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Hoekman, Bernard M. 1959-

Works: 480 works in 1,861 publications in 4 languages and 23,842 library holdings
Genres: Handbooks and manuals  Conference papers and proceedings  Commercial treaties 
Roles: Author, Editor, Creator, Other, Honoree
Classifications: HF1359, 382
Publication Timeline
Publications about Bernard M Hoekman
Publications by Bernard M Hoekman
Most widely held works by Bernard M Hoekman
The political economy of the world trading system : from GATT to WTO by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
76 editions published between 1995 and 2013 in 4 languages and held by 1,748 libraries worldwide
"The Political Economy of the World Trading System is a textbook account of the economics, institutional mechanics, and politics of the world trading system. The second edition has been expanded and updated to cover the period since the creation of the World Trade Organization in 1995, presenting the essentials of multilateral trade negotiations and the prevailing WTO rules and disciplines."--Jacket
Development, trade, and the WTO : a handbook by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
27 editions published between 2002 and 2007 in 3 languages and held by 743 libraries worldwide
Publisher's description: Developing countries are increasingly confronted with the need to address trade policy related issues in international agreements, most prominently the World Trade Organization (WTO). New WTO negotiations on a broad range of subjects were launched in November 2001. Determining whether and how international trade agreements can support economic development is a major challenge. Stakeholders in developing countries must be informed on the issues and understand how their interests can be pursued through international cooperation. This handbook offers guidance on the design of trade policy reform, surveys key disciplines and the functioning of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and discusses numerous issues and options that confront developing countries in using international cooperation to improve domestic policy and obtain access to export markets. Many of the issues discussed are also relevant in the context of regional integration agreements. Separate sections of the handbook summarize what constitutes sound trade policy; the major aspects of the WTO from a development perspective; policy issues in the area of merchandise trade and the liberalization of international transactions in services; protection of intellectual property rights and economic development; new regulatory subjects that are emerging in the agenda of trade talks; and enhancing participation of developing countries in the global trading system
Global trade and poor nations : the poverty impacts and policy implications of liberalization ( Book )
15 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 519 libraries worldwide
"Assesses the impact of reformed trade policies on the poorest of the poor from a spectrum of poor nations across different regions. Provides guidelines regarding the likely impacts of a global trade reform, utilizing a methodology that combines information to capture effects at the macro level and in individual households"--Résumé de l'éditeur
Arab economic integration : between hope and reality by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
20 editions published between 2003 and 2010 in English and held by 518 libraries worldwide
This volume examines the economic and political incentives surrounding Arab regional integration. The contributors focus on three issues: the failure of past attempts at integration, the impact on countries involved in any future integration and the possible lessons from other regional experiences, particularly the European Union. A common theme is the importance of extending the reach of cooperation efforts beyond trade in goods
The World Trade Organization : law, economics, and politics by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
32 editions published between 2007 and 2016 in English and held by 433 libraries worldwide
Part of the 'Global Institutions' series, this book is of interest to students of commercial law, international trade, international political economy and international organizations
Global integration and technology transfer by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
31 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and held by 369 libraries worldwide
This text advances our understanding of the importance of technology diffusion through trade and foreign direct investment in a range of developing and transition economies
Economic development and multilateral trade cooperation by Simon J Evenett( Book )
20 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 316 libraries worldwide
"Most of the chapters ... were initially prepared for the 2003 World Trade Forum conference organized by the World Trade Institute (Berne, Switzerland) and the Development Research Group of the World Bank"--Page xiii
Turkey : economic reform and accession to the European Union by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
27 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and held by 303 libraries worldwide
"This volume analyzes the economic challenges confronting Turkey in its quest to accede to the European Union (EU). It focuses on the extent to which Turkey is ready to join the Single Market; comply with the EU's body of economic regulations and directives, the Acquis Communautaire; and meet the Maastricht criteria for fiscal, monetary, and exchange rate policies. This book also provides an assessment of Turkey's national program to meet the accession requirements. It describes briefly what Turkey needs to achieve on the economic policy front to satisfy the conditions for accession, the progress to date, and the likely consequences of implementing the full body of EU requirements." "Although the focus is on the specific situation of Turkey, the subject will be of value to all researchers with an interest in the challenges of deeper integration through regional agreements."--Jacket
Trade policy developments in the Middle East and North Africa ( Book )
12 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 253 libraries worldwide
Developing countries and the WTO : a pro-active agenda ( Book )
14 editions published between 2001 and 2003 in English and held by 249 libraries worldwide
This volume brings together a selection of papers that were prepared as background analyses for a collaborative research capacity-building project, focusing on the WTO negotiating agenda
Catching up with the competition : trade opportunities and challenges for Arab countries ( Book )
14 editions published between 2000 and 2010 in English and held by 224 libraries worldwide
"The contributions to this volume analyze recent trade developments and export performance of Arab nations and discuss policy options and priorities for countries to foster greater trade integration, both regionally and with the rest of the world." "Subject areas covered include detailed analyses of the pattern and composition of trade (exports and imports), trends in and determinants of agricultural and intra-industry trade, the economic implications of free trade with the EU (a major focus of policy initiative being taken by southern Mediterranean countries), microeconomic reform priorities required to promote growth of exports, and options to deepen and widen regional integration agreements and enhance participation in the WTO in order to defend access to export markets and support domestic reform efforts." "Catching Up with the Competition will be of interest to international economists who focus on the countries of the Middle East and North Africa, as well as scholars with an interest in development economics and international relations."--Jacket
Regional partners in global markets : limits and possibilities of the Euro-Med agreements ( Book )
9 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 222 libraries worldwide
Law and policy in public purchasing : the WTO agreement on government procurement ( Book )
7 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 218 libraries worldwide
Trade laws and institutions : good practices and the World Trade Organization by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
16 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 211 libraries worldwide
Harnessing trade for development and growth in the Middle East : report by the Council on Foreign Relations Study Group on Middle East Trade Options by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
10 editions published in 2002 in English and Undetermined and held by 210 libraries worldwide
Trade preferences and differential treatment of developing countries by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
16 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 208 libraries worldwide
The issue of SDT has become very topical again, following a period during which it was viewed as an outdated concept for the multilateral trading system. We therefore devote attention as well to a number of recent contributions that discuss (i) whether there is a continued need for SDT, and (ii) how this might be designed from both a development (recipient) objective and from the perspective of the trading system more generally. A major theme of the survey is that most of the issues that are debated today were already being discussed in the 1960s. We conclude that those who questioned the value of unilateral preferences have proven to be prescient
Liberalizing trade in services by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
20 editions published between 1994 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 203 libraries worldwide
Since the mid 1980s a substantial amount of research has been undertaken on trade in services. Much of this is inspired by the World Trade Organization or regional trade agreements, especially the European Union, but an increasing number of papers focus on the impacts of services sector liberalization. This paper surveys the literature, focusing on contributions that investigate the determinants of international trade and investment in services, the potential gains from greater trade (and liberalization), and efforts to cooperate to achieve such liberalization through trade agreements. It concludes that there is increasing evidence that services liberalization is an important source of potential welfare gains, but relatively little research has been done that can inform the design of international cooperation-both trade agreements and development assistance-so as to more effectively promote development objectives
Trade preference erosion : measurement and policy response by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
20 editions published between 2009 and 2012 in English and held by 130 libraries worldwide
The multilateral trade system rests on the principle of nondiscrimination. The most-favored-nation (MFN) clause embodied in article one of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was the defining principle for a system that emerged in the post, Second World War era, largely in reaction to the folly of protectionism and managed trade that contributed to the global economic depression of the 1930s. From its origins, however, the GATT has allowed for exemptions from the MFN rule in the case of reciprocal preferential trade agreements. It also permits granting unilateral (nonreciprocal) preferences to developing countries. To provide some background for the debate on the potential extent and implications of preference erosion, the chapters in this volume review the value of preferences for beneficiary countries, assess the implications of preference erosion under different global liberalization scenarios, and discuss potential policy responses. One set of chapters focuses on the nonreciprocal preference schemes of individual industrial countries, particularly, Australia, Canada, Japan, the United States, and the member states of the European Union (EU). A second set of chapters considers sectoral features of these preference schemes, such as those applying to agricultural and nonagricultural products, and the important arrangements for textiles and clothing. A final set of chapters considers the overall effects of preferences and the options for dealing with preference erosion resulting from nondiscriminatory trade liberalization
Developing Country Agriculture and the New Trade Agenda by Bernard M Hoekman( file )
24 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 94 libraries worldwide
May 1999 - In the new round of World Trade Organization talks expected in late 1999, negotiations about access to agricultural and services markets should be given top priority, but new trade agenda issues should also be discussed. Including new trade agenda issues would increase market discipline's role in the allocation of resources in agriculture and would encourage nonagricultural groups with interests in the new issues to take part in the round, counterbalancing forces favoring agricultural protection. A new round of World Trade Organization negotiations on agriculture, services, and perhaps other issues is expected in late 1999. To what extent should those negotiations include new trade agenda items aimed at ensuring that domestic regulatory policies do not discriminate against foreign suppliers? Hoekman and Anderson argue that negotiations about market access should be given priority, as the potential welfare gains from liberalizing access to agricultural (and services) markets are still huge, but new issues should be included too. Including new trade agenda issues would increase the role of market discipline in the allocation of resources in agriculture and would encourage nonagricultural groups with interests in the new issues to take part in the round, counterbalancing forces in favor of agricultural protection. They also argue, however, that rule-making efforts to accommodate the new issues should be de-linked from negotiations about access to agricultural markets, because the issues affect activity in all sectors. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to analyze options and priorities for developing countries in the run-up to a new round of WTO negotiations. Bernard Hoekman may be contacted at or
Tentative first steps an assessment of the Uruguay Round agreement on services by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
16 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 93 libraries worldwide
May 1995 A major result of the Uruguay Round was the creation of a General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The GATS greatly extends coverage of the multilateral trading system, establishing rules and disciplines on policies affecting access to service markets. In this paper, the author asks: what does the GATS do to bind policies? And has it established a mechanism likely to induce significant liberalization through future rounds of negotiations? The GATS consists of two elements: 1) a set of general concepts, principles, and rules that apply across the board to measures affecting trade in services; and 2) specific commitments on national treatment and market access. These apply only to service activities listed in a member's schedule - reflecting the agreement's positive-list approach to determining coverage - and only to the extent that sector-specific or cross-sectoral qualifications or conditions are not maintained. The impact of the GATS depends largely on the specific commitments made by members, and sectoral coverage is far from universal. High-income countries scheduled about half of their service sectors; developing countries as a group (including Eastern European countries in transition) scheduled only 11 percent. And the sectors scheduled often continue to be subject to measures that violate national treatment or limit market access. High-income countries scheduled only 28 percent of the universe of services without exceptions to national treatment or market access obligations. For developing countries, that figure is only 6.5 percent. Much remains to be done. The GAT's weaknesses include: 1) a lack of transparency. No information is generated on sectors, subsectors, and activities in which no commitments are scheduled - most often the sensitive areas where restrictions and discriminatory practices abound; 2) the sector-specificity of liberalization commitments. Negotiations were driven by the concerns of major players of each industry, leading to an emphasis on absolute sectoral reciprocity, limiting the scope for incremental liberalization, tradeoffs across issues, and an economywide perspective; and 3) the limited number of generic rules. Rather than lock in liberal situations that exist, the GATS allows for the future imposition of restrictions (creating negotiating chips). To foster nondiscriminatory liberalization, sectoral agreeements should be firmly imbedded in a framework of general rules and disciplines. Many of the framework's general principles apply only if specific commitments have been made. Therefore they are not general. Proposals for improving the GATS should probably build on the existing structure as mush as possible. Possibilities include the following: 1) ultimately, apply the same rules to goods and services. Eliminate the artificial distinction between the two; 2) adopt a negative-list approach to scheduling commitments for the sake of transparency; 3) eliminate overlap between national treatment and market access; 4) develop generic, horizontal disciplines for the different modes of supply through which service markets may be contested; 5) explore the possibility of converting quota-like market access restrictions to price-based equivalent measures, thus ensuring that the most-favored-nation and national treatment principles are satisfied; 6) make framework disciplines general by eliminating all instances in which rules are conditional on the scheduling of specific commitments; and 7) agree to a formula-based approach for liberalizing and expanding the GAT's sectoral coverage in future negotiations
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Alternative Names
Hoekman, B.
Hoekman, B. 1959-
Hoekman, B. M. 1959-
Hoekman, Bernard.
Hoekman, Bernard 1959-
Hoekman, Bernard M.
Hoekman, Bernard Marco 1959-
Hoekman, Bernhard 1959-
Hoekman, Bernhard M. 1959-
برنارد هوكمان، 1959-
English (415)
Chinese (3)
Polish (2)
French (1)
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