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Kyle, Margaret K.

Overview
Works: 13 works in 58 publications in 1 language and 255 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 332
Publication Timeline
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Publications about Margaret K Kyle
Publications by Margaret K Kyle
Most widely held works by Margaret K Kyle
Did U.S. bank supervisors get tougher during the credit crunch? Did they get easier during the banking boom? Did it matter to bank lending? by Allen N Berger( Book )
22 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
We test three hypotheses regarding changes in supervisory toughness' and their effects on bank lending. The data provide modest support for all three hypotheses that there was an increase in toughness during the credit crunch period (1989-1992), that there was a decline in toughness during the boom period (1993-1998), and that changes in toughness, if they occurred, affected bank lending. However, all of the measured effects are small, with 1% or less of loans receiving harsher or easier classification, about 3% of banks receiving better or worse CAMEL ratings, and bank lending being changed by 1% or less of assets
Strategic responses to parallel trade by Margaret K Kyle( Book )
8 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 22 libraries worldwide
This paper examines how pharmaceutical firms have responded to changes in intellectual property rights and trade barriers that legalized "parallel imports" within the European Union. The threat of arbitrage by parallel traders reduces the ability of firms to price discriminate across countries. Due to regulations on price and antitrust law on rationing supply, pharmaceutical firms may rely on non-price responses. Such responses include differentiation of products across countries and selective "culling" of product lines to reduce arbitrage opportunities, as well as raising arbitrageurs' costs through choice of packaging. Using a dataset of drug prices and sales from 1993-2004 covering 30 countries, I find evidence that the behavior of pharmaceutical firms in the EU with respect to their product portfolios is consistent with attempts to reduce parallel trade. This may at least partially explain why parallel trade has not yet resulted in significant price convergence across EU countries. Accounting for non-price strategic responses may therefore be important in assessing the welfare effects of parallel imports
Investments in pharmaceuticals before and after TRIPS by Margaret K Kyle( Book )
7 editions published between 2009 and 2011 in English and held by 21 libraries worldwide
We examine the relationship between patent protection for pharmaceuticals and investment in development of new drugs. Patent protection has increased around the world as a consequence of the TRIPS Agreement, which specifies minimum levels of intellectual property protection for members of the World Trade Organization. It is generally argued that patents are critical for pharmaceutical research efforts, and so greater patent protection in developing and least-developed countries might result in greater effort by pharmaceutical firms to develop drugs that are especially needed in those countries. Since patents also have the potential to reduce access to treatments through higher prices, it is imperative to assess whether the benefits of increased incentives have materialized in research on diseases that particularly affect the poor. We find that patent protection is associated with increases in research and development (R & D) effort when adopted in high income countries. However, the introduction of patents in developing countries has not been followed by greater investment. Particularly for diseases that primarily affect the poorest countries, our results suggest that alternative mechanisms for inducing R & D may be more appropriate than patents
Inefficiencies in technology transfer : theory and empirics by Marie-Laure Allain( Book )
4 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
Markets for technology can promote innovation by allowing for division of labor in research and development. Some firms may specialize in the discovery of ideas, while others have a comparative advantage in later stages of development and marketing. However, these gains depend on the timing of technology transfer: the buyer of an idea should take over development at the stage at which he has an efficiency advantage. We show that in an environment with asymmetric information about the value of the idea and where this asymmetry decreases as the product is developed, deviations from the optimal timing of technology transfer will occur. We obtain a condition for the optimal timing to take place and show that the intensity of competition between potential buyers has countervailing effects on this condition. An empirical analysis of licensing contracts signed between biotechnology firms and large pharmaceutical firms confirms our theoretical predictions
Public-private interaction and the productivity of pharmaceutical research by Iain Cockburn( Book )
5 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
While there is widespread agreement among economists and management scholars that knowledge spillovers exist and have important economic consequences, researchers know substantially less about the "micro mechanisms" of spillovers -- about the degree to which they are geographically localized, for example, or about the degree to which spillovers from public institutions are qualitatively different from those from privately owned firms (Jaffe, 1986; Krugman, 1991; Jaffe et al., 1993; Porter, 1990). In this paper we make use of the geographic distribution of the research activities of major global pharmaceutical firms to explore the extent to which knowledge spills over from proximate private and public institutions. Our data and empirical approach allow us to make advances on two dimensions. First, by focusing on spillovers in research productivity (as opposed to manufacturing productivity), we build closely on the theoretical literature on spillovers that suggests that knowledge externalities are likely to have the most immediate impact on the production of ideas (Romer, 1986; Aghion & Howitt, 1997). Second, our data allow us to distinguish spillovers from public research from spillovers from private, or competitively funded research, and to more deeply explore the role that institutions and geographic proximity play in driving knowledge spillovers
Parallel trade in pharmaceuticals : firm responses and competition policy by Margaret K Kyle( Article )
2 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
Pharmaceutical industry and competition law : [roundtable] ( Article )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Entry and exit in innovative industries by Margaret K Kyle( Archival Material )
2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
The central theme of this dissertation is that the interaction between firm characteristics and market characteristics is crucial to understanding the evolution of market structure, competition, and firm behavior. I integrate ideas from industrial organization and strategic management in an empirical examination of two innovative industries: pharmaceuticals and laser printers. Chapter 1 provides an overview of this work and discusses its broader implications. In Chapter 2, a range of econometric models for a firm's decision to launch a new pharmaceutical product in 21 OECD countries is estimated. The results suggest that the interaction between the innovating firm, drug, and target country is a critical component of profitability, and that regulations may not affect firms and products uniformly. Chapter 3 considers how entry is influenced by the characteristics of incumbent firms and other potential competitors in a subset of pharmaceutical markets. In an extension to previous structural entry papers, this work explores the effect of competing with other firms that might have an asymmetric effect on profits. Chapter 4 examines the roles of market structure, product characteristics, and firm characteristics in explaining patterns of product entry and exit in the desktop laser printer industry. I find that firms with complementary assets are less sensitive to competition from similar products than are firms without these assets. Not only do the products of complementary asset firms survive longer, but such firms are more likely to introduce new products in crowded market segments
Intellectual property rights and access to innovation : evidence from TRIPS by Margaret K Kyle( Book )
3 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
We examine the effect of pharmaceutical patent protection on the speed of drug launch, price, and quantity in 60 countries from 2000-2013. The World Trade Organization required its member countries to implement a minimum level of patent protection within a specified time period as part of the TRIPS Agreement. However, members retained the right to impose price controls and to issue compulsory licenses under certain conditions. These countervailing policies were intended to reduce the potential static losses that result from reduced competition during the patent term. We take advantage of the fact that at the product level, selection into TRIPS "treatment" is exogenously determined by compliance deadlines that vary across countries. We find that patents have important consequences for access to new drugs: in the absence of a patent, launch is unlikely. That is, even when no patent barrier exists, generic entry may not occur. Conditional on launch, patented drugs have higher prices but higher sales as well. The price premium associated with patents is smaller in poorer countries. Price discrimination across countries has increased for drugs patented post-TRIPS and prices are negatively related to the burden of disease, suggesting that countervailing policies to offset expected price increases may have had the intended effects
Did US bank supervisors get tougher during the credit crunch? Did they get easier during the banking boom? Did it matter to bank lending? by Allen N Berger( Article )
1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Competition and the efficiency of markets for technology by Marie-Laure Allain( file )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Entry in pharmaceutical markets by Margaret K Kyle( Book )
1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
 
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Alternative Names
Kelly Kyle, Margaret
Kyle, Margaret
Kyle, Margaret Kelly
Languages
English (57)
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