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Jaffe, Adam B.

Overview
Works: 99 works in 391 publications in 1 language and 7,314 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Editor, Honoree
Classifications: HC79.T4, 338.926
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Adam B Jaffe
Publications by Adam B Jaffe
Most widely held works by Adam B Jaffe
Innovation and its discontents how our broken patent system is endangering innovation and progress, and what to do about it by Adam B Jaffe( file )
23 editions published between 2004 and 2011 in English and held by 1,552 libraries worldwide
The United States patent system has become sand rather than lubricant in the wheels of American progress. Such is the premise behind this provocative and timely book by two of the nation's leading experts on patents and economic innovation. Innovation and Its Discontents tells the story of how recent changes in patenting--an institutional process that was created to nurture innovation--have wreaked havoc on innovators, businesses, and economic productivity. Jaffe and Lerner, who have spent the past two decades studying the patent system, show how legal changes initiated in the 1980s converted
Patents, citations, and innovations a window on the knowledge economy by Adam B Jaffe( file )
14 editions published between 1992 and 2005 in English and held by 1,323 libraries worldwide
The book lays out the conceptual foundations for such research and provides a range of interesting applications, such as examining the geographic pattern of knowledge spillovers and evaluating the impact of university and government patenting. It also describes statistical tools designed to handle methodological problems raised by the patent and citation processes. The book includes a CD with complete data on 3 million patents with more than 16 million citations and a range of author-devised measures of the importance, generality, and originality of patented innovations
Innovation policy and the economy by Adam B Jaffe( file )
6 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 903 libraries worldwide
This annual series, sponsored by the National Bureau of Economic Research, provides a forum for research on the interactions among public policy, the innovation process, and the economy. Discussions cover all types of policy that affect the ability of an economy to achieve scientific and technological progress or that affect the impact of science and technology on economic growth. The books are designed to be of interest to general readers interested in public policy as well as to economists
Innovation policy and the economy 4 by National Bureau of Economic Research( file )
4 editions published between 2002 and 2004 in English and held by 769 libraries worldwide
Innovation policy and the economy by Joshua Lerner( Computer File )
10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 701 libraries worldwide
Papers highlighting the role economic theory and empirical analysis can play in evaluating current and prospective innovation policy alternatives
Innovation policy and the economy by National Bureau of Economic Research( file )
12 editions published between 2001 and 2006 in English and held by 197 libraries worldwide
Innovation policy and the economy by Adam B Jaffe( Computer File )
8 editions published between 2001 and 2007 in English and held by 136 libraries worldwide
International knowledge flows : evidence from patent citations by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
11 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 96 libraries worldwide
This paper explores the patterns of citations among patents taken out by inventors in the U.S., the U.K., France, Germany and Japan. We find (1) patents assigned to the same firm are more likely to cite each other, and come sooner than other citations; (2) patents in the same patent class are approximately 100 times as likely to cite each other as patents from different patent classes there is not a strong time pattern to this effect; (3) patents whose inventors reside in the same country are typically 30 to 80% more likely to cite each other than inventors from other countries, and these citations come sooner; and (4) there are clear country-specific citation tendencies; e.g., Japanese citations typically come sooner than those of other countries
The induced innovation hypothesis and energy-saving technological change by Richard G Newell( Book )
11 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 91 libraries worldwide
It follows from Hicks' induced innovation hypothesis that rising energy prices in the last two decades should have induced energy-saving innovation. We formulate the hypothesis concretely using a product-characteristics model of energy-using consumer durables, augmenting Hicks' hypothesis to allow for the possibility that government efficiency standards also induce innovation. Through estimation of characteristics transformation surfaces, we find that technological change reduced the total capital and operating costs of air air conditioning by half and water heating by about one-fifth. Although the rate of overall innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation has been responsive to energy price changes. In particular, energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficiency products. In addition, energy price changes induced changes in the subset of technically feasible models that were offered for sale. Our estimates indicate that about one-quarter to one-half of the improvements in mean energy-efficiency of the menu of new models for these products over the last two decades were associated with rising energy prices since 1973. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of efficiency improvements in these technologies appears to have been autonomous
The NBER patent citations data file : lessons, insights and methodological tools by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
18 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 84 libraries worldwide
This paper describes the database on U.S. patents that we have developed over the past decade, with the goal of making it widely accessible for research. We present main trends in U.S. patenting over the last 30 years, including a variety of original measures constructed with citation data, such as backward and forward citation lags, indices of 'originality' and 'generality', self-citations, etc. Many of these measures exhibit interesting differences across the six main technological categories that we have developed (comprising Computers and Communications, Drugs and Medical, Electrical and Electronics, Chemical, Mechanical and Others), differences that call for further research. To stimulate such research, the entire database about 3 million patents and 16 million citations is now available on the NBER website. We discuss key issues that arise in the use of patent citations data, and suggest ways of addressing them. In particular, significant changes over time in the rate of patenting and in the number of citations made, as well as the inevitable truncation of the data, make it very hard to use the raw number of citations received by different patents directly in a meaningful way. To remedy this problem we suggest two alternative approaches: the fixed-effects approach involves scaling citations by the average citation count for a group of patents to which the patent of interest belongs; the quasi-structural approach attempts to distinguish the multiple effects on citation rates via econometric estimation
Market value and patent citations : a first look by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
13 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 81 libraries worldwide
As patent data become more available in machine-readable form, an increasing number of researchers have begun to use measures based on patents and their citations as indicators of technological output and information flow. This paper explores the economic meaning of these citation-based patent measures using the financial market valuation of the firms that own the patents. Using a new and comprehensive dataset containing over 4800 U.S. Manufacturing firms and their patenting activity for the past 30 years, we explore the contributions of R & D spending, patents, and citation-weighted patents to measures of Tobin's Q for the firms. We find that citation-weighted patent stocks are more highly correlated with market value than patent stocks themselves and that this fact is due mainly to the high valuation placed on firms that hold very highly cited patents
Environmental regulation and innovation : a panel data study by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
11 editions published between 1994 and 1996 in English and held by 81 libraries worldwide
In a 1991 essay in Scientific American, Michael Porter suggested that environmental regulation may have a positive effect on the performance of domestic firms relative to their foreign competitors, by stimulating domestic innovation. We examine the stylized facts regarding environmental expenditures and innovation in a panel of manufacturing industries. We find that lagged environmental compliance expenditures have significant positive effect on R & D expenditures when we control for unobserved industry-specific effects. We find little evidence, however, that industries' inventive output (as measured by patent applications) is related to compliance costs)
Universities as a source of commercial technology : a detailed analysis of university patenting 1965-1988 by Rebecca Henderson( Book )
8 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 80 libraries worldwide
This paper explores changes in university patenting behavior between 1965 and 1988. We show that university patents have increased 15-fold while real university research spending almost tripled. The causes of this increase are unclear, but may include increased focus on commercially relevant technologies, increased industry funding of university research, a 1980 change in federal law that facilitated patenting of results from federally funded research, and the widespread creation of formal technology licensing offices at universities. Up until approximately the mid-1980s, university patents were more highly cited, and were cited by more technologically diverse patents, than a random sample of all patents. This difference is consistent with the notion that university inventions are more important and more basic than the average invention. The differences between the two groups disappeared, however, in the middle part of the 1980s, partly due to a decline in the citation rates for all universities, and partly due to an increasing share of patents going to smaller institutions, whose patents are less highly cited throughout this period. Moreover at both large and small institutions there was a large increase in the fraction of university patents receiving zero citations. Our results suggest that the rate of increase of important patents from universities is much less than the overall rate of increase of university patenting in the period covered by our data
Evidence from patents and patent citations on the impact of NASA and other federal labs on commercial innovation by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
11 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 80 libraries worldwide
We explore the commercialization of government-generated technology by analyzing patents awarded to the U.S. government and the citations to those patents from subsequent patents. We use information on citations to federal patents in two ways: (1) to compare the average technological impact of NASA patents, other Federal' patents, and a random sample of all patents using measures of importance' and generality; ' and (2) to trace the geographic location of commercial development by focusing on the location of inventors who cite NASA and other federal patents. We find, first, that the evidence is consistent with increased effort to commercialize federal lab technology generally and NASA specifically. The data reveal a striking NASA golden age' during the second half of the 1970s which remains a puzzle. Second, spillovers are concentrated within a federal lab complex of states representing agglomerations of labs and companies. The technology complex links five NASA states through patent citations: California, Texas, Ohio, DC/Virginia-Maryland, and Alabama. Third, qualitative evidence provides some support for the use of patent citations as proxies for both technological impact and knowledge spillovers
Technological change and the environment by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
12 editions published between 2000 and 2003 in English and Undetermined and held by 76 libraries worldwide
Environmental policy discussions increasingly focus on issues related to technological change. This is partly because the environmental consequences of social activity are frequently affected by the rate and direction of technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions can themselves create constraints and incentives that have significant effects on the path of technological progress. This paper, prepared as a chapter draft for the forthcoming Handbook of Environmental Economics (North-Holland/Elsevier Science), summarizes for environmental economists current thinking on technological change in the broader economics literature, surveys the growing economic literature on the interaction between technology and the environment, and explores the normative implications of these analyses. We begin with a brief overview of the economics of technological change, and then examine three important areas where technology and the environment intersect: the theory and empirical evidence of induced innovation and the related literature on the effects of environmental policy on the creation of new, environmentally friendly technology; the theory and empirics of environmental issues related to technology diffusion; and analyses of the comparative technological impacts of alternative environmental policy instruments. We conclude with suggestions for further research on technological change and the environment
The U.S. patent system in transition : policy innovation and the innovation process by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
10 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
This paper surveys the major changes in patent policy and practice that have occurred in the last two decades in the U.S., and reviews the existing analyses by economists that attempt to measure the impacts these changes have had on the processes of technological change. It also reviews the broader theoretical and empirical literature that bears on the expected effects of changes in patent policy. Despite the significance of the policy changes and the wide availability of detailed data relating to patenting, robust conclusions regarding the empirical consequences for technological innovation of changes in patent policy are few. Possible reasons for these limited results are discussed, and possible avenues for future research are suggested
The meaning of patent citations : report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
10 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
A survey of recent patentees was conducted to elicit their perceptions regarding the importance of their inventions, the extent of their communication with other inventors, and the relationship of both importance and communication to observed patent citations. A cohort of 1993 patentees were asked specifically about 2 patents that they had cited, and a third placebo' patent that was similar but which they did not cite. One of the two cited inventors was also surveyed. We find that inventors report significant communication, at least some of which is in forms that suggests spillovers from the cited inventor to the citing inventor. The perception of such communication was substantively and statistically significantly greater for the cited patents than for the placebos. There is, however, a large amount of noise in citations data; it appears that something like one-half of all citations do not correspond to any perceived communication, or even necessarily to a perceptible technological relationship between the inventions. We also find a significant correlation between the number of citations a patent received and its importance (both economic and technological) as perceived by the inventor
Patent citations and international knowledge flow : the cases of Korea and Taiwan by Albert G. Z Hu( Book )
10 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 72 libraries worldwide
This paper examines patterns of knowledge diffusion from US and Japan to Korea and Taiwan using patent citations as an indicator of knowledge flow. We estimate a knowledge diffusion model using a data set of all patents granted in the U.S. to inventors residing in these four countries. Explicitly modeling the roles of technology proximity and knowledge decay and knowledge diffusion over time, we have found that knowledge diffusion from US and Japan to Korea and Taiwan exhibits quite different patterns. It is much more likely for Korean patents to cite Japanese patents than US patents, whereas Taiwanese inventors tend to learn evenly from both US and Japanese inventors. The frequency of a Korean patent citing a Japanese patent is almost twice that of the frequency of a Taiwanese patent citing a Japanese patent. We also find that a patent is much more likely to cite a patent from its own technological field than from another field
Bounding the effects of R & D : an investigation using matched establishment-firm data by James D Adams( Book )
5 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 70 libraries worldwide
Studies of firm-level data have shown that a firm's R & D and the R & D of other firms increase conventional factor productivity. We investigate these phenomena further by examining the relationship between plant-level productivity and firm-level R & D. We find that (1) the productivity-enhancing effects of parent firm R & D are diminished by geographic distance from the research lab and technological' distance between the product-field focus of the R & D and the plants; (2) productivity appears to depend on the intensity of parent firm R & D (R & D per plant), not on the total amount; and (3) spillovers of research effects from technologically related firms are significant but also depend on R & D intensity rather than total industry R & D. These results suggest that, despite the externalities created by spillovers of R & D, the dilution' of R & D across multiple target plants reduces its potency sufficiently that spillovers may not be a source of industry-wide or economy-wide increasing returns
 
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Alternative Names
Jaffe, Adam 1955-
Jaffe, Adam Benjamin 1955-
Languages
English (214)
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