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Pinto, Brian

Overview
Works: 57 works in 225 publications in 1 language and 2,528 library holdings
Roles: Editor, Honoree
Classifications: HV6344.R8, 338.947
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Brian Pinto
Publications by Brian Pinto
Most widely held works by Brian Pinto
Dismantling Russia's nonpayments system creating conditions for growth by Brian Pinto( file )
6 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 593 libraries worldwide
Debt or equity? how firms in developing countries choose by Jack D Glen( file )
16 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 554 libraries worldwide
Annotation
Managing economic volatility and crises : a practitioner's guide ( Book )
13 editions published between 2005 and 2010 in English and held by 318 libraries worldwide
"Over the past ten years, economic volatility has come into its own after being treated for decades as a secondary phenomenon in the business cycle literature. This book organizes empirical and policy results for economists and development policy practitioners into four parts: basic features, including the impact of volatility on growth and poverty; commodity price volatility; the financial sector's dual role as an absorber and amplifier of shocks; and the management and prevention of macroeconomic crises. The latter section includes a cross-country study, ease studies on Argentina and Russia, and lessons from the debt default episodes of the 1980s and 1990s."--BOOK JACKET
Coping with capitalism : the new Polish entrepreneurs by Bohdan Wyżnikiewicz( Book )
6 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 106 libraries worldwide
Public debt in developing countries has the market-based model worked? by Indermit Singh Gill( file )
9 editions published in 2005 in English and Undetermined and held by 88 libraries worldwide
"Over the past 25 years, significant levels of public debt and external finance are more likely to have enhanced macroeconomic vulnerability than economic growth in developing countries. This applies not just to countries with a history of high inflation and past default, but also to those in East Asia, with a long tradition of prudent macroeconomic policies and rapid growth. The authors examine why with the help of a conceptual framework drawn from the growth, capital flows, and crisis literature for developing countries with access to the international capital markets (market access countries or MACs). They find that, while the chances of another generalized debt crisis have receded since the turbulence of the late 1990s, sovereign debt is indeed constraining growth in MACs, especially those with debt sustainability problems
Sargent-Wallace meets Krugman-Flood-Garber, or, why sovereign debt swaps don't avert macroeconomic crises by Joshua Aizenman( Book )
9 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 73 libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper argues that the frequent failure of the debt swaps is not an accident. Instead, it follows from fundamental forces driven by the market's assessment of the scarcity of fiscal revenue relative to the demand for fiscal outlays. It follows from the observation that arbitrage forces systematically impact prices in asset markets. Ignoring these price adjustments would lead to too optimistic an assessment of the gains from swaps or buybacks. A by-product of our paper is to highlight the perils of financial engineering that ignores the intertemporal constraints imposed by fiscal fundamentals. As a country approaches the range of partial default (either on domestic or external debt), swaps may not provide the expected breathing room and could even bring the crisis forward. Our methodology combines three independent themes: exchange rate crises as the manifestation of excessive monetary injections [Krugman-Flood-Garber], the fiscal theory of inflation [Sargent-Wallace (1981)], and sovereign debt. The integrated framework derives devaluation and external debt repudiation as part of a public-finance optimizing problem. We shows that under conditions similar to those which prevailed in Russia and Argentina prior to their meltdown, swaps are not just neutral, but could actually make the situation worse and even trigger a speculative attack. An unsettlingly clear implication of the model is that there may be very few options left once public debt reaches levels regarded as unsustainable in relation to fiscal fundamentals. Dollarization only makes matters worse, and pushes the debt write-down option to the fore
Managing volatility and crises : a practitioner's guide overview by Joshua Aizenman( Book )
9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 71 libraries worldwide
"This overview introduces and summarizes the findings of a practical volume on managing volatility and crises. The interest in these topics stems from the growing recognition that non-linearities tend to magnify the impact of economic volatility leading to large output and economic growth costs, especially in poor countries. In these circumstances, good times do not offset the negative impact of bad times, leading to permanent negative effects. Such asymmetry is often reinforced by incomplete markets, sovereign risk, divisive politics, inefficient taxation, procyclical fiscal policy and weak financial market institutions factors that are more problematic in developing countries. The same fundamental phenomena that make it difficult to cope with volatility also drive crises. Hence, the volume also focuses on the prevention and management of crises. It is a user-friendly compilation of empirical and policy results aimed at development policy practitioners divided into three modules: (i) the basics of volatility and its impact on growth and poverty; (ii) managing volatility along thematic lines, including financial sector and commodity price volatility; and (iii) management and prevention of macroeconomic crises, including a cross-country study, lessons from the debt defaults of the 1980s and 1990s and case studies on Argentina and Russia"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Sources for financing domestic capital-- : is foreign saving a viable option for developing countries? by Joshua Aizenman( Book )
8 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 68 libraries worldwide
"This paper proposes a new method for measuring the degree to which the domestic capital stock is self-financed. The main idea is to use the national accounts to construct a self-financing ratio, indicating what would have been the autarky stock of tangible capital supported by actual past domestic saving, relative to the actual stock of capital. We use the constructed measure of self-financing to evaluate the impact of the growing global financial integration on the sources of financing domestic capital stocks in developing countries. On average, 90% of the stock of capital in developing countries is self financed, and this fraction was surprisingly stable throughout the 1990s. The greater integration of financial markets has not changed the dispersion of self-financing rates, and the correlation between changes in de-facto financial integration and changes in self-financing ratios is statistically insignificant. There is no evidence of any growth bonus' associated with increasing the financing share of foreign savings. In fact, the evidence suggests the opposite: throughout the 1990s, countries with higher self-financing ratios grew significantly faster than countries with low self-financing ratios. This result persists even after controlling growth for the quality of institutions. We also find that higher volatility of the self-financing ratios is associated with lower growth rates, and that better institutions are associated with lower volatility of the self-financing ratios. These findings are consistent with the notion that financial integration may have facilitated diversification of assets and liabilities, but failed to offer new net sources of financing capital in developing countries"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Ownership and corporate control in Poland : why state firms defied the odds by Brian Pinto( Book )
11 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 59 libraries worldwide
India rising faster growth, lower indebtedness by Gaobo Pang( file )
7 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 53 libraries worldwide
Over the past 25 years, India's economy grew at an average real rate of close to 6 percent, with growth rates in recent years accelerating to 9 percent. Yet by 2005-06, the general government debt-to-GDP ratio was 34 percentage points higher than in the 1980s. The authors examine the links between public finances and growth in the post-1991 period. They argue that the main factor in the deterioration of government debt dynamics after the mid-1990s was a reform-induced loss in trade, customs, and financial repression taxes. Over time, these very factors plus lower entry barriers have contributed to stronger microfoundations for growth by increasing competition and hardening budget constraints for firms and financial sector institutions. The authors suggest that the impressive growth acceleration of the past few years, which is now lowering government indebtedness, can be attributed to the lagged effects of these factors, which have taken time to attain a critical mass in view of India's gradual reforms. Similarly, the worsening of public finances during the late 1990s can be attributed to the cumulative effects of tax losses, the negative growth effects of cuts in capital expenditure that were made to offset the tax losses, and a pullback in private investment (hence, growth and taxes), a situation which is now turning around. Insufficient capital expenditures have contributed to the infrastructure gap, which is seen as a constraint especially for rapid growth in manufacturing. The authors discuss ongoing reforms in revenue mobilization and fiscal adjustment at the state level, which if successfully implemented, will result in a better alignment of public finances with growth by generating further fiscal space for infrastructure and other development spending
Financial sector ups and downs and the real sector big hindrance, little help by Joshua Aizenman( file )
12 editions published in 2011 in English and Undetermined and held by 53 libraries worldwide
We examine how financial expansion and contraction cycles affect the broader economy through their impact on 8 real economic sectors in a panel of 28 countries over 1960-2005, paying particular attention to large, or sharp, contractions and magnifying and mitigating factors. Overall, the construction sector is the most responsive to financial sector growth, with a number of others such as government, public utilities, and transportation also exhibiting significant sensitivity to lagged financial sector growth. Sharp fluctuations in the financial sector have asymmetric effects, with the majority of real sectors adversely affected by contractions but not helped by expansions. The adverse effects of financial contractions are transmitted almost exclusively by the financial openness channel with foreign reserves mitigating these effects with a sizeable (10 to 15 times greater) impact during sharp financial contractions. Both effects are magnified during particularly large financial contractions (with coefficients on interaction terms 2 to 3 times greater than when all contractions are considered). Consequent upon a financial contraction, the most severe real sector contractions occur in countries with high financial openness, relative predominance of construction, manufacturing, and wholesale and retail sectors, and low international reserves. Finally, we find that abrupt financial contractions are more likely to follow periods of accelerated growth, indicative of "up by the stairs, down by the elevator dynamics."
India : why fiscal adjustment now by Brian Pinto( file )
8 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 51 libraries worldwide
Give growth and macroeconomic stability in Russia a chance : harden budgets by eliminating nonpayments by Brian Pinto( file )
8 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 47 libraries worldwide
In Russia, implicit subsidies amounting to 10 percent of GDP per year in the form of nonpayments have stifled growth, contributed to the August 1998 macroeconomic crisis through their impact on public debt, and made at best a questionable contribution to equity. Hardening budgets requires that these nonpayments - or mutual arrears and noncash settlements among the government, the energy monopolies, and manufacturing firms - be eliminated with energy bills, taxes and budgetary spending settled on time and in cash
Economic growth with constraints on tax revenues and public debt implications for fiscal policy and cross-country differences by Joshua Aizenman( file )
11 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 46 libraries worldwide
"This paper evaluates optimal public investment and fiscal policy for countries characterized by limited tax and debt capacities. We study a non stochastic CRS endogenous growth model where public expenditure is an input in the production process, in countries where distortions and limited enforceability result in limited fiscal capacities, as captured by a maximal effective tax rate. We show how persistent differences in growth rates across countries could stem from differential public finance constraints, and differentiate between the case where the public expenditure finances the flow of recurring spending (such as law enforcement), versus the stock of tangible public infrastructure. Although the flow of public expenditure raises productivity, the government should not borrow to finance it as the resulting increase in public debt would lower welfare and the growth rate. With outstanding public debt, the optimal fiscal policy should keep the debt-to-GDP ratio constant in the economy with or without a binding constraint on tax revenues as a share of GDP - current non-durable public goods should be financed only from current revenue. With investment in the stock of public infrastructure, public sector borrowing to finance the accumulation of public capital goods may allow the economy to reach a long-run optimal growth path faster. With a binding tax capacity constraint, if the ratio of the initial public/private sector stock of capital is smaller than the sustainable balanced growth ratio, the optimal policy for the government is to purchase public capital, financed by debt, to immediately attain the sustainable ratio of public capital to private capital. The sustainable steady-state ratio is endogenous to the initial public-to-private capital ratio, the tax capacity and any exogenous debt limit (say, due to sovereign risk). With capital stock adjustment costs, these statements apply to a transition of finite duration rather than an instantaneous stock jump. With either a binding exogenous debt limit or solvency constrained borrowing, a more patient country will have a higher steady-state growth rate but a lower steady-state public-to-private capital ratio"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Give Growth and Macroeconomic Stability in Russia a Chance Harden Budgets by Eliminating Nonpayments by Brian Pinto( file )
2 editions published in 1999 in Undetermined and English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
Rnment pay its own energy bills on time and in cash, but also that the energy monopolies be empowered to disconnect nonpaying clients. This will enable the government to insist that the energy monopolies in turn pay their own taxes in full and on time. This paper - a product of the Economics Unit, World Bank Office, Moscow - was produced as part of the Economic and Sector Work Program, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit, Europe and Central Asia Region
India why fiscal adjustment now by Brian Pinto( file )
2 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in Undetermined and English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
India Rising Faster Growth, Lower Indebtedness by Marina Wes( file )
2 editions published in 2007 in Undetermined and English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
Over the past 25 years, India's economy grew at an average real rate of close to 6 percent, with growth rates in recent years accelerating to 9 percent. Yet by 2005-06, the general government debt-to-GDP ratio was 34 percentage points higher than in the 1980s. The authors examine the links between public finances and growth in the post-1991 period. They argue that the main factor in the deterioration of government debt dynamics after the mid-1990s was a reform-induced loss in trade, customs, and financial repression taxes. Over time, these very factors plus lower entry barriers have contributed to stronger microfoundations for growth by increasing competition and hardening budget constraints for firms and financial sector institutions. The authors suggest that the impressive growth acceleration of the past few years, which is now lowering government indebtedness, can be attributed to the lagged effects of these factors, which have taken time to attain a critical mass in view of India's gradual reforms. Similarly, the worsening of public finances during the late 1990s can be attributed to the cumulative effects of tax losses, the negative growth effects of cuts in capital expenditure that were made to offset the tax losses, and a pullback in private investment (hence, growth and taxes), a situation which is now turning around. Insufficient capital expenditures have contributed to the infrastructure gap, which is seen as a constraint especially for rapid growth in manufacturing. The authors discuss ongoing reforms in revenue mobilization and fiscal adjustment at the state level, which if successfully implemented, will result in a better alignment of public finances with growth by generating further fiscal space for infrastructure and other development spending
Transforming state enterprises in Poland : microeconomic evidence on adjustment by Brian Pinto( Book )
7 editions published in 1993 in English and Undetermined and held by 30 libraries worldwide
Kenya's quest for growth stabilization and reforms - but political stability? by Luca Bandiera( file )
2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 30 libraries worldwide
"Kenya has long had a reputation of being politically risky, manifested in corruption, uncertainty about policies, and the importance of political connections in doing business. Kenya began its economic liberalization in 1993. Reform picked up speed after a tightening of aid by donors on governance grounds and an attempt to re-establish credibility following the costly Goldenberg scandal uncovered in 1992. But tangible results in the shape of favorable government debt dynamics and a pick up in growth took a decade to materialize. The paper argues that the peaceful presidential election and transfer of power in December 2002 was central to the economic upswing after 2002. The subsequent decline in political risk was singled out by the private sector as an important development. The paper draws on an analysis of debt dynamics, the evolution of domestic interest rates, and the latest Investment Climate Assessment to present evidence on the criticality of low political risk in facilitating good economic outcomes after 2003. The December 2007 elections have highlighted other aspects of political risk - ethnic and social tensions with roots in inequality. The findings of this paper underline the importance of establishing a foundation for long-term political stability and social cohesion in view of the disruptions following the December 2007 elections. This process is likely to be at least as difficult and lengthy as fundamental economic policy and institutional reform. "--World Bank web site
Black markets for foreign exchange, real exchange rates, and inflation : overnight versus gradual reform in Sub-Saharan Africa by Brian Pinto( Book )
6 editions published in 1988 in English and Undetermined and held by 26 libraries worldwide
Inflation could rise permanently and substantially as a result of unifying official and black market exchange rates, even if real government spending remains constant
 
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