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RAND Drug Policy Research Center

Overview
Works: 114 works in 165 publications in 1 language and 3,800 library holdings
Classifications: HV5825, 363.450973
Publication Timeline
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Publications about RAND Drug Policy Research Center
Publications by RAND Drug Policy Research Center
Most widely held works about RAND Drug Policy Research Center
 
Most widely held works by RAND Drug Policy Research Center
Mandatory minimum drug sentences : throwing away the key or the taxpayers' money? ( Book )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 443 libraries worldwide
Laws requiring minimum sentences for certain crimes have become increasingly popular, and the most frequently applied of these mandatory minimums are those pertaining to drug offenders. Proponents and opponents of mandatory minimums generally argue over issues of punishment, deterrence, justice, and fairness. The authors of the current study examine mandatory minimum drug sentences from the viewpoint of cost-effectiveness at achieving such national drug control objectives as reducing cocaine consumption and cocaine-related crime. They conduct their analysis with the help of mathematical models estimating the response of cocaine supply and demand to changes in levels of enforcement and treatment. The authors find that a million dollars spent extending sentences to mandatory minimum lengths would reduce cocaine consumption less than would a million dollars spent on the pre-mandatory-minimum mix of arrests, prosecution, and sentencing. Neither would reduce cocaine consumption or cocaine-related crime as much as spending a million dollars treating heavy users. These conclusions are robust to changes in various assumptions underlying the analysis
The U.S. drug policy landscape insights and opportunities for improving the view by Beau Kilmer( file )
3 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 419 libraries worldwide
Discussions about reducing the harms associated with drug use and antidrug policies are often politicized, infused with questionable data, and unproductive. This paper provides a nonpartisan primer that should be of interest to those who are new to the field of drug policy, as well as those who have been working in the trenches. It begins with an overview of problems and policies related to illegal drugs in the United States, including the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. It then discusses the efficacy of U.S. drug policies and programs, including long-standing issues that deserve additional attention. Next, the paper lists the major funders of research and analysis in the area and describes their priorities. By highlighting the issues that receive most of the funding, this discussion identifies where gaps remain. Comparing these needs, old and new, to the current funding patterns suggests eight opportunities to improve understanding of drug problems and drug policies in the United States: (1) sponsor young scholars and strengthen the infrastructure of the field, (2) accelerate the diffusion of good ideas and reliable information to decision-makers, (3) replicate and evaluate cutting-edge programs in an expedited fashion, (4) support nonpartisan research on marijuana policy, (5) investigate ways to reduce drug-related violence in Mexico and Central America, (6) improve understanding of the markets for diverted pharmaceuticals, (7) help build and sustain comprehensive community prevention efforts, and (8) develop more sensible sentencing policies that reduce the excessive levels of incarceration for drug offenses and address the extreme racial disparities. The document offers some specific suggestions for researchers and potential research funders in each of the eight areas
The price and purity of illicit drugs 1981 through the second quarter of 2003 by United States( Computer File )
3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 240 libraries worldwide
Controlling cocaine : supply versus demand programs by C. Peter Rydell( Book )
4 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 228 libraries worldwide
This report analyzes the relative cost-effectiveness of various available drug interventions. Four such interventions analyzed in this document are (1) source country control; (2) interdiction; (3) domestic enforcement; and (4) treatment of heavy users. The first three of these programs focus on "supply-control," whereby the cost of supplying cocaine is increased by seizing drugs and assets and by arresting and incarcerating dealers and their agents. The fourth program is a "demand-control" program because it reduces consumption directly, without going through the price mechanism. This study states that an estimated $13 billion are being spent in the United States each year on the four drug programs listed above and that the bulk of those resources are spent on domestic enforcement. Treatment of heavy users has only a small percentage of this budget, even when privately funded treatment is included. Given the high cost of "supply control" programs, this report concludes that treatment of heavy users may be a more cost-effective way of dealing with drug interventions
Modeling the demand for cocaine by Susan S Everingham( Book )
4 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 219 libraries worldwide
This report documents the development of a two-state Markovian model of the demand for cocaine and includes the estimation of incidence, prevalence, cohort retention, and consumption. The study states that the incidence of new users into light cocaine use has varied greatly over the years and is an input to the model; however, the model cannot predict future prevalence--it can only project prevalence given a hypothetical incidence scenario. The model also demonstrates that the fraction of all cocaine users who are heavy users has varied greatly over time, and that peak heavy usage followed peak incidence by about ten years. Consequently, the effect on heavy usage of government programs that reduce incidence (such as prevention programs) will only be realized many years later
A system description of the marijuana trade by Michael T Childress( Book )
2 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 197 libraries worldwide
This report describes and discusses applications for a computer spreadsheet-based, comprehensive "systems description" of the quantity and flow of marijuana from initial cultivation and processing, through international transportation, to domestic distribution. To examine the potential utility of this tool, this report details three distinct but related applications: improving the estimation processes, conducting sensitivity analyses, and guiding planning and assessment. In improving the estimation process, an analyst can use the framework to evaluate assumptions or data in terms of their downstream effects on other indicators (e.g., the likely downstream effects of an increase in the marijuana crop yields). Sensitivity analysis can be used to understand the impact of certain parameters versus others, which may be helpful in allocating intelligence resources, and to evaluate first-order effects of a change in the system, such as an eradication program. As a tool for more effective planning and assessment, the model can help planners think in terms of a strategic framework, for example, of linking assumptions on production in Southeast Asia to marijuana flows in the United States
A system description of the heroin trade by Michael T Childress( Book )
3 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 184 libraries worldwide
This report describes and discusses applications for a computer spreadsheet-based, comprehensive "systems description" of the quantity and flow of heroin from initial cultivation and processing, through international transportation, to domestic distribution. To examine the potential utility of this tool, this report details three distinct but related applications: improving the estimation processes, conducting sensitivity analyses, and guiding planning and assessment. In improving the estimation process, an analyst can use the framework to evaluate assumptions or data in terms of their downstream effects on other indicators (e.g., the likely downstream effects of an increase in the opium crop yields). Sensitivity analysis can be used to understand the impact of certain parameters versus others, which may be helpful in allocating intelligence resources, and to evaluate first-order effects of a change in the system, such as an eradication program. As a tool for more effective planning and assessment, the model can help planners think in terms of a strategic framework, for example, of linking assumptions on production in Southeast Asia to heroin flows in the United States
A system description of the cocaine trade by Bonnie Dombey-Moore( Book )
3 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 174 libraries worldwide
Gaps and inconsistencies in the picture of the cocaine trade increase the difficulty of making good choices about resource allocation and drug-fighting strategies. They also make it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of existing policies. This report documents a computer spreadsheet-based "systems description" for the cocaine trade that is a combination of database and analytical tool. Its structure allows users to substitute their own data or assumptions about parameters while preserving consistency or "conservation of mass" throughout the system. Three systems spreadsheets mirror the general pattern of the cocaine trade: production, international transportation, and U.S. distribution. In addition, a longitudinal database provides primarily production-related data from 1984 through 1990
Developing price series for cocaine by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
3 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 168 libraries worldwide
This report describes how to construct time series for the price of cocaine using data from the Drug Enforcement Administration's System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence, a database that includes records of prices paid by undercover agents for individual purchases. Central to this process is the task of standardizing data for transaction size and purity. Prior efforts in this area are reviewed and their treatment of purity found wanting. This report suggests that because quality control is difficult for illicit products, price is governed more by the expected purity than by the actual purity of the product. Using this concept, price series are constructed for the gram, ounce, and kilogram level in a variety of locations. Analysis of these series reveals that significant price differences exist between cities, even at the wholesale level; these differences do not necessarily dissipate over time; and the ratio of prices at different market levels has remained remarkably constant over time. This last result is consistent with the hypothesis that price increases at one level are passed through to lower levels on a percentage basis (i.e., according to a multiplicative model) rather than a dollar-for-dollar basis (i.e., according to an additive model)
How goes the "war on drugs"? : an assessment of U.S. drug problems and policy ( Book )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 166 libraries worldwide
Presents a concise, accessible, objective view of where the United States has been, now stands, and is going in the future in its long "war on drugs." The authors assess the success of drug policies to date and review possible reasons why they have not been more successful. They recommend management of the drug problem for the long term, use of different policy levers depending on the situation, and tolerance of cross-state policy variation
Response to the National Research Council's assessment of RAND's controlling cocaine study by Jonathan P Caulkins( Book )
4 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 165 libraries worldwide
In 1999, a scientific committee assembled under the auspices of the National Research Council issued a critique of RAND's 1994 "Controlling Cocaine" report. The committee concluded, "The findings of the RAND study do not constitute a persuasive basis for the formation of cocaine control policy." In the current document, RAND's Drug Policy Research Center rebuts the committee's claim. The Center shows that most of the committee's criticisms rest on an incomplete understanding of the model used in the RAND report or, when taken into account, do not result in important changes in the findings based on the model. The two remaining criticisms are that the data on cocaine treatment effectiveness are not adequate to support modeling and that the mode of price transmission down the cocaine production "pipeline" may be different from that assumed. The Center acknowledges these points as potentially valid but holds that models need not have negligible probability of error to be useful as decision aids
Review and evaluation of the substance abuse and mental health services block grant allotment formula ( Book )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 165 libraries worldwide
In 1992, Congress revised the formula that the federal government uses for distributing Block Grants to the states to provide substance abuse and mental health services. The formula calculates shares based on three formula components that are measured for each state: size of the population in need, cost of providing services, and each state's fiscal capacity. The purpose of this study was to inform Congress about the appropriateness of measures used in the current allocation formula and to identify factors that Congress might wish to take into account in the formula to attain greater equity in the distribution of funds. To this end, the study examines the concept of equity in the structure of the current formula to understand why Congress chose it, and reviews literature, methodologies, and data sources for measuring states' population need for services, cost of services, and fiscal capacity. Next, to evaluate the equity of the current formula, the study develops alternative measures of population need and cost of services based on recent national data, and compares formula allocations using these empirically based standards to the current formula's allocations
Options for restructuring the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act : report with background papers and focus group summary by Peter Reuter( Computer File )
4 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 156 libraries worldwide
This report synthesizes the findings of a review of the structure and performance of the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA) and assesses options for reforming it. The Act provides for a $600-million-per-year program of grants to states, which pass the money on to school districts for programs aimed at reducing school violence and drug abuse. However, the formula by which money is disbursed does not focus on the schools most in need of help, and it spreads the money too thinly. Moreover, the guidelines for expenditure permit schools to use the funds for programs that are unproven, and the legislation gives the federal government limited ability to foster effective programs. The SDFSCA program has not been credibly evaluated, but it is widely thought to have accomplished little. Yet the problems it addresses are so serious and widespread that the federal government cannot reasonably afford to abandon its commitment. Few proposals for reform have been offered, and only the one put forth by the Clinton administration is currently fully developed. That proposal moves in the right direction, but it addresses only some of the ways in which the program could be improved. This report suggests criteria for judging reform options and presents ways in which the proposal under discussion could be strengthened
Prenatal cocaine exposure : scientific considerations and policy implications ( file )
2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 149 libraries worldwide
New research has shown that children exposed to cocaine before birth are at risk of learning and behavioral problems. Such problems have broad implications for education, social welfare, and criminal justice in the United States. However, there are numerous opportunities to minimize prenatal cocaine exposure and its impacts and thus to enhance the well-being of women and their children. This report, a collaborative effort of the RAND Drug Policy Research Center and the New York Academy of Sciences, presents an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of cocaine on the developing brain and offers policy considerations for addressing the issues that arise from cocaine use by pregnant women. The report discusses three prevention strategies: primary prevention (preventing substance use before and during pregnancy); secondary prevention (identifying pregnant women who use drugs and minimizing their drug use); and tertiary prevention (reducing the adverse consequences of substance exposure in children who were exposed in utero). In addition, the report presents a number of areas where more research is needed and offers a rationale for making more resources available for women and children affected by cocaine
A review of recent advances in knowledge about methadone maintenance treatment by I. van Beusekom( Book )
4 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 148 libraries worldwide
This report, which provides a knowledge base for the development of methadone maintenance treatment clinical guidelines in Switzerland, reviews the world-wide literature (except for Switzerland, which is the subject of a separate investigation) on such treatment and existing guidelines. Articles on methadone maintenance treatment and concurring treatment modalities are discussed in detail, as well as existing knowledge about specific populations, such as pregnant addicts and addicts with HIV or tuberculosis. Research on prognostic factors to patients' responses to treatment and perceptions of opiate dependent persons are also reviewed to ascertain their value to practitioners in managing methadone maintenance treatment and in assessing the best possible treatment. A final chapter describes other substitution treatments in comparison to methadone maintenance and synthesizes the information of the review into a structured information source for thinking about guideline development
Options for restructuring the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act by Peter Reuter( Book )
2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 146 libraries worldwide
This report synthesizes the findings of a review of the structure and performance of the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA) and assesses options for reforming it. The Act provides for a $600-million-per-year program of grants to states, which pass the money on to school districts for programs aimed at reducing school violence and drug abuse. However, the formula by which money is disbursed does not focus on the schools most in need of help, and it spreads the money too thinly. Moreover, the guidelines for expenditure permit schools to use the funds for programs that are unproven, and the legislation gives the federal government limited ability to foster effective programs. The SDFSCA program has not been credibly evaluated, but it is widely thought to have accomplished little. Yet the problems it addresses are so serious and widespread that the federal government cannot reasonably afford to abandon its commitment. Few proposals for reform have been offered, and only the one put forth by the Clinton administration is currently fully developed. That proposal moves in the right direction, but it addresses only some of the ways in which the program could be improved. This report suggests criteria for judging reform options and presents ways in which the proposal under discussion could be strengthened
Altered state? : assessing how marijuana legalization in California could influence marijuana consumption and public budgets by Beau Kilmer( Book )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 118 libraries worldwide
"To learn more about the possible outcomes of marijuana legalization in California, RAND researchers constructed a model based on a series of estimates of current consumption, current and future prices, how responsive use is to price changes, taxes levied and possibly evaded, and the aggregation of nonprice effects (such as a change in stigma). Key findings include the following: (1) the pretax retail price of marijuana will substantially decline, likely by more than 80 percent. The price the consumers face will depend heavily on taxes, the structure of the regulatory regime, and how taxes and regulations are enforced; (2) consumption will increase, but it is unclear how much, because we know neither the shape of the demand curve nor the level of tax evasion (which reduces revenues and prices that consumers face); (3) tax revenues could be dramatically lower or higher than the $1.4 billion estimate provided by the California Board of Equalization (BOE); for example, uncertainty about the federal response to California legalization can swing estimates in either direction; (4) previous studies find that the annual costs of enforcing marijuana laws in California range from around $200 million to nearly $1.9 billion; our estimates show that the costs are probably less than $300 million; and (5) there is considerable uncertainty about the impact of legalizing marijuana in California on public budgets and consumption, with even minor changes in assumptions leading to major differences in outcomes."--Website
Developing games of local drug policy by Rand Corporation( Book )
1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 107 libraries worldwide
The economic cost of methamphetamine use in the United States, 2005 ( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 15 libraries worldwide
This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Given the uncertainty in estimating the costs of meth use, this book provides a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion. The analysis considers a wide range of consequences due to meth use, including the burden of addiction, premature death, drug treatment, and aspects of lost productivity, crime and criminal justice, health care, production and environmental hazards, and child endangerment
The relative effectiveness of 10 adolescent substance abuse treatment programs in the United States ( file )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 14 libraries worldwide
Eleven such studies were funded in 1998 and 1999, each of which used parallel data collection instruments and study designs. When the ATM studies were nearly complete, CSAT invited teams of researchers to examine whether evidence of treatment effectiveness was present in the collected longitudinal data. Analysis teams approached the problem of identifying treatment effects using a range of methods. This report describes RAND Corporation's approach to this problem, and our findings concerning the relative effectiveness of the 11 programs evaluated under ATM. This work was conducted in consultation with the ATM investigators who collected the data, and with other teams of investigators selected by SAMHSA/CSAT to conduct analyses with the same objective, but using different case-mix adjustment methods. This report should be of interest to professionals with an interest in substance abuse treatment effectiveness, treatment evaluation methods, and risk or case-mix adjustment. It extends RAND's ongoing research on the effectiveness of community-based treatments for adolescents
 
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controlled identity Drug Policy Research Center (U.S.)

Rand Corporation. Drug Policy Research Center
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