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Jaffe, Adam B.

Overview
Works: 125 works in 604 publications in 3 languages and 10,582 library holdings
Genres: History  Periodicals 
Roles: Author, Editor, Honoree
Classifications: KF3120, 346.730486
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Adam B Jaffe
Publications by Adam B Jaffe
Most widely held works by Adam B Jaffe
Innovation and its discontents : how our broken patent system is endangering innovation and progress, and what to do about it by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
31 editions published between 2004 and 2011 in 3 languages and held by 684 libraries worldwide
The increase in litigation is largely the result of two changes in the patent climate, Jaffe and Lerner contend. First, new laws have made it easier for businesses and inventors to secure patents on products of all kinds, and second, the laws have tilted the table to favor patent holders, no matter how tenuous their claims"--BOOK JACKET
Patents, citations, and innovations : a window on the knowledge economy by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
18 editions published between 1992 and 2005 in 3 languages and held by 429 libraries worldwide
Annotation
Innovation policy and the economy 2 by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
48 editions published between 2000 and 2008 in English and Undetermined and held by 144 libraries worldwide
This series aims to provide a forum for research on the interactions between public policy and the innovation process. Discussions cover all policies that affect the ability of an economy to achieve scientific and technological progress or the impact of science and technology on economic growth
International knowledge flows : evidence from patent citations by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
28 editions published between 1992 and 1998 in English and Undetermined and held by 132 libraries worldwide
We compare the geographic location of patent citations to those of the cited patents, as evidence of the extent to which knowledge spillovers are geographically localized. We find that citations to U.S. patents are more likely to come from the U.S., and more likely to come from the same state and SMSA as the cited patents than one would expect based only on the preexisting concentration of related research activity. These effects are particularly significant at the local (SMSA) level, and are particularly apparent in early citations
The changing frontier : rethinking science and innovation policy ( Book )
7 editions published between 2015 and 2016 in English and held by 99 libraries worldwide
In 1945, Vannevar Bush, founder of Raytheon and one-time engineering dean at MIT, delivered a report to the president of the United States that argued for the importance of public support for science, and the importance of science for the future of the nation. The report set America on a path toward strong and well-funded institutions of science, creating an intellectual architecture that still defines scientific endeavor today. In 'The Changing Frontier', Adam B. Jaffe and Benjamin F. Jones bring together a group of prominent scholars to consider the changes in science and innovation in the ensuing decades
The induced innovation hypothesis and energy-saving technological change by Richard G Newell( Book )
13 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
It follows from Hicks' induced innovation hypothesis that rising energy prices in the last two decades should have induced energy-saving innovation. We formulate the hypothesis concretely using a product-characteristics model of energy-using consumer durables, augmenting Hicks' hypothesis to allow for the possibility that government efficiency standards also induce innovation. Through estimation of characteristics transformation surfaces, we find that technological change reduced the total capital and operating costs of air air conditioning by half and water heating by about one-fifth. Although the rate of overall innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation has been responsive to energy price changes. In particular, energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficiency products. In addition, energy price changes induced changes in the subset of technically feasible models that were offered for sale. Our estimates indicate that about one-quarter to one-half of the improvements in mean energy-efficiency of the menu of new models for these products over the last two decades were associated with rising energy prices since 1973. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of efficiency improvements in these technologies appears to have been autonomous
Privatizing R & D : patent policy and the commercialization of national laboratory technologies by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
16 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 70 libraries worldwide
Despite their magnitude and potential economic impact, federal R&D expenditures outside of research universities have been little scrutinized by economists. This paper examines whether the series of initiatives since 1980 that have sought to encourage the patenting and technology transfer at the national laboratories have had a significant impact, and how the features of these facilities affected their success in commercialization. Employing both case studies of and databases about the U.S. Department of Energy's laboratories, we challenge much of the conventional wisdom. The policy changes of the 1980s had a substantial impact on the patenting activity by the national laboratories, which have gradually reached parity in patents per R&D dollar with research universities. Using citation data, we show that, unlike universities, the quality of the laboratory patents has remained constant or even increased as their numbers have grown. The cross-sectional patterns are generally consistent with theoretical suggestions regarding the impact and determinants of the decision to privatize government functions
Bounding the effects of R & D : an investigation using matched establishment-firm data by James D Adams( Book )
16 editions published in 1996 in English and Undetermined and held by 69 libraries worldwide
Studies of firm-level data have shown that a firm's R&D and the R&D of other firms increase conventional factor productivity. We investigate these phenomena further by examining the relationship between plant-level productivity and firm-level R&D. We find that (1) the productivity-enhancing effects of parent firm R&D are diminished by geographic distance from the research lab and technological' distance between the product-field focus of the R&D and the plants; (2) productivity appears to depend on the intensity of parent firm R&D (R&D per plant), not on the total amount; and (3) spillovers of research effects from technologically related firms are significant but also depend on R&D intensity rather than total industry R&D. These results suggest that, despite the externalities created by spillovers of R&D, the dilution' of R&D across multiple target plants reduces its potency sufficiently that spillovers may not be a source of industry-wide or economy-wide increasing returns
Market value and patent citations : a first look by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
22 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 69 libraries worldwide
Abstract: As patent data become more available in machine-readable form, an increasing number of researchers have begun to use measures based on patents and their citations as indicators of technological output and information flow. This paper explores the economic meaning of these citation-based patent measures using the financial market valuation of the firms that own the patents. Using a new and comprehensive dataset containing over 4800 U.S. Manufacturing firms and their patenting activity for the past 30 years, we explore the contributions of R & D spending, patents, and citation-weighted patents to measures of Tobin's Q for the firms. We find that citation-weighted patent stocks are more highly correlated with market value than patent stocks themselves and that this fact is due mainly to the high valuation placed on firms that hold very highly cited patents
Evidence from patents and patent citations on the impact of NASA and other federal labs on commercial innovation by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
14 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 68 libraries worldwide
We explore the commercialization of government-generated technology by analyzing patents awarded to the U.S. government and the citations to those patents from subsequent patents. We use information on citations to federal patents in two ways: (1) to compare the average technological impact of NASA patents, other Federal' patents, and a random sample of all patents using measures of importance' and generality; ' and (2) to trace the geographic location of commercial development by focusing on the location of inventors who cite NASA and other federal patents. We find, first, that the evidence is consistent with increased effort to commercialize federal lab technology generally and NASA specifically. The data reveal a striking NASA golden age' during the second half of the 1970s which remains a puzzle. Second, spillovers are concentrated within a federal lab complex of states representing agglomerations of labs and companies. The technology complex links five NASA states through patent citations: California, Texas, Ohio, DC/Virginia-Maryland, and Alabama. Third, qualitative evidence provides some support for the use of patent citations as proxies for both technological impact and knowledge spillovers
Technological change and the environment by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
21 editions published between 2000 and 2009 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
Within the field of environmental economics, the role of technological change has received much attention. The long-term nature of many environmental problems, such as climate change, makes understanding the evolution of technology an important part of projecting future impacts. Moreover, in many cases environmental problems cannot be addressed, or can only be addressed at great cost, using existing technologies. Providing incentives to develop new environmentally-friendly technologies then becomes a focus of environmental policy. This chapter reviews the literature on technological change and the environment. Our goals are to introduce technological change economists to how the lessons of the economics of technological change have been applied in the field of environmental economics, and suggest ways in which scholars of technological change could contribute to the field of environmental economics
The NBER patent citations data file : lessons, insights and methodological tools by Bronwyn H Hall( Book )
22 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
This paper describes the database on U.S. patents that we have developed over the past decade, with the goal of making it widely accessible for research. We present main trends in U.S. patenting over the last 30 years, including a variety of original measures constructed with citation data, such as backward and forward citation lags, indices of 'originality' and 'generality', self-citations, etc. Many of these measures exhibit interesting differences across the six main technological categories that we have developed (comprising Computers and Communications, Drugs and Medical, Electrical and Electronics, Chemical, Mechanical and Others), differences that call for further research. To stimulate such research, the entire database about 3 million patents and 16 million citations is now available on the NBER website. We discuss key issues that arise in the use of patent citations data, and suggest ways of addressing them. In particular, significant changes over time in the rate of patenting and in the number of citations made, as well as the inevitable truncation of the data, make it very hard to use the raw number of citations received by different patents directly in a meaningful way. To remedy this problem we suggest two alternative approaches: the fixed-effects approach involves scaling citations by the average citation count for a group of patents to which the patent of interest belongs; the quasi-structural approach attempts to distinguish the multiple effects on citation rates via econometric estimation
Environmental regulation and innovation : a panel data study by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
15 editions published between 1994 and 1996 in English and held by 64 libraries worldwide
In a 1991 essay in Scientific American, Michael Porter suggested that environmental regulation may have a positive effect on the performance of domestic firms relative to their foreign competitors, by stimulating domestic innovation. We examine the stylized facts regarding environmental expenditures and innovation in a panel of manufacturing industries. We find that lagged environmental compliance expenditures have significant positive effect on R&D expenditures when we control for unobserved industry-specific effects. We find little evidence, however, that industries' inventive output (as measured by patent applications) is related to compliance costs)
Universities as a source of commercial technology : a detailed analysis of university patenting 1965-1988 by Rebecca Henderson( Book )
14 editions published between 1995 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 64 libraries worldwide
This paper explores changes in university patenting behavior between 1965 and 1988. We show that university patents have increased 15-fold while real university research spending almost tripled. The causes of this increase are unclear, but may include increased focus on commercially relevant technologies, increased industry funding of university research, a 1980 change in federal law that facilitated patenting of results from federally funded research, and the widespread creation of formal technology licensing offices at universities. Up until approximately the mid-1980s, university patents were more highly cited, and were cited by more technologically diverse patents, than a random sample of all patents. This difference is consistent with the notion that university inventions are more important and more basic than the average invention. The differences between the two groups disappeared, however, in the middle part of the 1980s, partly due to a decline in the citation rates for all universities, and partly due to an increasing share of patents going to smaller institutions, whose patents are less highly cited throughout this period. Moreover at both large and small institutions there was a large increase in the fraction of university patents receiving zero citations. Our results suggest that the rate of increase of important patents from universities is much less than the overall rate of increase of university patenting in the period covered by our data
Flows of knowledge from universities and federal labs : modeling the flow of patent citations over time and across institutional and geographic boundaries by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
14 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide
The extent to which new technological knowledge flows across institutional and national boundaries is a question of great importance for public policy and the modeling of economic growth. This paper develops a model of the process generating subsequent citations to patents as a lens for viewing knowledge diffusion. We find that the probability of patent citation over time after a patent is granted fits well to a double-exponential function that can be interpreted as the mixture of diffusion and obsolescence functions. The results indicate that diffusion is geographically localized. Controlling for other factors, within-country citations are more numerous and come more quickly than those that cross country boundaries
The U.S. patent system in transition : policy innovation and the innovation process by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
14 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 59 libraries worldwide
This paper surveys the major changes in patent policy and practice that have occurred in the last two decades in the U.S., and reviews the existing analyses by economists that attempt to measure the impacts these changes have had on the processes of technological change. It also reviews the broader theoretical and empirical literature that bears on the expected effects of changes in patent policy. Despite the significance of the policy changes and the wide availability of detailed data relating to patenting, robust conclusions regarding the empirical consequences for technological innovation of changes in patent policy are few. Possible reasons for these limited results are discussed, and possible avenues for future research are suggested
The meaning of patent citations : report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
16 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 58 libraries worldwide
A survey of recent patentees was conducted to elicit their perceptions regarding the importance of their inventions, the extent of their communication with other inventors, and the relationship of both importance and communication to observed patent citations. A cohort of 1993 patentees were asked specifically about 2 patents that they had cited, and a third placebo' patent that was similar but which they did not cite. One of the two cited inventors was also surveyed. We find that inventors report significant communication, at least some of which is in forms that suggests spillovers from the cited inventor to the citing inventor. The perception of such communication was substantively and statistically significantly greater for the cited patents than for the placebos. There is, however, a large amount of noise in citations data; it appears that something like one-half of all citations do not correspond to any perceived communication, or even necessarily to a perceptible technological relationship between the inventions. We also find a significant correlation between the number of citations a patent received and its importance (both economic and technological) as perceived by the inventor
Innovation policy and the economy by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
12 editions published between 2003 and 2008 in English and Undetermined and held by 14 libraries worldwide
This annual series, sponsored by the National Bureau of Economic Research, provides a forum for research on the interactions among public policy, the innovation process, and the economy. Discussions cover all types of policy that affect the ability of an economy to achieve scientific and technological progress or that affect the impact of science and technology on economic growth. The books are designed to be of interest to general readers interested in public policy as well as to economists
Innovation policy and the economy by Joshua Lerner( Book )
13 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
Papers highlighting the role economic theory and empirical analysis can play in evaluating current and prospective innovation policy alternatives
 
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Alternative Names
Adam B. Jaffe American economist
Jaffe, Adam 1955-
Jaffe, Adam Benjamin 1955-
Languages
English (345)
Chinese (1)
German (1)
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