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Caulkins, Jonathan P. (Jonathan Paul) 1965-

Works: 72 works in 166 publications in 1 language and 11,445 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Other
Classifications: HV5824.Y68, 362.29170973
Publication Timeline
Publications about Jonathan P Caulkins
Publications by Jonathan P Caulkins
Most widely held works about Jonathan P Caulkins
Most widely held works by Jonathan P Caulkins
An ounce of prevention, a pound of uncertainty the cost-effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs ( file )
5 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 2,041 libraries worldwide
Focuses on school-based drug prevention programs that have proven effective in formal evaluations. Effectiveness at reducing cocaine consumption is inferred from effectiveness at reducing marijuana initiation, and spillover effects on those not participating in the program are accounted for. Given substantial uncertainties in all pertinent factors, the cost-effectiveness estimation framework is constructed to permit easy substitution of alternate values at reader preference or as more information becomes available. The authors conclude that prevention can reduce lifetime cocaine consumption by 2 to 11 percent. Although these effects are small, prevention programs are inexpensive, so that the associated cost-effectiveness values bracket those of a range of enforcement strategies. Treatment, however, appears more cost-effective than prevention. A nationwide drug prevention program would cost only a tiny fraction of what the United States now spends on drug control, but its effect on the cocaine-using population would be modest and slow to accumulate
School-based drug prevention what kind of drug use does it prevent? by Jonathan P Caulkins( file )
10 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 1,684 libraries worldwide
School-based drug prevention, popular with the public and politicians alike, is now a nearly universal experience for American youth. Analysis has shown that the best programs can reduce use of a wide range of substances. But questions remain regarding how to think about and, hence, fund, these programs. Should they be viewed principally as weapons in the war against illicit drugs, or, at the other extreme, do prevention programs benefit students and society most by reducing use of alcohol and tobacco? The authors address these questions by comparing for the first time the social benefits of
Intelligent giving insights and strategies for higher education donors by Jonathan P Caulkins( file )
8 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 1,641 libraries worldwide
Although most major gifts are profoundly motivated by charitable intentions, the noble impulse to give to higher education can quickly generate complicated choices. Which school? Which program? Under what terms or conditions? Even very talented people who have enjoyed exceptionally successful careers in business and other fields can become disoriented by academe's idiosyncrasies. This book provides an intellectual framework for guiding prospective major donors in giving more effectively to higher education. It supplies some insight into the higher education sector, donor opportunities, the development process, and how to think about and get the most from a "negotiation" with the institution of the donor's choice. The insights and strategies are culled by a RAND research team mainly from interviews with development officers, institutional leaders, and donors themselves. Ultimately the giving process that works best for any donor will depend on his or her individual interests and needs. The best advice is to be clear on what effect the donor wants his or her gift to have, to seek as much information on the school/situation as possible, and to consult with an attorney and a good financial advisor at all stages of the giving process
A "noble bet" in early care and education lessons from one community's experience by Brian P Gill( file )
8 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 1,627 libraries worldwide
The Early Childhood Initiative (ECI), launched in Pittsburgh in 1996 to provide high-quality early care and education services to at-risk children, failed to achieve its goals. This report summarizes ECI's organizational history and analyses and explains its critical weaknesses
Reducing drug trafficking revenues and violence in Mexico would legalizing marijuana in California help? by Beau Kilmer( file )
3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,179 libraries worldwide
U.S. demand for illicit drugs creates markets for Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs). This paper examines how marijuana legalization in California might influence DTO revenues and the violence in Mexico, focusing on gross revenues from export and distribution to wholesale markets near the southwestern U.S. border. The analysis described here is rooted in an earlier RAND Corporation study on marijuana legalization (Kilmer, Caulkins, Pacula, et al., 2010) and presents a method of estimating the revenues that international drug traffickers derive from U.S. sales that is transparent and, hence, auditable and replicable. We believe that this method can be iteratively improved by research over time, whereas existing methods that rely heavily on classified information have not been subject to review and have not shown much ongoing improvement. Five technical appendixes include additional information about the weight of a marijuana joint, THC content of sinsemilla and commercial-grade marijuana, marijuana prices, Mexican DTO revenues from drugs other than marijuana, and the availability of Mexican marijuana in the U.S
Marijuana legalization : what everyone needs to know by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
10 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 932 libraries worldwide
Should marijuana be legalized? The latest Gallup poll reports that exactly half of Americans say "yes"; opinion could not be more evenly divided. Marijuana is forbidden by international treaties and by national and local laws across the globe. But those laws are under challenge in several countries. In the U.S., there is no short-term prospect for changes in federal law, but sixteen states allow medical use and recent initiatives to legalize production and non-medical use garnered more than 40% support in four states. California's Proposition 19 nearly passed in 2010, and multiple states are expected to consider similar measures in the years to come. The debate and media coverage surrounding Proposition 19 reflected profound confusion, both about the current state of the world and about the likely effects of changes in the law. In addition, not all supporters of "legalization" agree on what it is they want to legalize: Just using marijuana? Growing it? Selling it? Advertising it? If sales are to be legal, what regulations and taxes should apply? Different forms of legalization might have very different results. This book is a primer about the topic, covering everything from the risks and benefits of using marijuana, to describing the current laws around the drug in the U.S. and abroad. The authors discuss the likely costs and benefits of legalization at the state and national levels and walk readers through the "middle ground" of policy options between prohibition and commercialized production. The authors also consider how marijuana legalization could personally impact parents, heavy users, medical users, drug traffickers, and employers
Drugs and drug policy : what everyone needs to know by Mark Kleiman( Book )
9 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 588 libraries worldwide
While there have always been norms and customs around the use of drugs, explicit public policies--regulations, taxes, and prohibitions--designed to control drug abuse are a more recent phenomenon. Those policies sometimes have terrible side-effects: most prominently the development of criminal enterprises dealing in forbidden (or untaxed) drugs and the use of the profits of drug-dealing to finance insurgency and terrorism. Neither a drug-free world nor a world of free drugs seems to be on offer, leaving citizens and officials to face the age-old problem: What are we going to do about drugs? In
Mandatory minimum drug sentences : throwing away the key or the taxpayers' money? ( Book )
5 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 444 libraries worldwide
Laws requiring minimum sentences for certain crimes have become increasingly popular, and the most frequently applied of these mandatory minimums are those pertaining to drug offenders. Proponents and opponents of mandatory minimums generally argue over issues of punishment, deterrence, justice, and fairness. The authors of the current study examine mandatory minimum drug sentences from the viewpoint of cost-effectiveness at achieving such national drug control objectives as reducing cocaine consumption and cocaine-related crime. They conduct their analysis with the help of mathematical models estimating the response of cocaine supply and demand to changes in levels of enforcement and treatment. The authors find that a million dollars spent extending sentences to mandatory minimum lengths would reduce cocaine consumption less than would a million dollars spent on the pre-mandatory-minimum mix of arrests, prosecution, and sentencing. Neither would reduce cocaine consumption or cocaine-related crime as much as spending a million dollars treating heavy users. These conclusions are robust to changes in various assumptions underlying the analysis
The price and purity of illicit drugs 1981 through the second quarter of 2003 by United States( Computer File )
3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 240 libraries worldwide
Preventing drug use among youth through community outreach : the military's pilot programs ( Book )
6 editions published between 1994 and 1995 in English and held by 183 libraries worldwide
Congress directed the military to establish pilot community outreach programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs among youth. This report examined the potential suitability of the military for such roles, the pilot programs that were implemented, their effectiveness, how the programs affected the military, and some desirable attributes of military-run prevention programs for youth. The information for the study was gathered largely through site visits and telephone interviews with program administrators, staff, participating youth, parents, and community leaders. A literature review, background research, and supporting calculations supplemented these efforts. The study concluded that a useful generalization is that programs that give youth a chance to interact directly with military personnel tap military comparative advantage. Analysis of the pilot programs suggested that six program attributes should be considered in establishing or expanding such programs: rely on volunteers, keep individual programs to a modest size, design programs locally, provide central leadership, target programs for youth at high risk for drug abuse (but not the most troubled youth), and do not rule out short programs
How goes the "war on drugs"? : an assessment of U.S. drug problems and policy ( Book )
3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 181 libraries worldwide
Presents a concise, accessible, objective view of where the United States has been, now stands, and is going in the future in its long "war on drugs." The authors assess the success of drug policies to date and review possible reasons why they have not been more successful. They recommend management of the drug problem for the long term, use of different policy levers depending on the situation, and tolerance of cross-state policy variation
Developing price series for cocaine by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
5 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 172 libraries worldwide
This report describes how to construct time series for the price of cocaine using data from the Drug Enforcement Administration's System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence, a database that includes records of prices paid by undercover agents for individual purchases. Central to this process is the task of standardizing data for transaction size and purity. Prior efforts in this area are reviewed and their treatment of purity found wanting. This report suggests that because quality control is difficult for illicit products, price is governed more by the expected purity than by the actual purity of the product. Using this concept, price series are constructed for the gram, ounce, and kilogram level in a variety of locations. Analysis of these series reveals that significant price differences exist between cities, even at the wholesale level; these differences do not necessarily dissipate over time; and the ratio of prices at different market levels has remained remarkably constant over time. This last result is consistent with the hypothesis that price increases at one level are passed through to lower levels on a percentage basis (i.e., according to a multiplicative model) rather than a dollar-for-dollar basis (i.e., according to an additive model)
Response to the National Research Council's assessment of RAND's controlling cocaine study by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
5 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 166 libraries worldwide
In 1999, a scientific committee assembled under the auspices of the National Research Council issued a critique of RAND's 1994 "Controlling Cocaine" report. The committee concluded, "The findings of the RAND study do not constitute a persuasive basis for the formation of cocaine control policy." In the current document, RAND's Drug Policy Research Center rebuts the committee's claim. The Center shows that most of the committee's criticisms rest on an incomplete understanding of the model used in the RAND report or, when taken into account, do not result in important changes in the findings based on the model. The two remaining criticisms are that the data on cocaine treatment effectiveness are not adequate to support modeling and that the mode of price transmission down the cocaine production "pipeline" may be different from that assumed. The Center acknowledges these points as potentially valid but holds that models need not have negligible probability of error to be useful as decision aids
Before the grand opening : measuring Washington State's marijuana market in the last year before legalized commercial sales by Beau Kilmer( file )
2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 124 libraries worldwide
In 2012, Washington state voters passed Initiative 502 (I-502), which removed the prohibition on the production, distribution, and possession of marijuana for nonmedical purposes and required the state to regulate and tax a new marijuana industry. Legalization of possession went into effect almost immediately, but the revolutionary aspect of the law⁰́₄allowing businesses to openly produce and distribute commercial-scale quantities for nonmedical use⁰́₄is expected to be fully implemented in 2014. Decisionmakers in Washington need baseline information about the amount of marijuana that is currently consumed in the state for many reasons. For example, it is important for making informed decisions about the number of licenses to distribute, to accurately project tax revenues, and to provide a foundation for evaluations of I-502. This report estimates the total weight of marijuana consumed in Washington in 2013 using data from existing household surveys as well as information from a new web-based consumption survey. Although the principal motivation for the study was estimating the size of the market, the report also describes various characteristics of the market, including traits of marijuana users in Washington and how they obtain marijuana. While the Washington Office of Financial Management projected that 85 metric tons (MT) of marijuana would be consumed in the state in 2013, this report suggests that estimate is probably too low, perhaps by a factor of two. There is inevitable uncertainty surrounding estimates of illegal and quasi-illegal activities, so it is better to think in terms of a range of possible sizes, rather than a point estimate. Analyses suggest a range of 135⁰́₃225 MT, which might loosely be thought of as a 90-percent confidence interval, with a median estimate close to 175 MT
Sulfur dioxide compliance of a regulated utility by Don Fullerton( Book )
2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
Electric utilities can reduce sulfur dioxide emissions through a variety of strategies such as adding scrubbers, switching to low- sulfur coal, or shifting output between generating plants with different emissions. The cost of achieving a given emission target can be minimized using a market for emission allowances, as under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, if firms with high abatement costs buy allowances while those with low abatement costs reduce emissions and sell allowances. However, public utility commissions regulate which costs can be passed to customers. Previous theoretical work has analyzed effects of regulations on a utility's choice between permits and a single continuous àbatement technology.' Here, we consider three abatement technologies and the discrete choices among them. Our numerical model uses market and engineering information on permit prices, scrubber cost and sulfur removal efficiency, alternative fuel costs and sulfur content, plus generating plant costs and efficiency. Using illustrative sets of parameters, we find that regulatory rules could more than double the cost of sulfur dioxide compliance
Drug use and drug policy futures : insights from a colloquium ( Book )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 36 libraries worldwide
Altered state? : assessing how marijuana legalization in California could influence marijuana consumption and public budgets by Beau Kilmer( file )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
"To learn more about the possible outcomes of marijuana legalization in California, RAND researchers constructed a model based on a series of estimates of current consumption, current and future prices, how responsive use is to price changes, taxes levied and possibly evaded, and the aggregation of nonprice effects (such as a change in stigma). Key findings include the following: (1) the pretax retail price of marijuana will substantially decline, likely by more than 80 percent. The price the consumers face will depend heavily on taxes, the structure of the regulatory regime, and how taxes and regulations are enforced; (2) consumption will increase, but it is unclear how much, because we know neither the shape of the demand curve nor the level of tax evasion (which reduces revenues and prices that consumers face); (3) tax revenues could be dramatically lower or higher than the $1.4 billion estimate provided by the California Board of Equalization (BOE); for example, uncertainty about the federal response to California legalization can swing estimates in either direction; (4) previous studies find that the annual costs of enforcing marijuana laws in California range from around $200 million to nearly $1.9 billion; our estimates show that the costs are probably less than $300 million; and (5) there is considerable uncertainty about the impact of legalizing marijuana in California on public budgets and consumption, with even minor changes in assumptions leading to major differences in outcomes."--Website
Assessing costs and benefits of early childhood intervention programs : overview and application to the Starting Early Starting Smart program ( file )
4 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
This work summarizes a report that asks whether money invested early in a child's life pays dividends in the form of government savings or other societal benefits as he or she grows into adulthood. Is there a best method for determining what, if any, dividends have accrued? The authors identify the conceptual and methodological issues associated with the analysis of costs and outcomes of early intervention programs and review the prior application of these methods to several programs. This background leads to recommendations regarding the application of these tools for a particular public-private early intervention program, Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS). SESS was designed to test the effectiveness of integrating behavioral health services within primary care and early childhood service settings for children from birth to age seven. The specific recommendations are framed as a set of more general guidelines for decisionmakers to make choices about early childhood intervention programs
Three strikes and you're out : estimated benefits and costs of California's new mandatory-sentencing law ( file )
2 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
The authors report on the benefits and costs of California's new mandatory-sentencing law, which provides for progressively longer sentences with an increasing number of prior convictions for serious felonies. The authors find that the new law, if fully implemented, will decrease serious crime committed by adults by about 28 percent at a cost of an extra $5.5 billion a year. Alternatives that narrow the law's application result in a lower benefit but an even greater reduction in costs. The authors were also able to devise an alternative that resulted in the same crime-reduction benefit for lower cost. The authors conclude that the state budget cuts required to fund the new law will be so great that it is unlikely to be fully implemented
Law enforcement's role in a harm reduction regime by Jonathan P Caulkins( file )
2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
Law enforcement can play a valuable role within a harm reduction paradigm, but this possibility is often overlooked. This paper reviews a framework for thinking about harm reduction goals, and illustrates how some harm reduction perspectives are more receptive than others to a prominent law enforcement role. Five specific roles for law enforcement are then outlined: partnerships with treatment and other interventions, constraining supply, time-focused intervention early in an epidemic, reducing control costs and associated harms, and exploiting drug markets' inherent adaptability
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Alternative Names
Caulkins, J. P. 1965-
Caulkins, Jonathan 1965-
Caulkins, Jonathan P.
Caulkins, Jonathan Paul.
Caulkins, Jonathan Paul 1965-
English (99)
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