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Caulkins, Jonathan P. (Jonathan Paul) 1965-

Works: 105 works in 239 publications in 2 languages and 13,116 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Other
Classifications: HV5822.M3, 362.2950973
Publication Timeline
Publications about Jonathan P Caulkins
Publications by Jonathan P Caulkins
Most widely held works about Jonathan P Caulkins
Most widely held works by Jonathan P Caulkins
Marijuana legalization : what everyone needs to know by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
12 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 888 libraries worldwide
Should marijuana be legalized? The latest Gallup poll reports that exactly half of Americans say "yes"; opinion could not be more evenly divided. Marijuana is forbidden by international treaties and by national and local laws across the globe. But those laws are under challenge in several countries. In the U.S., there is no short-term prospect for changes in federal law, but sixteen states allow medical use and recent initiatives to legalize production and non-medical use garnered more than 40% support in four states. California's Proposition 19 nearly passed in 2010, and multiple states are expected to consider similar measures in the years to come. The debate and media coverage surrounding Proposition 19 reflected profound confusion, both about the current state of the world and about the likely effects of changes in the law. In addition, not all supporters of "legalization" agree on what it is they want to legalize: Just using marijuana? Growing it? Selling it? Advertising it? If sales are to be legal, what regulations and taxes should apply? Different forms of legalization might have very different results. This book is a primer about the topic, covering everything from the risks and benefits of using marijuana, to describing the current laws around the drug in the U.S. and abroad. The authors discuss the likely costs and benefits of legalization at the state and national levels and walk readers through the "middle ground" of policy options between prohibition and commercialized production. The authors also consider how marijuana legalization could personally impact parents, heavy users, medical users, drug traffickers, and employers
Drugs and drug policy : what everyone needs to know by Mark Kleiman( Book )
13 editions published between 2011 and 2013 in English and Spanish and held by 553 libraries worldwide
While there have always been norms and customs around the use of drugs, explicit public policies--regulations, taxes, and prohibitions--designed to control drug abuse are a more recent phenomenon. Those policies sometimes have terrible side-effects: most prominently the development of criminal enterprises dealing in forbidden (or untaxed) drugs and the use of the profits of drug-dealing to finance insurgency and terrorism. Neither a drug-free world nor a world of free drugs seems to be on offer, leaving citizens and officials to face the age-old problem: What are we going to do about drugs? In
Mandatory minimum drug sentences : throwing away the key or the taxpayers' money? ( Book )
5 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 433 libraries worldwide
Laws requiring minimum sentences for certain crimes have become increasingly popular, and the most frequently applied of these mandatory minimums are those pertaining to drug offenders. Proponents and opponents of mandatory minimums generally argue over issues of punishment, deterrence, justice, and fairness. The authors of the current study examine mandatory minimum drug sentences from the viewpoint of cost-effectiveness at achieving such national drug control objectives as reducing cocaine consumption and cocaine-related crime. They conduct their analysis with the help of mathematical models estimating the response of cocaine supply and demand to changes in levels of enforcement and treatment. The authors find that a million dollars spent extending sentences to mandatory minimum lengths would reduce cocaine consumption less than would a million dollars spent on the pre-mandatory-minimum mix of arrests, prosecution, and sentencing. Neither would reduce cocaine consumption or cocaine-related crime as much as spending a million dollars treating heavy users. These conclusions are robust to changes in various assumptions underlying the analysis
A noble bet in early care and education : lessons from one community's experience by Brian P Gill( Book )
10 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 320 libraries worldwide
The Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) of Allegheny County (including the city of Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, was an ambitious effort to provide high-quality early care and education (ECE) services to at-risk children. Launched in 1996 under the auspices of the United Way (UW) of Allegheny County, ECI aimed within five years to serve 7,600 at-risk children ages zero (birth) to five in 80 low-income neighborhoods, at an average cost of $4,000 to $5,000 per child and a total cost of $59 million over the five-year period. By intervening early in the lives of at-risk children with high-quality services, ECI hoped to improve their preparation for kindergarten, promote their long-term educational attainment, and give them the early tools to help them become productive, successful members of society. RAND was commissioned by the Heinz Endowments to evaluate the vision, organization, administration, and operation of the Early Childhood Initiative (ECI), a major effort to improve early care and education (ECE) for low-income children from birth through age five in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and the surrounding communities of Allegheny County. ECI was conceived and designed from 1994 to 1996, and operated under the auspices of the United Way (UW) of Allegheny County from 1996 through 2000. Its quality of service and child welfare outcomes are being examined separately by a research team from the University of Pittsburgh and Children's Hospital in Pittsburgh
School-based drug prevention : what kind of drug use does it prevent? by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
13 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 300 libraries worldwide
"School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with illicit drugs but also by reducing the health costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for multiple benefits raises the interesting question, Which is most important? Is school-based drug prevention beneficial mainly as a weapon in the war against illegal drugs, or is it more valuable as a promoter of public health through reduction of licit-substance abuse? The authors analyze the costs and effectiveness of several scientifically evaluated drug prevention programs, along with the social costs of the use of various substances. They verify previous findings that the social benefits of drug prevention can exceed its costs, and they conclude that approximately two-thirds of the programs' value to the public stems from reduction in the use of alcohol and tobacco. Implications for program funding are drawn, and the limitations of prevention are discussed."--Jacket
An ounce of prevention, a pound of uncertainty : the cost-effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs ( Book )
7 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 298 libraries worldwide
Focuses on school-based drug prevention programs that have proven effective in formal evaluations. Effectiveness at reducing cocaine consumption is inferred from effectiveness at reducing marijuana initiation, and spillover effects on those not participating in the program are accounted for. Given substantial uncertainties in all pertinent factors, the cost-effectiveness estimation framework is constructed to permit easy substitution of alternate values at reader preference or as more information becomes available. The authors conclude that prevention can reduce lifetime cocaine consumption by 2 to 11 percent. Although these effects are small, prevention programs are inexpensive, so that the associated cost-effectiveness values bracket those of a range of enforcement strategies. Treatment, however, appears more cost-effective than prevention. A nationwide drug prevention program would cost only a tiny fraction of what the United States now spends on drug control, but its effect on the cocaine-using population would be modest and slow to accumulate
Intelligent giving : insights and strategies for higher education donors ( Book )
10 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 227 libraries worldwide
Although most major gifts are profoundly motivated by charitable intentions, the noble impulse to give to higher education can quickly generate complicated choices. Which school? Which program? Under what terms or conditions? Even very talented people who have enjoyed exceptionally successful careers in business and other fields can become disoriented by academe's idiosyncrasies. This book provides an intellectual framework for guiding prospective major donors in giving more effectively to higher education. It supplies some insight into the higher education sector, donor opportunities, the development process, and how to think about and get the most from a "negotiation" with the institution of the donor's choice. The insights and strategies are culled by a RAND research team mainly from interviews with development officers, institutional leaders, and donors themselves. Ultimately the giving process that works best for any donor will depend on his or her individual interests and needs. The best advice is to be clear on what effect the donor wants his or her gift to have, to seek as much information on the school/situation as possible, and to consult with an attorney and a good financial advisor at all stages of the giving process
Preventing drug use among youth through community outreach : the military's pilot programs ( Book )
8 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 174 libraries worldwide
Congress directed the military to establish pilot community outreach programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs among youth. This report examined the potential suitability of the military for such roles, the pilot programs that were implemented, their effectiveness, how the programs affected the military, and some desirable attributes of military-run prevention programs for youth. The information for the study was gathered largely through site visits and telephone interviews with program administrators, staff, participating youth, parents, and community leaders. A literature review, background research, and supporting calculations supplemented these efforts. The study concluded that a useful generalization is that programs that give youth a chance to interact directly with military personnel tap military comparative advantage. Analysis of the pilot programs suggested that six program attributes should be considered in establishing or expanding such programs: rely on volunteers, keep individual programs to a modest size, design programs locally, provide central leadership, target programs for youth at high risk for drug abuse (but not the most troubled youth), and do not rule out short programs
How goes the "war on drugs"? : an assessment of U.S. drug problems and policy ( Book )
3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 168 libraries worldwide
Presents a concise, accessible, objective view of where the United States has been, now stands, and is going in the future in its long "war on drugs." The authors assess the success of drug policies to date and review possible reasons why they have not been more successful. They recommend management of the drug problem for the long term, use of different policy levers depending on the situation, and tolerance of cross-state policy variation
Developing price series for cocaine by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
5 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 167 libraries worldwide
This report describes how to construct time series for the price of cocaine using data from the Drug Enforcement Administration's System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence, a database that includes records of prices paid by undercover agents for individual purchases. Central to this process is the task of standardizing data for transaction size and purity. Prior efforts in this area are reviewed and their treatment of purity found wanting. This report suggests that because quality control is difficult for illicit products, price is governed more by the expected purity than by the actual purity of the product. Using this concept, price series are constructed for the gram, ounce, and kilogram level in a variety of locations. Analysis of these series reveals that significant price differences exist between cities, even at the wholesale level; these differences do not necessarily dissipate over time; and the ratio of prices at different market levels has remained remarkably constant over time. This last result is consistent with the hypothesis that price increases at one level are passed through to lower levels on a percentage basis (i.e., according to a multiplicative model) rather than a dollar-for-dollar basis (i.e., according to an additive model)
Response to the National Research Council's assessment of RAND's controlling cocaine study by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
5 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 165 libraries worldwide
In 1999, a scientific committee assembled under the auspices of the National Research Council issued a critique of RAND's 1994 "Controlling Cocaine" report. The committee concluded, "The findings of the RAND study do not constitute a persuasive basis for the formation of cocaine control policy." In the current document, RAND's Drug Policy Research Center rebuts the committee's claim. The Center shows that most of the committee's criticisms rest on an incomplete understanding of the model used in the RAND report or, when taken into account, do not result in important changes in the findings based on the model. The two remaining criticisms are that the data on cocaine treatment effectiveness are not adequate to support modeling and that the mode of price transmission down the cocaine production "pipeline" may be different from that assumed. The Center acknowledges these points as potentially valid but holds that models need not have negligible probability of error to be useful as decision aids
Sulfur dioxide compliance of a regulated utility by Don Fullerton( Book )
10 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 68 libraries worldwide
Electric utilities can reduce sulfur dioxide emissions through a variety of strategies such as adding scrubbers, switching to low- sulfur coal, or shifting output between generating plants with different emissions. The cost of achieving a given emission target can be minimized using a market for emission allowances, as under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, if firms with high abatement costs buy allowances while those with low abatement costs reduce emissions and sell allowances. However, public utility commissions regulate which costs can be passed to customers. Previous theoretical work has analyzed effects of regulations on a utility's choice between permits and a single continuous àbatement technology.' Here, we consider three abatement technologies and the discrete choices among them. Our numerical model uses market and engineering information on permit prices, scrubber cost and sulfur removal efficiency, alternative fuel costs and sulfur content, plus generating plant costs and efficiency. Using illustrative sets of parameters, we find that regulatory rules could more than double the cost of sulfur dioxide compliance
Drug use and drug policy futures : insights from a colloquium ( Book )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
Options and issues regarding marijuana legalization by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 28 libraries worldwide
Marijuana legalization is a controversial and multifaceted issue that is now the subject of serious debate. Since 2012, four U.S. states have passed ballot initiatives to remove prohibition and legalize a for-profit commercial marijuana industry. In December 2013, Uruguay became the first country to experiment with legalization nationwide; the Netherlands tolerates only retail sales and does not allow commercial production. Voters in Washington, D.C., recently took the more limited step of passing an initiative to legalize home production and personal possession. All of these moves were unprecedented. The effects are likely to be complex and will be difficult to fully assess for some time. The goal of this paper is to review recent changes in marijuana policies and the decisions that confront jurisdictions that are considering alternatives to traditional marijuana prohibition. The principal message is that marijuana policy should not be viewed as a binary choice between prohibition and the for-profit commercial model seen in Colorado and Washington State; several intermediate supply options should be discussed. In addition, this piece addresses other key decisions that need to be made about taxation and regulations. It also walks through some of the potential consequences of legalizing marijuana, highlighting the massive uncertainty surrounding many of these outcomes
The price and purity of illicit drugs : 1981 through the second quarter of 2003 by United States( Book )
3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
Reducing drug trafficking revenues and violence in Mexico : would legalizing marijuana in California help? by Beau Kilmer( Book )
7 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
U.S. demand for illicit drugs creates markets for Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) and helps foster violence in Mexico. This paper examines how marijuana legalization in California might influence DTO revenues and the violence in Mexico. Key findings include: 1) Mexican DTOs' gross revenues from illegally exporting marijuana to wholesalers in the United States is likely less than $2 billion; 2) The claim that 60 percent of Mexican DTO gross drug export revenues come from marijuana should not be taken seriously; 3) If legalization only affects revenues from supplying marijuana to California, DTO drug export revenue losses would be very small, perhaps 2-4 percent; 4) The only way legalizing marijuana in California would significantly influence DTO revenues and the related violence is if California-produced marijuana is smuggled to other states at prices that outcompete current Mexican supplies. The extent of such smuggling will depend on a number of factors, including the response of the U.S. federal government. 5) If marijuana is smuggled from California to other states, it could undercut sales of Mexican marijuana in much of the U.S., cutting DTOs' marijuana export revenues by more than 65 percent and probably by 85 percent or more. In this scenario, the DTOs would lose approximately 20% of their total drug export revenues
Optimal control of nonlinear processes : with applications in drugs, corruption, and terror by Dieter Grass( file )
3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Dynamic optimization is rocket science - and more. This volume teaches how to harness the modern theory of dynamic optimization to solve practical problems, not only from space flight but also in emerging social applications such as the control of drugs, corruption, and terror. These innovative domains are usefully thought about in terms of populations, incentives, and interventions, concepts which map well into the framework of optimal dynamic control. This volume is designed to be a lively introduction to the mathematics and a bridge to these hot topics in the economics of crime for current scholars. We celebrate Pontryagin's Maximum Principle - that crowning intellectual achievement of human understanding - and push its frontiers by exploring models that display multiple equilibria whose basins of attraction are separated by higher-dimensional DNSS "tipping points". That rich theory is complemented by numerical methods available through a companion web site. Ensdorsements: "An excellent synthesis of the richness of systems theory highlighted with strongly motivating applications and an outstanding text for a graduate-level course. The book provides a thorough background in the variety of mathematical foundations needed, recognizing that different readers will come with a diversity of backgrounds. Its applications to drug control, corruption, and terrorism represent creative modeling that provides important insights into subtleties that go beyond the normal linear thinking about these complex phenomena." Alfred Blumstein, winner of the 2007 Stockholm Prize in Criminology University Professor of Urban Systems and Operations Research H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh "This carefully written book is a masterpiece that combines a rigorous exposition of non-linear dynamics with sophisticated and intriguing optimal control models of drugs, corruption, and terror. The chapter on numerical methods is a valuable added bonus. The book deserves a prominent place in the bookshelf of all serious researchers wishing to use the tools of dynamic optimization." Ngo Van LongJames McGill Chair, and professor of economics Department of Economics McGill University Montreal "First of its kind devoted to the very timely topics of drugs, corruption and terror. A highly readable comprehensive treatment of controlled dynamical nonlinear systems involving such concepts as limit cycles, multiple equilibria, and DNSS points. Laced with beautiful graphics and supported by numerical computations. A delight from the beginning to the end." Suresh P. SethiCharles & Nancy Davidson Distinguished Professor of Operations Management & Director of the Center for Intelligent Supply Networks The University of Texas at Dallas
Altered state? : assessing how marijuana legalization in California could influence marijuana consumption and public budgets by Beau Kilmer( Book )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
"To learn more about the possible outcomes of marijuana legalization in California, RAND researchers constructed a model based on a series of estimates of current consumption, current and future prices, how responsive use is to price changes, taxes levied and possibly evaded, and the aggregation of nonprice effects (such as a change in stigma). Key findings include the following: (1) the pretax retail price of marijuana will substantially decline, likely by more than 80 percent. The price the consumers face will depend heavily on taxes, the structure of the regulatory regime, and how taxes and regulations are enforced; (2) consumption will increase, but it is unclear how much, because we know neither the shape of the demand curve nor the level of tax evasion (which reduces revenues and prices that consumers face); (3) tax revenues could be dramatically lower or higher than the $1.4 billion estimate provided by the California Board of Equalization (BOE); for example, uncertainty about the federal response to California legalization can swing estimates in either direction; (4) previous studies find that the annual costs of enforcing marijuana laws in California range from around $200 million to nearly $1.9 billion; our estimates show that the costs are probably less than $300 million; and (5) there is considerable uncertainty about the impact of legalizing marijuana in California on public budgets and consumption, with even minor changes in assumptions leading to major differences in outcomes."--Website
Before the grand opening : measuring Washington state's marijuana market in the last year before legalized commercial sales by Beau Kilmer( Book )
3 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
In 2012, Washington state voters passed Initiative 502 (I-502), which removed the prohibition on the production, distribution, and possession of marijuana for nonmedical purposes and required the state to regulate and tax a new marijuana industry. Legalization of possession went into effect almost immediately, but the revolutionary aspect of the law⁰́₄allowing businesses to openly produce and distribute commercial-scale quantities for nonmedical use⁰́₄is expected to be fully implemented in 2014. Decisionmakers in Washington need baseline information about the amount of marijuana that is currently consumed in the state for many reasons. For example, it is important for making informed decisions about the number of licenses to distribute, to accurately project tax revenues, and to provide a foundation for evaluations of I-502. This report estimates the total weight of marijuana consumed in Washington in 2013 using data from existing household surveys as well as information from a new web-based consumption survey. Although the principal motivation for the study was estimating the size of the market, the report also describes various characteristics of the market, including traits of marijuana users in Washington and how they obtain marijuana. While the Washington Office of Financial Management projected that 85 metric tons (MT) of marijuana would be consumed in the state in 2013, this report suggests that estimate is probably too low, perhaps by a factor of two. There is inevitable uncertainty surrounding estimates of illegal and quasi-illegal activities, so it is better to think in terms of a range of possible sizes, rather than a point estimate. Analyses suggest a range of 135⁰́₃225 MT, which might loosely be thought of as a 90-percent confidence interval, with a median estimate close to 175 MT
What America's users spend on illegal drugs, 2000-2010 by Beau Kilmer( file )
2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Drug users in the United States spend on the order of $100 billion annually on these drugs (in 2010 dollars). While this total figure has been stable over the decade, there have been important compositional shifts. From 2006 to 2010, the amount of marijuana consumed in the United States likely increased more than 30 percent, while the amount of cocaine consumed in the United States decreased by approximately 50 percent. These figures are consistent with supply-side indicators, such as seizures and production estimates. Methamphetamine consumption rose sharply from 2000 through the middle of the decade, and this was followed by a large decline through 2008. Heroin consumption remained fairly stable throughout the decade, although there is some evidence of an increase in the later years. For all of the drugs, total consumption and expenditures are driven by the minority of users who consume on 21 or more days each month
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Alternative Names
Caulkins, J. P. 1965-
Caulkins, Jonathan 1965-
Caulkins, Jonathan P.
Caulkins, Jonathan Paul.
Caulkins, Jonathan Paul 1965-
English (127)
Spanish (1)
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