component (between people at the same pre-reform welfare level). There is a large horizontal component which dominates the vertical impact of full de-protection. The diverse impacts reflect a degree of observable heterogeneity in consumption behavior and income sources, with implications for social protection policies. This paper -a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the distributional impact of economywide policy reforms"--World Bank web site
Looking beyond averages in the trade and poverty debate by Martin Ravallion( file )
14 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 71 libraries worldwide
"There has been much debate about how much poor people in developing countries gain from trade openness, as one aspect of 'globalization.' Ravallion views the issue through both 'macro' and 'micro' empirical lenses. The macro lens uses cross-country comparisons and aggregate time series data. The micro lens uses household-level data combined with structural modeling of the impacts of specific trade reforms. The author presents case studies for China and Morocco. Both the macro and micro approaches cast doubt on some wide generalizations from both sides of the globalization debate. Additionally the micro lens indicates considerable heterogeneity in the welfare impacts of trade openness, with both gainers and losers among the poor. The author identifies a number of covariates of the individual gains. The results point to the importance of combining trade reforms with well-designed social protection policies. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the distributional impacts of economywide policies"--World Bank web site
Searching for the economic gradient in self-assessed health by Michael Lokshin( file )
10 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and held by 69 libraries worldwide
"Can self-assessed health be relied on to identify the true socioeconomic gradients in health status? The self-assessed health of Russian adults in 2002 shows remarkably little gradient with respect to economic welfare. The authors document this finding and assess its robustness to the assumptions routinely made in measuring health and welfare. They find that the expected economic gradient only emerges once one focuses on the component of self-assessed health that is explicable in terms of age and more objective health indicators and one allows for broader dimensions of economic welfare than captured by standard income-based measures. The results point to the need for caution in analyzing and interpreting self-assessed health data. "--World Bank web site
Is a guaranteed living wage a good anti-poverty policy? by Rinku Murgai( file )
11 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 68 libraries worldwide
"Minimum wages are generally thought to be unenforceable in developing rural economies. But there is one solution - a workfare scheme in which the government acts as the employer of last resort. Is this a cost-effective policy against poverty? Using a microeconometric model of the casual labor market in rural India, the authors find that a guaranteed wage rate sufficient for a typical poor family to reach the poverty line would bring the annual poverty rate down from 34 percent to 25 percent at a fiscal cost representing 3-4 percent of GDP when run for the whole year. Confining the scheme to the lean season (three months) would bring the annual poverty rate down to 31 percent at a cost of 1.3 percent of GDP. While the gains from a guaranteed wage rate would be better targeted than a uniform (untargeted) cash transfer, the extra costs of the wage policy imply that it would have less impact on poverty. "--World Bank web site
Growth, inequality and poverty looking beyond averages by Martin Ravallion( file )
10 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 67 libraries worldwide
One side in the current debate about who benefits from growth has focused solely on average impacts on poverty and inequality, while the other side has focused on the diverse welfare impacts found beneath the averages. Both sides have a point
Inequality convergence by Martin Ravallion( file )
11 editions published in 2001 in English and Undetermined and held by 65 libraries worldwide
Is income inequality tending to fall in countries with high inequality and to rise in those where inequality is low? Is there a process of convergence toward medium-level inequality?
Right-to-work? : assessing India's employment guarantee scheme in Bihar by Puja Dutta( Book )
5 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 38 libraries worldwide
India's ambitious National Rural Employment Guarantee Act creates a justiciable 'right to work' by promising up to 100 days of employment per year to all rural households whose adult members want unskilled manual work on public works projects at the stipulated minimum wage. Are the conditions stipulated by the Act met in practice, under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)? What impact on poverty do the earnings from the scheme have? Does the scheme meet its potential? How can it do better? Right to Work? Assessing India's Employment Guarantee Scheme in Bihar studies the MGNREGS's impact across India, then focuses on Bihar, the country's third largest and one of its poorest states. It shows that although the scheme has the potential to substantially reduce poverty through extra earnings for poor families, that potential is not realised in practice. Workers are not getting all the work they want, nor are they getting the full wages due. The intended recipients' awareness of how to obtain work is low. In a controlled experiment, a specially designed fictional movie was used to show how knowledge of rights and processes can be enhanced. Although the movie effectively raised awareness and improved public perceptions of the scheme, it had little effect on actions such as seeking employment when needed. Supplyside constraints in responding to demand for work must also be addressed. A number of specific constraints to work provision are identified, including poor implementation capacity, weak financial management, and inadequate monitoring systems. Addressing these constraints would allow this major antipoverty program to come much closer to reaching its potential
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Alternative Names
Martin Ravallion Australian economist
Martin Ravallion economista australiano
Martin Ravallion économiste australien
Martin Ravallion econoom uit Australië
Ravajon, Martin 1952-
Ravallion, M. 1952-
English (268)
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