skip to content

Stern, Scott

Overview
Works: 23 works in 31 publications in 1 language and 106 library holdings
Genres: Periodicals 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 338.064
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Scott Stern
Publications by Scott Stern
Most widely held works by Scott Stern
Innovation policy and the economy by Adam B Jaffe( Book )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 23 libraries worldwide
The economic importance of innovation brings with it an active debate on the impact public policy has on the innovation process. This annual series, sponsored by the National Bureau of Economic Research, brings the work of leading academic researchers to the broader policy community. This volume considers such topics as the implications of software outsourcing for American technology leadership; the complementary roles of large corporations and entrepreneurs in developing innovative technology; city-level policy and planning that establishes a "jurisdictional advantage" in the value of local resources; the effect of taxes on entrepreneurship; and how to incorporate innovation into the analysis of business mergers. These papers highlight the role economic theory and empirical analysis can play in evaluating policies and programs regarding research, innovation, and the commercialization of new technologies
Assessing Australia's innovative capacity in the 21st century by Joshua Gans( Book )
5 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 8 libraries worldwide
The diffusion of science driven drug discovery : organizational change in pharmaceutical research by Iain Cockburn( Book )
2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Recent work linking the adoption of key organizational practices to productivity raises an important question: if adoption increases productivity so dramatically, why does adoption across an industry take so long? This paper explores this question in the context of one particularly interesting practice, the adoption of science driven drug discovery by the modern pharmaceutical industry. Over the past two decades, the established pharmaceutical industry has slowly shifted towards a more science-oriented drug discovery: (a) adopters experienced substantially higher rates of R&D after the late 1970s and (b) the rate of adoption across the industry was extremely slow. Motivated by the apparent contradiction between large boosts in performance and slow rates of adoption, this paper characterizes the sources of differences in rates of adoption between 1980 and 1993. The principal finding is that adoption of a science-oriented research approach was a function of initial conditions, or subject to 'state dependence': some firms simply began the sample period at a much higher level of science orientation. Moreover, while these effects attenuated over time, our empirical results suggest that it took more than ten years before adoption was unrelated to initial conditions. In addition, consistent with theories developed in the context of technology adoption, we find that relative diffusion rates depend on the product market positioning of firms. More surprisingly, adoption rates are seperately driven by the composition of sales within the firm. This latter finding suggests the potential importance of differences among firms in terms of the internal structure of power and attention, an area which has received only a small amount of theoretical attention
Market segmentation and the sources of rents from innovation : personal computers in the late 1980's by Timothy F Bresnahan( Book )
2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper evaluates the sources of transitory market power in the market for personal computers (PCs) during the late 1980's. Our analysis is motivated by the coexistence of low entry barriers into the PC industry and high rates of innovative investment by a small number of PC manufacturers. We attempt to understand these phenomena by measuring the role that different principles of product differentiation (PDs) played in segmenting this dynamic market. Our first PD measures the substitutability between Frontier (386-based) and Non- Frontier products, while the second PD measures the advantage of a brand-name reputation (e.g., by IBM). Building on advances in the measurement of product differentiation, we measure the separate roles that these PDs played in contributing to transitory market power. In so doing, this paper attempts to account for the market origins of innovative rents in the PC industry. Our principal finding is that, during the late 1980's, the PC market was highly segmented along both the Branded (B versus NB) and Frontier (F versusNF) dimensions. The effects of competitive events in any one cluster were confined mostly to that particular cluster, with little effect on other clusters. For example, less than 5% of the market share achieved by a hypothetical entrant would be market-stealing from other clusters. In addition, the product diffe- rentiation advantages of B and F were qualitatively different. The main advantage of F was limited to the isolation from NF competitors it provided; Brandedness both shifted out the product demand curve as well as segmenting B products from NB competition. These results help explain how transitory market power (arising from market segmentation) shaped the underlying incen- tives for innovation in the PC industry during the mid to late 1980s
The dybbuk's revenge by Scott Stern( Book )
1 edition published in 1993 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Complementarity among vertical integration decisions : evidence from automobile product development by Sharon Novak( file )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper examines complementarity among vertical integration decisions in automobile product development. Though most research assumes that contracting choices are independent of each other, contracting complementarity arises when the returns to a single vertical integration decision are increasing in the level of vertical integration associated with other contracting choices. First, effective coordination may depend on the level of (non-contractible) effort on the part of each agent; contracting complementarity results if coordination efforts are interdependent and vertical integration facilitates a higher level of non-contractible effort. Second, effective coordination may require the disclosure of proprietary trade secrets, and the potential for expropriation by external suppliers may induce complementarity among vertical integration choices. We provide evidence for complementarity in product development contracting by taking advantage of a detailed dataset that includes the level of vertical integration and the contracting environment for individual automobile systems in the luxury automobile segment. Using an instrumental variables framework that distinguishes complementarity from unobserved firm-level factors, the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that contracting complementarity is an important driver of vertical integration choices. The findings suggest that contracting complementarity may be particularly important when coordination is important to achieve but difficult to monitor
The impact of information technology on emergency health care outcomes by Susan Athey( file )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes the productivity of technology and job design in emergency response systems, or 911 systems.' During the 1990s, many 911 systems adopted Enhanced 911' (E911), where information technology is used to link automatic caller identification to a database of address and location information. A potential benefit to E911 is improved timeliness of the emergency response. We evaluate the returns to E911 in the context of a panel dataset of Pennsylvania counties during 1994-1996, when almost half of the 67 counties experienced a change in technology. We measure productivity using an index of health status of cardiac patients at the time of ambulance arrival, where the index should be improved by timely response. We also consider the direct effect of E911 on several patient outcomes, including mortality within the first hours following the incident and the total hospital charges incurred by the patient. Our main finding is that E911 increases the short-term survival rates for patients with cardiac diagnoses by about 1%, from a level of 96.2%. We also provide evidence that E911 reduces hospital charges. Finally, we analyze the effect of job design, in particular the use of Emergency Medical Dispatching' (EMD), where call-takers gather medical information, provide medical instructions over the telephone, and prioritize the allocation of ambulance and paramedic services. Controlling for EMD adoption does not affect our results about E911, and we find that EMD and E911 do not have significant interactions in determining outcomes (that is, they are neither substitutes nor complements)
Balancing incentives : the tension between basic and applied research by Iain Cockburn( file )
1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence that the intensity of research workers' incentives for the distinct tasks of basic and applied research are positively associated with each other. We relate this finding to the prediction of the theoretical literature that when effort is multi-dimensional, firms will balance' the provision of incentives; when incentives are strong along one dimension, firms will set high-powered incentives for effort along other dimensions which compete for the worker's effort and attention (Holmstrom and Milgrom, 1991). We test for this effect in the context of pharmaceutical research using detailed data on individual research programs financed by private firms. Consistent with the complementarity hypothesis, we find strong evidence that firms who provide strong promotion-based incentives for individuals to invest in fundamental or basic' research also provide more intense incentives for success in applied research through the capital budgeting process. The intensity of these bonus' incentives is weaker in firms who use a more centralized research budgeting process. We interpret this latter finding as providing support for theories which emphasize substitutability between contractible and non-contractible signals of effort (Baker, Gibbons, and Murphy, 1994)
The adoption and impact of advanced emergency response services by Susan Athey( file )
1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper studies the causes and consequences of the adoption of technology by hospitals and public emergency response systems, focusing on Basic and Enhanced 911 services. Basic 911 allows people within a given locality to access specialized call-takers and ambulance dispatchers using the single telephone number 911. Enhanced 911 is characterized by telecommunications equipment and information technology which identifies the location of emergency callers. We begin by exploring the distribution of 911 systems among counties in the U.S., showing that this locally provided service responds to income and political factors as well as population and density of a county. Then, using a database of cardiac patients in Pennsylvania in 1995, we are able to characterize some of the productivity efforts of 911 services. We show that Enhanced 911 reduces response times, which in turn reduce mortality. Further, we find that the pre-hospital system interacts with the allocation of patients to hospitals in several ways. First, patient severity affect the allocation of patients to high-technology hospitals. Second, conditional on the availability of advanced cardiac care facilities, counties with 911 systems allocate cardiac patients to hospitals with better technology. Finally, hospitals with more advanced emergency and cardiac technology treat a higher share of cardiac patients who make use of the pre- hospital system
Do scientists pay to be scientists? by Scott Stern( file )
1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates the relationship between wages and the scientific orientation of R & D organizations. Science-oriented firms allow researchers to publish in the scientific literature and pursue individual research agendas. Adoption of a Science- oriented research approach (i.e., Science) is driven by two distinct forces: a (a Preference effect) and R & D productivity gains arising from earlier access to discoveries (a Productivity effect). The equilibrium relationship between wages and Science reflects the relative salience of these effects: the Preference effect contributes to a negative compensating differential while the Productivity effect raises the possibility of rent-sharing between firms and researchers. In addition, because the value of participating in Science is increasing in the prestige of researchers, Science tends to be adopted by those firms who employ higher-quality researchers. This structural relationship between the adoption of Science and unobserved heterogeneity in researcher ability leads to bias in the context of hedonic wage and productivity regressions which do not account for such effects. This paper exploits a novel field-based empirical approach to substantially overcome this bias. Specifically, prior to accepting a specific job offer, many scientists receive multiple job offers, making it possible to calculate the wage- Science curve for individual scientists, controlling for ability level. The methodology is applied to a sample of postdoctoral biologists. The results suggest a strong negative relationship between wages and Science. For example, firms who allow their employees to publish extract, on average, a 25% wage discount. The results are robust to restricting the sample to non-academic job offers, but the findings depend critically on the inclusion of the researcher fixed effects. The paper's conclusion, then, is that, conditional on scientific ability, scientists do indeed pay to be scientists
When does start-up innovation spur the gale of creative destruction? by Joshua Gans( file )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the determinants of commercialisation strategy for start-up innovators. The authors examine whether the returns on innovation are earned through product market competition versus cooperation with established firms (through licensing, alliances or acquisition). The authors' hypotheses are that the relative returns to cooperation are increasing in (a) control over intellectual property rights, (b) low transaction costs, and (c) sunk costs associated with product market entry. Using a novel dataset of the commercialisation strategies of start-up innovators, the results suggest that the pro-competitive impact of start-up innovation - the gale of creative destruction - depends on imperfections in the market for ideas
An Empirical Framework for Testing Theories About Complimentarity in Organizational Design ( file )
2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper studies alternative empirical strategies for estimating the effects of organization design practices on performance, as well as the factors which determine organizational design, in a cross-section of firms. Our economic model is based on a firm where multiple organizational design practices are en endogenously determined, and these organizational design practices affect output through an 'organizational design production function.' The econometric model includes unobserved exogenous variation in the costs and returns to each of the individual practices. The model is used to evaluate how different econometric strategies for testing theories about complementarity can be interpreted under alternative assumptions about the economic and statistical environment. We identify plausible hypotheses about the joint distribution of the unobservables under which several different approaches from the existing literature will yield biased and inconsistent estimates. We show that the sign of the bias depends on two factors: whether the organzational design practices are complements, and the correlation between the unobserved returns to each practice. We find several sets of conditions under which the sign of the bias can be determined, and we provide economic interpretations. Our analysis shows that for a particular set of hypotheses, a variety of different procedures may all yield qualitatively similar biases, presenting a challenge for the identification of complementarity. We then propose a structural approach, which is based on a system of simultaneous equations describing productivity and the demand for organizational design practices. As long as exogenous variables are observed which are uncorrelated with the unobserved returns to practices, the structural parameters are identified, yielding consistent tests for complementarity as well as the cross-equation restrictions implied by static optimization of the organizatin's profit function
Empirical implications of physician authority in pharmaceutical decisionmaking by Scott Stern( file )
1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper studies the consequences of physician authority on pharmaceutical prescribing. Physicians engage in a costly process of particular conditions and characteristics. The relative efficiency of this matching process results from the diagnostic skill of the physician along with the investments made by the doctor in learning about different drugs. While the underlying level of physician skill or knowledge cannot be observed, differences among physicians in terms of these attributes are reflected in their prescribing behavior. We provide evidence for two major findings regarding the exercise of physician authority in this context. First, there is substantial variation in the degree to which physician prescribing is concentrated (i.e., some physicians prescribe a more diverse portfolio of drugs than others). Second, this concentration is correlated with observable drug characteristics. In particular, concentrated prescribers tend to prescribe drugs with high levels of advertising, low prices, and high (lagged) market shares. Our empirical results provide evidence for the importance of both physician effort and diagnostic ability in the prescribing process. In particular, physicians who differentiate among their patients more finely are more likely to have less concentrated prescribing portfolios and to be less sensitive to information sources which promote the use of drugs for the
Are all patent examiners equal? : the impact of examiner characteristics by Iain Cockburn( file )
2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Building on insights gained from interviewing administrators and patent examiners at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), we collect and analyze a novel dataset on patent examiners and patent outcomes. This dataset is based on 182 patents for which the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) ruled on validity between 1997 and 2000. For each patent, we identify a USPTO primary examiner, and collect historical statistics derived from their entire patent examination history. These data are used to explore a number of hypotheses about the connection between the patent examination process and the strength of ensuing patent rights. Our main findings are as follows. (i) Patent examiners and the patent examination process are not homogeneous. There is substantial variation in observable characteristics of patent examiners, such as their tenure at the USPTO, the number of patents they have examined and the degree to which the patents that they examine are later cited by other patents. (ii) There is no evidence that examiner experience or workload at the time a patent is issued affects the probability that the CAFC finds a patent invalid. (iii) Examiners whose patents tend to be more frequently cited tend to have a higher probability of a CAFC invalidity ruling. The results suggest that all patent examiners are not equal, and that one of the roles of the CAFC is to review the exercise of discretion in the patent examination process
Patient welfare and patient compliance : an empirical framework for measuring the benefits from pharmaceutical innovation by Paul Ellickson( file )
1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The main goal of this paper is to develop an empirical framework for evaluating the patient welfare benefits arising from pharmaceutical innovation. Extending previous studies of the welfare benefits from innovation (Trajtenberg, 1990; Hausman, 1996), this paper unpacks the separate choices made by physicians and patients in pharmaceutical decisionmaking and develops an estimable econometric model which reflects these choices. Our proposed estimator for patient welfare depends on (a) whether patients comply with the prescriptions they receive from physicians and (b) the motives of physicians in their prescription behavior. By focusing on compliance behavior, the proposed welfare measure reflects a specific economic choice made by patients. We review evidence that the rate of noncompliance ranges up to 70%, suggesting an important gulf between physician prescription behavior and realized patient welfare. Since physicians act as imperfect but interested agents for their patients, the welfare analysis based on compliance must account for the nonrandom selection of patients into drugs by their physicians. The key contribution of this paper resides in integrating the choices made by both physicians and patients into a unified theoretical framework and suggesting how the parameters of such a model can be estimated from data
Are all patent examiners equal? : the impact of characteristics on patent statistics and litigation outcomes by Iain Cockburn( file )
1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The impact of uncertain intellectual property rights on the market for ideas : evidence from patent grant delays by Joshua Gans( file )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper considers the impact of the intellectual property (IP) system on the timing of cooperation/licensing by start-up technology entrepreneurs. If the market for technology licenses is efficient, the timing of licensing is independent of whether IP has already been granted. In contrast, the need to disclosure complementary (yet unprotected) knowledge, asymmetric information, or search costs may retard efficient technology transfer. In these cases, reductions in uncertainty surrounding the scope and extent of IP rights may facilitate trade in the market for ideas. We employ a dataset combining information about cooperative licensing and the timing of patent allowances (the administrative event when patent rights are clarified). While pre-allowance licensing does occur, the hazard rate for achieving a cooperative licensing agreement significantly increases after patent allowance. Moreover, the impact of the patent system depends on the strategic and institutional environment in which firms operate. Patent allowance seems to play a particularly important role for technologies with longer technology lifecycles or that lack alternative mechanisms such as copyright, reputation, or brokers. The findings suggest that imperfections in the market for ideas may be important, and that formal IP rights may facilitate gains from technological trade
When does funding research by smaller firms bear fruit? : evidence from the SBIR program by Joshua Gans( file )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates whether the relative concentration of funding for small, research-oriented firms in a small number of high-tech industries is related to the differences across industries in the level of appropriability or capital constraints facing small firms. To do so, we exploit a novel test based on the relationship between industry-level private venture financing and the performance of government-subsidized R & D projects in those sectors. If the government funds projects on the margin (as it should under an optimal subsidy regime) and industries only differ in terms of the level of appropriability, then private funding and subsidized project performance are positively correlated. Conversely, if industries only differ in terms of the level of capital constraints, this correlation is negative. Our principal empirical result is that project-level performance is highest for those technologies that are in industrial segments that attract high rates of venture capital investment. This result suggests that industrial sectors differ in the degree of appropriability for research-oriented small businesses and that variation in the appropriability regime helps explain the concentrated nature of venture capital activity in the economy
How does outsourcing affect performance dynamics? : evidence from the automobile industry by Sharon Novak( file )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the impact of vertical integration on the dynamics of performance over the automobile product development lifecycle. Building on recent work in organizational economics and strategy, we evaluate the relationship between vertical integration and different performance margins. Outsourcing facilitates access to cutting-edge technology and the use of high-powered performance contracts. Vertical integration allows firms to adapt to unforeseen contingencies and customer feedback, maintain more balanced incentives over the lifecycle, and develop firm-specific capabilities over time. Together, these effects highlight a crucial tradeoff: while outsourcing is associated with higher levels of initial performance, vertical integration will be associated with performance improvement over the product lifecycle. We test these ideas using detailed data from the luxury automobile segment, establishing three key results. First, initial performance is declining in the level of vertical integration. Second, the level of performance improvement is significantly increasing in the level of vertical integration. Finally, the impact of vertical integration on alternative performance margins is mediated by the level of pre-existing capabilities, by the salience of opportunities to access external technology leaders, and by the scope for learning over the product lifecycle. Together, the findings highlight a strategic governance tradeoff between short-term performance and the evolution of firm capabilities
An empirical framework for testing theories about complementarity in organizational design by Susan Athey( file )
1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Associated Subjects
Australia Automobile industry and trade--Economic aspects Competition Computer industry--Technological innovations Consumers' preferences--Econometric models Contracting out Contracts--Economic aspects Diffusion of innovations--Econometric models Diffusion of innovations--Economic aspects Drugs--Prescribing--Econometric models Emergency medical services--Communications systems Federal aid to research High technology industries High technology industries--Finance Incentives in industry--Econometric models Industrial efficiency Industrial efficiency--Econometric models Industrial organization Industrial organization--Mathematical models Industrial productivity--Mathematical models Information technology--Economic aspects Intellectual capital Intellectual property Management Market segmentation New business enterprises--Finance New products--Econometric models Organizational effectiveness--Mathematical models Patent laws and legislation Patents--Mathematical models Prescription pricing--Econometric models Product obsolescence Research, Industrial Research, Industrial--Econometric models Research, Industrial--Finance Research--Government policy Small business--Finance Small business--Government policy Technological innovations Technological innovations--Economic aspects Technology and state Technology transfer--Economic aspects Technology transfer--Government policy Telephone--Emergency reporting systems Telephone--Emergency reporting systems--Evaluation United States United States.--Patent and Trademark Office Venture capital Vertical integration Vertical integration--Mathematical models
Alternative Names
Stern, S. 1969-
Languages
English (28)
Covers
Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.