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Shapiro, Matthew D. (Matthew David)

Works: 89 works in 463 publications in 1 language and 4,188 library holdings
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
Publication Timeline
Publications about Matthew D Shapiro
Publications by Matthew D Shapiro
Most widely held works by Matthew D Shapiro
Scanner data and price indexes ( Book )
13 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 300 libraries worldwide
This book assesses both the promise and the challenges of using scanner data to produce economic statistics. Three chapters present the results of work in progress at statistical agencies in the U.S., United Kingdom, and Canada, including a project at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics to investigate the feasibility of incorporating scanner data into the monthly Consumer Price Index. Other chapters demonstrate the enormous potential of using scanner data to test economic theories and estimate the parameters of economic models, and provide solutions for some of the problems that arise when using scanner data, such as dealing with missing data
Quality improvement in health care : a framework for price and output measurement by Irving Shapiro( Book )
14 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 75 libraries worldwide
The durability of health care treatment, the substantial technical change in health care treatment, and the prevalence of third-party payment interact to create substantial difficulty in measuring the price and output of health care. This paper provides a framework for analyzing the demand for health care taking into account these difficulties. It then suggests how this framework might be used to improve measurement of health care prices and output
Displaced capital by Valerie A Ramey( Book )
13 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
This paper studies the efficiency with which physical capital can be reallocated across sectors. It presents a model of a firm selling specialized capital in a thin resale market. The model predicts that the selling price depends not only on the sectoral specificity of capital, but also on the thinness of the market and the discount factor of the firm. It then provides empirical evidence on the sectoral mobility of capital based on equipment-level data from aerospace industry auctions. These data track the flow of used capital across industries, as well as the discounts at which the capital sells. The results suggest substantial sectoral specificity of capital. Capital that flowed out of the sector sold for only one-third of its estimated replacement cost
Productivity growth in the 1990s : technology, utilization, or adjustment? by Susanto Basu( Book )
18 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 72 libraries worldwide
Measured productivity growth increased substantially during the second half of the 1990s. This paper examines whether this increase owes to an increase in the rate of technological change or whether it can be explained by non-technological factors relating to factor utilization, factor accumulation, or returns to scale. It finds that the recent increase in productivity growth does appear to arise from an increase in technological change. Cyclical utilization raised measured productivity growth relative to technology growth in the first part of the expansion, but lowered it subsequently. Factor adjustment leads to a steady-state understatement of technology growth by measured productivity growth. The understatement was greater in the second half of the expansion than the first. Changes in the distribution of inputs across industries with different returns to scale lead to a modest understatement in the growth in technology. Although the increase technological change is most pronounced in durable manufacturing, technological change also increased outside of manufacturing
Costly capital reallocation and the effects of government spending by Valerie A Ramey( Book )
12 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
Changes in government spending often lead to significant shifts in demand across sectors. This paper analyzes the effects of sector-specific changes in government spending in a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model in which the reallocation of capital across sectors is costly. The two-sector model leads to a richer array of possible responses of aggregate variables than the one-sector model. The empirical part of the paper estimates the effects of military buildups on a variety of macroeconomic variables using a new measure of military shocks. The behavior of macroeconomic aggregates is consistent with the predictions of a multi-sector neoclassical model. In particular, consumption, real product wages and manufacturing productivity fall in response to exogenous military buildups in the post-World War II United States
Mismeasurement in the consumer price index : an evaluation by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
11 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
A number of analysts have claimed recently that the consumer price index overstates the annual increase in the cost of living. This paper develops a framework for studying measurement problems in the consumer price index and systematically analyzes the available evidence concerning the magnitude of these problems. It concludes that the CPI overstates increases in the cost of living. The evidence suggests that the bias is centered on 1.0 percentage point per year. The extent of this bias is not known exactly. To take into account this uncertainty, the estimated bias is presented in terms of a probability distribution rather than a point estimate or range. We estimate that there is a 10 percent chance that the bias is less than 0.6 percentage point and a 10 percent chance that it is greater than 1.5 percentage points per year. CPI procedures overstate the rate of inflation for medical procedures that are subject to technological improvement. To illustrate this point and to show how better to measure medical care prices, the paper presents a prototypical price index for cataract surgery. This price index grows much more slowly than a price index for cataract surgery constructed using the methodology of the CPI. The paper discusses implications of CPI mismeasurement for monetary and fiscal policy as well as for other official statistics. It also offers some suggestions for improving the CPI
Alternative strategies for aggregating prices in the CPI by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
12 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide
The Consumer Price Index does not take into account the fact that consumers alter the composition of their purchases in response to changes in relative prices. This substitution effect will cause the CPI to grow faster than the cost of living. This paper presents new estimates showing that this bias in the CPI averaged 0.3 percentage points per year between December 1986 and December 1995. This bias could be eliminated by using a superlative index to aggregate prices across the item-area strata of the CPI. The paper discusses the practical difficulties in implementing such a calculation and suggests a method for overcoming them. In particular, it shows how to construct an accurate approximation to a superlative price index that can be published with the same timeliness as the CPI
Consumer response to tax rebates by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 58 libraries worldwide
Many households received income tax rebates in 2001 of $300 or $600. These rebates represented advance payments of the tax cut from the new 10 percent tax bracket. Based on a survey of a representative sample of households, this paper finds that only 22 percent of households receiving the rebate would spent it. Instead, they would either save it or use it to pay off debt. This very low rate of spending represents a striking break with past behavior, which would have suggested a much higher rate of spending. The low spending rate implies that the tax rebate provided a very limited stimulus to aggregate demand
Did the 2001 tax rebate stimulate spending? : evidence from taxpayer surveys by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
13 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 57 libraries worldwide
In 2001, many households received rebate checks as advanced payments of the benefit of the new, 10 percent federal income tax bracket. A survey conducted at the time the rebates were mailed finds that few households said that the rebate led them mostly to increase spending. A follow-up survey in 2002, as well as a similar survey conducted after the attacks of 9/11, also indicates low spending rates. This paper investigates the robustness of these survey responses and assesses whether such surveys are useful for policy evaluation. It also draws lessons from the surveys for macroeconomic analysis of the tax rebate
High-frequency substitution and the measurement of price indexes by Robert C Feenstra( Book )
12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 51 libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper investigates the use of high-frequency scanner data to construct price indexes. In the presence of inventory behavior, purchases and consumption by individuals differ over time. Cost-of-living indexes can still be constructed using data on purchases. For weekly data on canned tuna, the paper contrast two different types of price indexes: fixed-base and chained indexes. Only the former are theoretically correct, and in fact, the chained indexes have a pronounced upward bias for most regions of the U.S. This upward bias can be caused by consumers purchasing goods for inventory. The paper presents some direct statistical support for inventory behavior being the cause of the upward bias, though advertising and special displays also have a very significant impact on shopping patterns
Phased-in tax cuts and economic activity by Christopher L House( Book )
10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 50 libraries worldwide
Phased-in tax reductions are a common feature of tax legislation. This paper uses a dynamic general equilibrium model to quantify the effects of delaying tax cuts. According to the analysis of the model, the phased-in tax cuts of the 2001 tax law substantially reduced employment, output, and investment during the phase-in period. In contrast, the immediate tax cuts of the 2003 tax law provided significant incentives for immediate production and investment. The paper argues that the rules and accounting procedures used by Congress for formulating tax policy have a significant impact in shaping the details of tax policy and led to the phase-ins, sunsets, and temporary tax changes in both the 2001 and 2003 tax laws
Consumer response to the timing of income : evidence from a change in tax withholding by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
11 editions published between 1993 and 1995 in English and held by 43 libraries worldwide
In 1992, the income tax withholding tables were adjusted so that withholding was reduced. A typical worker received an extra $28.80 in take-home pay per month in March through December 1992, to be offset by a lower tax refund in 1993. The change in withholding amounted to 0.5 percent of GDP. President Bush, who proposed this change in his State of the Union address, intended that it provide a temporary stimulus to demand. But the policy change involved only the timing of income, so, under the life-cycle/permanent-income model, it would be predicted to have a negligible effect on consumption and aggregate demand. This paper reports consumers' responses to the change in withholding. The results are based on a survey taken shortly after it went into effect. Forty-three percent of consumers report spending the extra take-home pay--substantially more than the zero percent predicted by the standard models, but substantially less than the one hundred percent upon which the policy was predicated. The decision to save the income is not explained by expected income growth. Therefore, while behavior of many households is not fully consistent with the life-cycle/permanent-income model, liquidity constraints do not appear to account for this behavior
Federal Reserve policy : cause and effect by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
11 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 43 libraries worldwide
Romer and Romer (1989,1990,1992) identify dates where the Federal Reserve appears to have shifted its policy towards reducing the rate of inflation. This paper examines the economic context that drives this decision. It finds that the Fed appears to weigh the outlook for unemployment as well as that for inflation in making its decision about disinflation. Previous work has not examined the course of inflation over the disinflations. This paper finds responses of the inflation rate to the "disinflations" only in a specification where the effects of the policy are presumed to be permanent Moreover, the Volcker disinflation is found to be the only "disinflation" to reduce inflation permanently. The disinflation after the 1973 OPEC price increases was effective, but only temporarily. Other disinflations had negligible impacts on the rate of inflation over all horizons. Variables measuring the expected present discounted values of unemployment and inflation are constructed. These variables are used in a discrete-choice model to explain the Fed's decision to disinflate. This model does a fairly good job of explaining the Fed's decisions. Both inflation and unemployment drive the Fed's decision. For some episodes, notably in the 1970's, inflation is the main variable driving the decision. In the 1969 and 1988 episodes, unemployment matters more
Why do computers depreciate? by Michael J Geske( Book )
9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
The value of installed computers falls rapidly and therefore computers have a very high user cost. The paper provides a complete account of the non-financial user cost of personal computers -- decomposing it into replacement cost change, obsolescence, instantaneous depreciation, and age-related depreciation. The paper uses data on the resale price of computers and a hedonic price index for new computers to achieve this decomposition. Once obsolescence is taken into account, age-related depreciation -- which is often identified as deterioration -- is estimated to be negligible. While the majority of the loss in value of used computers comes from declines in replacement cost, this paper shows the second most important source of decline in value is obsolescence. Obsolescence is accelerated by the decline in replacement cost of computers. Cheaper computing power drives developments in software and networks that make older computers less productive even though their original functionality remains intact
Stock market forecastability and volatility : a statistical appraisal by N. Gregory Mankiw( Book )
10 editions published between 1989 and 1990 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
Abstract: overwhelming. That is, the data do not provide evidence of gross violations
Generating non-standard multivariate distributions with an application to mismeasurement in the CPI by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
5 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
This paper shows how to generate the joint distribution of correlated random variables with specified marginal distributions. For cases where the marginal distributions are either normal or lognormal, it shows how to calculate analytically the correlation of the underlying normal distributions to induce the desired correlation between the variables. It also provides a method for calculating the joint distribution in the case of arbitrary marginal distributions. The paper applies the technique to calculating the distribution of the overall bias in the consumer price index. The technique should also be applicable to estimation by simulated moments or simulated likelihoods and to Monte Carlo analysis
Temporary investment tax incentives : theory with evidence from bonus depreciation by Christopher L House( Book )
10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 29 libraries worldwide
Investment decisions are inherently forward-looking. The payoff of acquiring capital goods, particularly long-lived capital goods, is governed almost exclusively by events in the far future. Because the timing of the investment itself does not affect future payoffs, there are strong incentives to delay or accelerate investment to take advantage of predictable intertemporal variations in cost. For sufficiently long-lived capital goods, these incentives are so strong that the intertemporal elasticity of investment demand is nearly infinite. As a consequence, for a temporary tax change, the shadow price of long-lived capital goods must reflect the full tax subsidy regardless of the elasticity of investment supply. While price data provide no information on the elasticity of supply, they can reveal the extent to which adjustment costs are internal or external to the firm. In contrast, the elasticity of investment supply can be inferred from quantity data alone. The bonus depreciation allowance passed in 2002 and increased in 2003 presents an opportunity to test the sharp predictions of neoclassical investment theory. In the law, certain types of long-lived capital goods qualify for substantial tax subsides while others do not. The data show that investment in qualified properties was substantially higher than for unqualified property. The estimated elasticity of investment supply is high--between 10 and 20. Market prices do not react to the subsidy as the theory dictates. This suggests either that internal (unmeasured) adjustment costs play a significant role or that measurement problems in the price data effectively conceal the price changes. While the policy noticeably increased investment in types of capital that benefited substantially from bonus depreciation, the aggregate effects of the policy were modest. The analysis suggests that the policy may have increased output by roughly 0.1 percent to 0.2 percent and increased employment by roughly 100
Monetary policy when potential output is uncertain : understanding the growth gamble of the 1990s by Yuriy Gorodnichenko( Book )
9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 25 libraries worldwide
"The Fed kept interest rates low and essentially unchanged during the late 1990s despite a booming economy and record low unemployment. These interest rates were accommodative by historical standards. Nonetheless, inflation remained low. How did the Fed succeed in sustaining rapid economic growth without fueling inflation and inflationary expectations? In retrospect, it is evident that the productive capacity of the economy increased. Yet as events unfolded, there was uncertainty about the expansion of the capacity of the economy and therefore about the sustainability of the Fed's policy. This paper provides an explanation for the success of the Fed in accommodating growth with stable inflation in the late 1990s. It shows that if the central bank is committed to reverse policy errors it makes because of unwarranted optimism, inflation can remain in check even if the central bank keeps interest rates low because of this optimism. In particular, a price level target which is a simple way to model a commitment to offset errors can serve to anchor inflation even if the public does not share the central bank's optimism about shifts in potential output. The paper shows that price level targeting is superior to inflation targeting in a wide range of situations. The paper also provides econometric evidence that, in contrast to earlier periods, the Fed has recently put substantial weight on the price level in setting interest rates. Moreover, it shows that CPI announcement surprises lead to reversion in the price level. Finally, it provides textual evidence that Alan Greenspan puts relatively more weight on the price level than inflation" National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Labor supply : are the income and substitution effects both large or both small? by Miles S Kimball( Book )
9 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
Labor supply is unresponsive to permanent changes in wage rates. Thus, income and substitution effects cancel, but are they both close to zero or both large? This paper develops a theory of labor supply where income and substitution effects cancel, taking into account optimization over time, fixed costs of going to work, and interactions of labor supply decisions within the household. The paper then applies this theory to survey evidence on the response of labor supply to a large wealth shock. The evidence implies that the constant marginal utility of wealth (Frisch) elasticity of labor supply is about one
Did the 2008 tax rebates stimulate spending? by Matthew D Shapiro( Book )
8 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 14 libraries worldwide
Only one-fifth of respondents to a rider on the University of Michigan Survey Research Center's Monthly Survey said that the 2008 tax rebates would lead them to mostly increase spending. Almost half said the rebate would mostly lead them to pay off debt, while about a third saying it would lead them mostly to save more. The survey responses imply that the aggregate propensity to spend from the rebate was about one-third, and that there would not be substantially more spending as a lagged effect of the rebates. Because of the low spending propensity, the rebates in 2008 provided low "bang for the buck" as economic stimulus. Putting cash into the hands of the consumers who use it to save or pay off debt boosts their well-being, but it does not necessarily make them spend. Low-income individuals were particularly likely to use the rebate to pay off debt
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Shapiro, Matthew David
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