skip to content

Thomas, Duncan

Works: 35 works in 168 publications in 2 languages and 1,926 library holdings
Genres: Cross-cultural studies 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Publications about Duncan Thomas
Publications by Duncan Thomas
Most widely held works by Duncan Thomas
Contraceptive choice, fertility, and public policy in Zimbabwe by Duncan Thomas( Book )
16 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 143 libraries worldwide
How fast is fertility declining in Botswana and Zimbabwe? by Duncan Thomas( Book )
8 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 119 libraries worldwide
Public policy and anthropometric outcomes in Côte d'Ivoire by Duncan Thomas( Book )
12 editions published between 1991 and 1997 in English and French and held by 83 libraries worldwide
Using data from Cote d'Ivoire, this paper examines the impact of public policies on three anthropometric outcomes: height for age and weight for height of children as well as body mass index of adults. During the eighties, low growth rates in Cote d'Ivoire were accompanied by an economic adjustment program which included substantial cuts in public spending together with increases in the relative price of foods. If reductions in social spending resulted in lower availability and quality of health care services, then results suggest that child health (particularly height for age) will have been adversely affected. The provision of basic services (such as immunizations) and ensuring facilities are equipped with simple materials (such as having basic drugs in stock) will yield high social returns in terms of improved child health. Food prices have tended to rise in Cote d'Ivoire during the eighties and the authors find that higher food prices have had a significantly detrimental impact on the health of Ivorian children (as measured by weight for height) and adults (as indicated by lower body mass indices). In contrast, the effects of income on health are significant but quite small, except in the case of adult women
Does Head Start help Hispanic children? by Janet M Currie( Book )
17 editions published between 1996 and 2000 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
Poor educational attainment is a persistent problem among U.S. hispanic children, relative to non-hispanics. Many of these children are immigrants and /or come from households that use a minority language in the home This paper examines the effects of participation in a government sponsored preschool program called Head Start on these children. The authors find that large and significant benefits accrue to Head Start children when we compare them to siblings who did not participate in the program. On average, Head Start closes at least 1/4 of the gap in test scores between hispanic children and non-Hispanic white children, and 2/3 of the gap in the probability of grade repetition. However, the authors find that the benefits of Head Start are not evenly distributed across sub-groups
School quality and the longer-term effects of Head Start by Janet M Currie( Book )
15 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 75 libraries worldwide
Recent research on Head Start, an enriched preschool program for poor children that effects on test scores fade out' more quickly for black children than for white children. This" paper uses data from the 1988 wave of the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to show that" black children who attended Head Start go on to attend schools of worse quality' than other black" children, in the sense that they attend schools in which most children have worse test scores. We" do not see any similar pattern among white children, indicating that on average children attend schools similar to those attended by other white children. Moreover stratify by school type, we find that gaps in test scores between Head Start and other children are" very similar for blacks and whites. These patterns suggest that the effects of Head Start may fade" out more rapidly among black students than among whites, at least in part because black Head Start" children are more likely to subsequently attend bad schools
Does Head Start make a difference? by Janet M Currie( Book )
14 editions published between 1993 and 1995 in English and held by 73 libraries worldwide
Although there is a broad hi-partisan support for Head Start, the evidence of positive longterm effects of the program is not overwhelming. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey's Child-Mother file, we examine the impact of the program on a range of child outcomes. We compare non-parametric estimates of program effects with estimates from parametric models that control for selection by including mother fixed effects. This comparison suggests that studies that ignore selection can be substantially misleading; it also suggests that the impact of selection differs considerably across racial and ethnic groups. After controlling for selection, we find positive and persistent effects of participation in Head Start on the test scores of white and Hispanic children. These children are also less likely to have repeated a grade. We find no effects on the test scores or schooling attainment of African-American children. White children who attend Head Start are more likely to receive a measles shot, while African-American enrollees receive measles shots at an earlier age. African-American children who attend Head Start are also taller than their siblings. In a sample of the children's mothers, we find evidence that whites who attended Head Start as children are taller and have higher AFQT scores than their siblings who did not
Race, children's cognitive achievement and the Bell curve by Janet M Currie( Book )
13 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 70 libraries worldwide
In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray demonstrate that a mother's score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test is a powerful predictor of her child's score on a cognitive achievement test. We replicate this finding. However, even after controlling for maternal scores, there are significant gaps in the scores of black and white children which suggests that maternal scores are not all that matter. In fact, both maternal education and income are important determinants of child test scores, conditional on maternal AFQT. We argue that racial gaps in test scores matter because even within families, children with higher scores are less likely to repeat grades. However, conditional on both child test scores and maternal AFQT, maternal education and income also affect a child's probability of grade repetition. We conclude that, even if one accepts test scores as valid measures of 'nature', both nature and nurture matter. Finally, we show that the effects on child test scores of maternal test scores, education, and income differ dramatically depending on the nature of the test, the age of the child, and race. The results suggest that understanding the relationships between different aspects of maternal achievement and child outcomes may help us unravel the complex process through which poverty is transmitted across generations
Longer term effects of Head Start by Eliana Garces( Book )
14 editions published between 2000 and 2003 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
Little is known about the long-term effects of participation in Head Start. This paper draws on unique non-experimental data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to provide new evidence on the effects of participation in Head Start on schooling attainment, earnings, and criminal behavior. Among whites, participation in Head Start is associated with a significantly increase probability of completing high school and attending college, and the authors find some evidence of elevated earnings in one's early twenties. African Americans who participated in Head Start are significantly less likely to have been charged or convicted of a crime. The evidence also suggests that there are positive spillovers from older children who attended Head Start to their younger siblings
Early test scores, socioeconomic status and future outcomes by Janet M Currie( Book )
9 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 60 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the long-term effects of early test scores using data from the British National Child Development Survey. We show that test scores measured as early as age 7 have significant effects on future educational and labor market outcomes. For example, men and women in the lowest quartile of the reading test score distribution have wages 20% lower at age 33 than those who scored in the highest quartile. We test several hypotheses about the interactions between socioeconomic status and high or low test scores at age 7. In terms of test scores, educational attainments, and employment at age 33, low-SES children reap both larger gains from having high age 7 test scores and smaller losses from having low age 7 test scores. The opposite is true among high-SES children who suffer larger losses from low scores and smaller gains from high scores. However we find little evidence of comparable interactive effects for wages
Medicaid and medical care for children by Janet M Currie( Book )
11 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 48 libraries worldwide
Abstract: Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys are used to compare the medical care received by children covered by Medicaid with that of other similar children. The longitudinal dimension of the data is exploited as we examine differences between siblings and repeated observations on the same child. We find that Medicaid coverage is associated with a higher probability of both black and white children receiving routine checkups but with increases in the number of doctor visits for illness only among white children. This racial disparity in the number of visits may be linked to the fact that black children with Medicaid coverage are less likely to see a private physician than other children
Policy analysis for household food insecurity : case study, rural Zimbabwe by Garry Neil Christensen( Book )
3 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 13 libraries worldwide
Extended families and child well-being by Daniel LaFave( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Whereas studies have established the intra-household distribution of resources affects allocation decisions, little is known about how these decisions are affected by the distribution of resources among co-resident and non co-resident extended family members. Drawing on theoretical models of collective decision-making, we use extremely rich data from Indonesia to establish that child health- and education-related human capital outcomes are affected by resources of extended family members who co-reside with the child and those who are not co-resident. Extended family members are not completely altruistic but their allocation decisions are apparently co-ordinated in a way that is consistent with Pareto efficiency
Impact of Violent Crime on Risk Aversion : Evidence from the Mexican Drug War by Ryan Brown( file )
3 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Whereas attitudes towards risk are thought to play an important role in many decisions over the life-course, factors that affect those attitudes are not fully understood. Using longitudinal survey data collected in Mexico before and during the Mexican war on drugs, we investigate how an individual's risk attitudes change with variation in levels of insecurity and uncertainty brought on by unprecedented changes in local-area violent crime due to the war on drugs. Exploiting the fact that the timing, virulence and spatial distribution of changes in violent crime were unanticipated, we establish the changes can plausibly be treated as exogenous in models that also take into account unobserved characteristics of individuals that are fixed over time. As local-area violent crime increases, there is a rise in risk aversion that is distributed through the entire local population
Human Capital and Shocks Evidence on Education, Health and Nutrition by Elizabeth Frankenberg( file )
3 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Human capital, including health and nutrition, has played a key role in the literature on poverty traps. Economic shocks that affect human capital during early life are thought to translate into permanently reduced levels of human capital and, thereby, push individuals into poverty. Three potential concerns in this literature are explored with empirical evidence drawn from primary longitudinal survey data collected before and after two major shocks in Indonesia: the 1998 financial crisis and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. First, it is very hard to identify shocks that are unanticipated and uncorrelated with other factors that affect human capital outcomes. Second, and related, there is abundant evidence that individuals, families and communities invest in strategies that are designed to mitigate the impact of such shocks. The nature and effectiveness of the myriad array of these behaviors vary with the context in ways that are not straightforward to measure or model. Third, the impacts of shocks on human capital outcomes in the short and longer-term may differ precisely because of the behavioral changes of individuals and their families so that drawing inferences about the longer-term impacts based on negative impacts in the short term can be very misleading. The picture of remarkable resilience that emerges from investigating the impacts of major shocks on child health and human capital in Indonesia is nothing short of stunning
The Effects of Mortality on Fertility Population Dynamics after a Natural Disaster by Jenna Nobles( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Understanding how mortality and fertility are linked is essential to the study of population dynamics. We investigate the fertility response to an unanticipated mortality shock that resulted from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed large shares of the residents of some Indonesian communities but caused no deaths in neighboring communities. Using population-representative multilevel longitudinal data, we identify a behavioral fertility response to mortality exposure, both at the level of a couple and in the broader community. We observe a sustained fertility increase at the aggregate level following the tsunami, which is driven by two behavioral responses to mortality exposure. First, mothers who lost one or more children in the disaster are significantly more likely to bear additional children after the tsunami. This response explains about 13 percent of the aggregate increase in fertility. Second, women without children before the tsunami initiated family-building earlier in communities where tsunami-related mortality rates were higher, indicating that the fertility of these women is an important route to rebuilding the population in the aftermath of a mortality shock. Such community-level effects have received little attention in demographic scholarship
Adult Mortality Five Years after a Natural Disaster Evidence from the Indian Ocean Tsunami by Jessica Y Ho( file )
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Exposure to extreme events has been hypothesized to affect subsequent mortality because of mortality selection and scarring effects of the event itself. We examine survival at and in the five years after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami for a population-representative sample of residents of Aceh, Indonesia who were differentially exposed to the disaster. For this population, the dynamics of selection and scarring are a complex function of the degree of tsunami impact in the community, the nature of individual exposures, age at exposure, and gender. Among individuals from tsunami-affected communities we find evidence for positive mortality selection among older individuals, with stronger effects for males than for females, and no evidence of scarring. Among individuals from other communities, property loss is associated with elevated mortality risks in the five years after the disaster only for those who were age 50 or older at the time of the disaster
Endogenous Co-residence and Program Incidence South Africa's Old Age Pension by Amar Hamoudi( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
We investigate whether living arrangements respond to an arguably exogenous shift in the distribution of power in family economic decision-making. In the early 1990s, the South African Old Age Pension was expanded to cover most black South Africans above a sex-specific age cut-off resulting in a substantial increase in the income of older South Africans and potentially their say in the economic decisions of their families. Beneficiaries of the program are more likely to coreside with adults who have less human capital as measured by height and education. Since height and education are fixed for adults, this cannot be an effect of the pension income but reflects selective changes in living arrangements resulting from the pension. The findings highlight the endogeneity of living arrangements and illustrate the potential value of moving beyond theory and data that are confined to a spatially determined definition of the household
Height and Cognition at Work Labor Market Productivity in a Low Income Setting by Daniel LaFave( file )
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market, a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality, a proxy for health status or a proxy for family background characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium in the labor market is driven by occupational and sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative importance of these mechanisms that potentially underly the link between adult stature and labor market productivity. Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data collected in rural Central Java, Indonesia, we establish that height predicts hourly earnings after controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive performance and physical health status, measures of family background, and sectoral and occupational choice. The height premium is large and significant in both the wage and self-empoyed sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker quality. Since adult stature is largely determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that exposures during this critical period have an enduring impact on labor market productivity
Biological health risks and economic development by Elizabeth Frankenberg( file )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
With populations aging and the epidemic of obesity spreading across the globe, global health risks are shifting toward non-communicable diseases. Innovative biomarker data from recently conducted population-representative surveys in lower, middle and higher income countries are used to describe how four key biological health risks -- hypertension, cholesterol, glucose and inflammation -- vary with economic development and, within each country, with age, gender and education. As obesity rises in lower income countries, the burden of non-communicable diseases will rise in roughly predictable ways and the costs to society are potentially very large. Investigations that explain cross-country differences in these relationships will have a major impact on advancing understanding of the complex interplay between biology, health and development
Farms, families, and markets : new evidence on agricultural labor markets by Daniel LaFave( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The farm household model has played a central role in improving the understanding of small-scale agricultural households and non-farm enterprises. Under the assumptions that all current and future markets exist and that farmers treat all prices as given, the model simplifies households' simultaneous production and consumption decisions into a recursive form in which production decisions can be treated as if they are independent of preferences of household members. These assumptions, which are the foundation of a large literature in labor and development have been tested and not rejected in several important studies, notably Benjamin (1992). Using new, longitudinal survey data from Central Java, Indonesia, this paper tests a key prediction of the recursive model: demand for farm labor is unrelated to the demographic composition of the farm household. This prediction is rejected. This rejection is not explained by contamination due to unobserved heterogeneity at the farm level, potential endogeneity of household demographic composition, nor differential monitoring costs for family and hired labor. The difference in conclusions can be attributed to implausibly low levels of family labor in the data used by Benjamin
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
English (142)
French (3)
Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.