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Javorcik, Beata K. Smarzynska

Works: 121 works in 541 publications in 3 languages and 3,884 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 337.1
Publication Timeline
Publications about Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik
Publications by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik
Most widely held works by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik
Global integration and technology transfer by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )
30 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and held by 364 libraries worldwide
This text advances our understanding of the importance of technology diffusion through trade and foreign direct investment in a range of developing and transition economies
Corruption and composition of foreign direct investment : firm-level evidence by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )
26 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 104 libraries worldwide
The extent of corruption in a host country affects a foreign direct investor's choice of investing through a joint venture or through a wholly owned subsidiary. Corruption reduces inward foreign investment and shifts the ownership structure toward joint ventures
Pollution havens and foreign direct investment : dirty secret or popular myth? by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )
28 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 95 libraries worldwide
The "pollution haven" hypothesis states that multinational firms, particularly those in highly polluting industries, relocate to countries with weak environmental standards. Despite the plausibility and popularity of this hypothesis, Smarzynska and Wei find only weak evidence in its favor
Gifted kids or pushy parents? foreign acquisitions and plant performance in Indonesia by Jens Matthias Arnold( file )
22 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in 3 languages and held by 84 libraries worldwide
"This paper uses micro data from the Indonesian Census of Manufacturing to analyze the causal relationship between foreign ownership and plant productivity. To control for the possible endogeneity of the FDI decision, the difference in differences approach is combined with a matching technique. An advantage of this novel method is the ability to follow the timing of the observed changes in productivity and other aspects of plant performance. The results suggest that foreign ownership leads to significant productivity improvements in the acquired plants. The improvements become visible in the acquisition year and continue in the subsequent periods. After three years, the acquired plants outperform the control group in terms of productivity by 34 percentage points. The data also suggest that the rise in productivity is a result of restructuring, as acquired plants increase their investment outlays, employment, and wages. Foreign ownership also appears to enhance the integration of plants into the global economy through increased exports and imports. "--World Bank web site
Policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization by Bernard M Hoekman( file )
17 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 79 libraries worldwide
"Hoekman and Javorcik focus on policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization. They briefly review the effects of trade and investment liberalization on firms, focusing on within-industry effects. They postulate that governments' role in supporting the process is to (1) ensure that firms face "right" incentives to adjust, and (2) intervene in areas where market failures are present. Their main message is that while many policies could be adopted to address market failures, they need to be carefully designed and implemented in a stable macroeconomic environment. An institutional infrastructure that supports the functioning of modern markets is most important. Proactive support policies of whatever stripe should be subject to cost-benefit analysis, based on the existence of an identified market failure, and monitored for performance and cost effectiveness. Transparency and accountability are critical in ensuring that interventions accomplish their intended objectives rather than being vehicles for rent seeking. This paper--a product of the Trade Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the effects of globalization on developing countries"--World Bank web site
Does Services Liberalization Benefit Manufacturing Firms ? Evidence From The Czech Republic by Jens Matthias Arnold( file )
16 editions published between 2006 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 78 libraries worldwide
While there is considerable empirical evidence on the impact of liberalizing trade in goods, the effects of services liberalization have not been empirically established. Using firm-level data from the Czech Republic for the period 1998-2003, this study examines the link between services sector reforms and the productivity of domestic firms in downstream manufacturing. Several aspects of services reform are considered and measured, namely, the increased presence of foreign providers, privatization, and enhanced competition. The manufacturing-services linkage is measured using information on the degree to which manufacturing firms in a particular industry rely on intermediate inputs from specific services sectors. The econometric results lead to two conclusions. First, the study finds that services policy matters for the productivity of manufacturing firms relying on services inputs. This finding is robust to several econometric specifications, including controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity and for other aspects of openness. Second, it finds evidence that opening services sectors to foreign providers is a key channel through which services liberalization contributes to improved performance of downstream manufacturing sectors. This finding is robust to instrumenting for the extent of foreign presence in services industries. As most barriers to foreign investment today are not in goods but in services sectors, the findings may strengthen the argument for reform in this area
Trade protection and industry wage structure in Poland by Chor-Ching Goh( Book )
23 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
This study examines the impact of Poland's trade liberalization 1994-2001 on the industry wage structure. The liberalization was undertaken in preparation for Poland's accession to the European Union and was more pronounced in industries with larger shares of unskilled labor. Our analysis indicates that a decrease in an industry tariff was associated with higher wages being earned by workers employed in the industry, controlling for worker characteristics and geographic variables. The result is robust to including year and industry fixed effects, controlling for industry-level exports, imports, concentration, stock of foreign direct investment and capital accumulation. The finding is consistent with liberalization increasing competitive pressures, forcing firms to restructure and improve their productivity, which in turn translates into higher profits being shared with workers. It could also be potentially attributed to trade liberalization lowering the costs of imported inputs which enhances firm profitability. The result holds when skilled workers are excluded from the sample, thus suggesting that reductions in trade barriers benefited the unskilled in terms of an increase in wages
The composition of foreign direct investment and protection of intellectual property rights : evidence from transition economies by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )
9 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 68 libraries worldwide
While existing literature has examined the impact of intellectual property protection on the volume of foreign direct investment (FDI), little is known about its effect on the composition of FDI inflows. Smarzynska addresses this question empirically, using a unique firm-level data set from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. She finds that weak protection deters foreign investors in technology-intensive sectors that rely heavily on intellectual property rights. The results also indicate that a weak intellectual property regime encourages investors to undertake projects focusing on distribution rather than local production. The latter effect is present in all sectors, not just those relying heavily on intellectual property protection. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the effects of intellectual property protection on economic activity. The author may be contacted at
Technological asymmetry among foreign investors and mode of entry by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( file )
15 editions published between 2003 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 68 libraries worldwide
How does the preferred entry mode of foreign investors depend on their technological capability relative to that of their rivals? The authors develop a simple model of entry mode choice and evaluate its main testable implication using data on foreign investors in Eastern European countries and the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The model considers competition between two asymmetric foreign investors and captures the following tradeoffs: while a joint venture helps a foreign investor secure a better position in the product market compared with its rival, it also requires that profits be shared with the local partner. The model predicts that the efficient foreign investor is less likely to choose a joint venture and more likely to enter directly relative to the inefficient investor. The authors' empirical analysis supports this prediction: foreign investors with more sophisticated technologies and marketing skills (relative to other firms in their industry) tend to prefer direct entry to joint ventures. This empirical finding is robust to controlling for host country-specific effects and other commonly cited determinants of entry mode
Technological Leadership and Foreign Investors' Choice of Entry Mode by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( file )
12 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 66 libraries worldwide
Nt to technology transfer. The author may be contacted at
Migrant Networks And Foreign Direct Investment by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( file )
11 editions published between 2006 and 2012 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
While there exists sizeable literature documenting the importance of ethnic networks for international trade, little attention has been devoted to studying the effects of networks on foreign direct investment (FDI). The existence of ethnic networks may positively affect FDI by promoting information flows across international borders and by serving as a contract enforcement mechanism. This paper investigates the link between the presence of migrants in the United States and U.S. FDI in the migrants' countries of origin, taking into account the potential endogeneity concerns. The results suggest that U.S. FDI abroad is positively correlated with the presence of migrants from the host country. The data further indicate that the relationship between FDI and migration is driven by the presence of migrants with a college education
Trade costs and location of foreign firms in China by Mary Amiti( Book )
21 editions published in 2005 in English and Undetermined and held by 52 libraries worldwide
The authors examine the determinants of entry by foreign firms using information on 515 Chinese industries at the provincial level during 1998-2001. The analysis, rooted in the new economic geography, focuses on market and supplier access within and outside the province of entry, as well as production and trade costs. The results indicate that market and supplier access are the most important factors affecting foreign entry. Access to markets and suppliers in the province of entry matters more than access to the rest of China, which is consistent with market fragmentation due to underdeveloped transport infrastructure and informal trade barriers
Openness and industrial response in a Wal-Mart world : a case study of Mexican soaps, detergents, and surfactant producers by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )
20 editions published between 2006 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 48 libraries worldwide
"This paper uses a case study approach to explore the effects of NAFTA and GATT membership on innovation and trade in the Mexican soaps, detergents, and surfactants (SDS) industry. Several basic findings emerge. First, the most fundamental effect of the NAFTA and the GATT on the SDS industry was to help induce Wal-Mart to enter Mexico. Once there, Walmex fundamentally changed the retail sector, forcing SDS firms to cut their profit margins and innovate. Those unable to respond to this new environment tended to lose market share and, in some cases, disappear altogether. Second, partly in response to Walmex, many Mexican producers logged impressive efficiency gains during the previous decade. These gains came both from labor-shedding and from innovation, which in turn was fueled by innovative input suppliers and by multinationals bringing new products and processes from their headquarters to Mexico. Finally, although Mexican detergent exports captured an increasing share of the U.S. detergent market over the past decade, Mexican sales in the U.S. were inhibited by a combination of excessive shipping delays at the border and artificially high input prices (due to Mexican protection of domestic caustic soda suppliers). They were also held back by the major re-tooling costs that Mexican producers would have had to incur to establish brand recognition among non-Latin consumers and to comply with zero phosphate laws in many regions of the U.S."--World Bank web site
Foreign direct investment and integration into global production and distribution networks : the case of Poland by Bartłomiej Kamiński( Book )
8 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 31 libraries worldwide
Integration into the production and marketing arrangements of multinational corporations may offer many benefits to transition economies that, after a long period of isolation, have liberalized trade and investment. The fragmentation of production offers a unique opportunity for producers in developing countries to move from servicing small local markets to supplying large firms abroad and, indirectly, their customers all over the world
The global distribution of trademarks : some stylized facts by Eugenia Baroncelli( Book )
9 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 29 libraries worldwide
Trademarks are words, signs, symbols, or combinations thereof that identify goods as manufactured by a particular person or a company, therefore allowing consumers to distinguish between goods originating in different sources. Trademarks belong to the wider family of intellectual property rights (IPRs), and once registered benefit from legal protection against unauthorized use by entities other than the legal owner. While some suggest that cross-border registrations of IPRs may be associated with welfare transfers from developing to industrial countries, surprisingly little is known about an important component of the global IPR system, namely, the worldwide distribution of trademark registrations. This study provides the first step in filling this gap in the literature. Its purpose is to present some new stylized facts which emerge from the analysis of a dataset compiled by the authors based on the statistical information published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Questions of interest include the distribution of trademarks between countries of different income levels, the share of trademark registrations accounted for by foreign residents and its variation across different income groups, the extent to which poor countries participate in the international trademark system, and the distribution of registrations across different sectors of the economy. The stylized facts presented in this paper indicate that the global distribution of trademarks is skewed toward high-income industrial countries. The data also suggest that trademark registrations are concentrated in research and development-intensive sectors such as pharmaceuticals, scientific equiment, and the chemical industry. This paper is a product of Trade, Development Research Group
Does foreign direct investment increase the productivity of domestic firms? : in search of spillovers through backward linkages by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )
11 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 28 libraries worldwide
Many countries compete against one another in attracting foreign investors by offering ever more generous incentive packages and justifying their actions with the productivity gains that are expected to accrue to domestic producers from knowledge externalities generated by foreign affiliates. Despite this being hugely important to public policy choices, there is little conclusive evidence indicating that domestic firms benefit from foreign presence in their sector. It is possible, though, that researchers have been looking for foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers in the wrong place. Multinationals have an incentive to prevent information leakage that would enhance the performance of their local competitors in the same industry but at the same time may want to transfer knowledge to their local suppliers in other sectors. Spillovers from FDI may be, therefore, more likely to take place through backward linkages--that is, contacts between domestic suppliers of intermediate inputs and their multinational clients--and thus would not have been captured by the earlier literature. This paper focuses on the understudied issue of FDI spillovers through backward linkages and goes beyond existing studies by shedding some light on factors driving this phenomenon. It also improves over existing literature by addressing several econometric problems that may have biased the results of earlier research. Based on a firm-level panel data set from Lithuania, the estimation results are consistent with the existence of productivity spillovers. They suggest that a 10 percent increase in the foreign presence in downstream sectors is associated with 0.38 percent rise in output of each domestic firm in the supplying industry. The data indicate that these spillovers are not restricted geographically, since local firms seem to benefit from the operation of downstream foreign affiliates on their own, as well as in other regions. The results further show that greater productivity benefits are associated with domestic-market, rather than export-oriented, foreign affiliates. But no difference is detected between the effects of fully-owned foreign firms and those with joint domestic and foreign ownership. The findings of a positive correlation between productivity growth of domestic firms and the increase in multinational presence in downstream sectors should not, however, be interpreted as a call for subsidizing FDI. These results are consistent with the existence of knowledge spillovers from foreign affiliates to their local suppliers, but they may also be a result of increased competition in upstream sectors. While the former case would call for offering FDI incentive packages, it would not be the optimal policy in the latter. Certainly more research is needed to disentangle these two effects. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to study the contribution of trade and foreign direct investment to technology transfer
To share or not to share : does local participation matter for spillovers from foreign direct investment? by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )
11 editions published between 2003 and 2014 in 3 languages and held by 28 libraries worldwide
This paper examines whether the degree of spillovers from foreign direct investment is affected by the foreign ownership share in investment projects. The analysis, based on an unbalanced panel of Romanian firms from 1998-2000, provides evidence consistent with positive intrasectoral spillovers resulting from fully-owned foreign affiliates but not from projects with joint domestic and foreign ownership. This finding is consistent with literature suggesting that foreign investors tend to put more resources into technology transfer to their wholly-owned projects than to those owned partially. The data also indicate that the presence of partially foreign-owned projects is correlated with higher productivity of domestic firms in upstream industries, suggesting that domestic suppliers benefit from contacts with multinational customers. But the opposite is true for fully-owned foreign affiliates, which appear to have a negative effect on domestic firms in upstream industries. These results are consistent with the observation that foreign investors entering a host country through greenfield projects are less likely to source locally than those engaged in joint ventures or partial acquisitions. They are also in line with the evidence suggesting that fully-owned foreign subsidiaries use newer or more sophisticated technologies than jointly-owned investment projects, and thus may have higher requirements which only a few, if any, domestic suppliers are able to meet. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on recipient countries
Income-related biases in international trade : what do trademark registration data tell us? by Carsten Fink( Book )
9 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 27 libraries worldwide
Economists have long recognized that richer countries trade more among themselves than with poorer economies due to a closer match of exporter supply structures and importer preferences. In the literature, the closeness of supply and demand has traditionally been determined by the quality of products--as expressed in the so-called Linder hypothesis. This paper examines an extension of the Linder hypothesis by also considering the extent of horizontal product differentiation as another determinant of the closeness of supply and demand. The empirical analysis employs information on international trademark registrations to test whether richer countries import more from countries whose exports are of higher quality and exhibit a greater degree of product differentiation. The results lend support to the hypothesis in most consumer goods sectors but not in intermediate goods sectors. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the economic impact of protecting intellectual property rights in developing countries
Do foreign investors care about labor market regulations? by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )
8 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 25 libraries worldwide
Javorcik and Spatareanu take a new look at the regulatory determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) by asking whether labor market flexibility affects FDI flows across 25 Western and Eastern European countries. Their analysis is based on firm level data on new investments during the 1999-2001 period. The authors employ a variety of labor market flexibility measures that capture different aspects of labor laws along with a comprehensive set of controls for business climate characteristics. Indices of labor market regulations reflect the flexibility of individual and collective dismissals, the length of the notice period, and the required severance payment. The results suggest that greater flexibility in the host country's labor market relative to that in the investor's home country is associated with larger FDI inflows, and this effect is found to be stronger in the case of transition economies. The findings indicate that as the labor market flexibility in the host country increases from inflexible (for example, Slovakia) to flexible (for example, Hungary), the volume of investment increases by between 14 and 18 percent. FDI in service sectors appears to be more affected than investments in manufacturing. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the regulatory determinants of FDI inflows
Never too late to get together again : turning the Czeck and Slovak Customs Union into a stepping stone to EU integration by Bartłomiej Kamiński( Book )
7 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
The Czech and Slovak Customs Union (CSCU), which came into effect in January 1993, differs from regular regional trading arrangements as its goal was to minimize the economic cost of a decline in economic ties between its members rather than to set in motion the mechanism of integration. The creation of the CSCU ensured a smooth and conflict-free break up of Czechoslovakia and resulted in divergence in regulatory regimes of the two republics. This study argues that the process of mutual adjustment triggered by the emergence of national borders is over and that integration within the CSCU, similar in depth and scope to that existing within the European Union (EU), would be a desirable policy objective. By deepening integration, both the Czech and Slovak Republics would be better prepared to handle challenges associated with the EU accession. Such a regulatory realignment would also lower border costs and behind-the-border barriers to trade and result in a more attractive investment environment in both countries. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to study the effects of regional trading arrangements
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Alternative Names
Javorcik, B. S.
Javorcik, Beata 1971-
Javorcik, Beata S.
Javorcik, Beata S. 1971-
Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska
Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska 1971-...
Smarzynska, Beata 1971-
Smarzynska, Beata K.
Smarzynska, Beata K. 1971-
Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata
Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata 1971-
Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata K.
Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata K. 1971-...
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