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Caruana, Leonard

Overview
Works: 5 works in 15 publications in 2 languages and 79 library holdings
Genres: History 
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Leonard Caruana
Publications by Leonard Caruana
Most widely held works by Leonard Caruana
An elephant in the garden the Allies, Spain, and oil in World War II by Leonard Caruana( file )
6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 48 libraries worldwide
"During World War II the Allies controlled Spain's oil supply in order to limit Spain's support for the Axis. This experiment with sanctions is unusually informative because a wide range of policies was tried over a long period. Three episodes are of special interest: (1) a total embargo on oil for Spain in 1940 that was surprisingly successful in dissuading Spain from joining the Axis; (2) a period of reduced supplies in 1941-42 that we call "the Squeeze" that was only partially successful; and (3) a second total embargo in 1944 that was a disappointment for the Allies, given the course of the war, that produced a rift between Churchill and Roosevelt. Our analysis is based on new monthly estimates of Spain's imports of gasoline and other petroleum products, which we describe in the text and report in the appendix. These estimates allow us to draw a clearer picture of the oil sanctions than has been possible in the past"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
A wolfram in sheep's clothing : U.S. economic warfare in Spain, 1940-1944 by Leonard Caruana( Book )
5 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 27 libraries worldwide
One of the most sustained uses of economic warfare by the United States occurred in Spain during WWII. We provide an overview of this episode based on the secondary literature and new research in the Spanish archives. We focus on three key battles: (1) an oil embargo against Spain in the summer of 1940, (2) pre-emptive buying of wolfram (tungsten ore) during the middle years of the war, and (3) a second oil embargo in the first months of 1944. The first oil embargo, although launched when Germany was going from victory to victory, was successful in helping keep Spain neutral because it forced the Franco regime to rethink the costs of joining the war. Pre-emptive buying of wolfram was also successful. It forced Germany to pay more for and to consume less tungsten, a material crucial for hardening steel. Ironically, the second oil embargo, undertaken when the Germans were retreating on all fronts, was less successful. The major goal, halting shipments of wolfram to Germany, was not fully realized. Several special circumstances, in particular the naval blockade and the tendency of sanctions and incentives to push the Franco regime in the direction consistent with its long-run survival, help explain the successes
Nacionalismo e integración : las bases materiales y morales de la inserción de España en Europa hasta fines del siglo XIX by Leonard Caruana( Computer File )
2 editions published in 2000 in Spanish and held by 2 libraries worldwide
A wolfram in sheep's clothing : economic warfare in Spain and Portugal, 1940 - 1944 by Leonard Caruana( Book )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
La crisis de Oriente Medio: Palestina by Leonardo Caruana de las Cagigas( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2002 in Spanish and held by 1 library worldwide
 
Alternative Names
Cagigas, Leonardo Caruana de las
Cagigas, Leonardo Caruana de las 1960-
Caruana de las Cagigas, Leonardo
Caruana de las Cagigas, Leonardo 1960-
Caruana, Leonardo 1960-
Languages
English (12)
Spanish (3)
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