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Elbers, Chris

Overview
Works: 46 works in 111 publications in 1 language and 620 library holdings
Roles: Author, Creator
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 339.2
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Chris Elbers
Publications by Chris Elbers
Most widely held works by Chris Elbers
Re-Interpreting Sub-Group Inequality Decompositions by Chris Elbers( file )
9 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
The authors propose a modification to the conventional approach of decomposing income inequality by population sub-groups. Specifically, they propose a measure that evaluates observed between-group inequality against a benchmark of maximum between-group inequality that can be attained when the number and relative sizes of groups under examination are fixed. The authors argue that such a modification can provide a complementary perspective on the question of whether a particular population breakdown is salient to an assessment of inequality in a country. As their measure normalizes between-group inequality by the number and relative sizes of groups, it is also less subject to problems of comparability across different settings. The authors show that for a large set of countries their assessment of the importance of group differences typically increases substantially on the basis of this approach. The ranking of countries (or different population groups) can also differ from that obtained using traditional decomposition methods. Finally, they observe an interesting pattern of higher levels of overall inequality in countries where their measure finds higher between-group contributions
Poverty alleviation through geographic targeting how much does disaggregation help? by Chris Elbers( file )
8 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 53 libraries worldwide
"Using recently completed "poverty maps" for Cambodia, Ecuador, and Madagascar, the authors simulate the impact on poverty of transferring an exogenously given budget to geographically defined subgroups of the population according to their relative poverty status. They find large gains from targeting smaller administrative units, such as districts or villages. But these gains are still far from the poverty reduction that would be possible had the planners had access to information on household level income or consumption. The results suggest that a useful way forward might be to combine fine geographic targeting using a poverty map with within-community targeting mechanisms. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to develop tools for the analysis of poverty and income distribution"--World Bank web site
How Good A Map ? Putting Small Area Estimation To The Test by Gabriel Demombynes( file )
6 editions published between 2007 and 2012 in English and held by 39 libraries worldwide
The authors examine the performance of small area welfare estimation. The method combines census and survey data to produce spatially disaggregated poverty and inequality estimates. To test the method, they compare predicted welfare indicators for a set of target populations with their true values. They construct target populations using actual data from a census of households in a set of rural Mexican communities. They examine estimates along three criteria: accuracy of confidence intervals, bias, and correlation with true values. The authors find that while point estimates are very stable, the precision of the estimates varies with alternative simulation methods. While the original approach of numerical gradient estimation yields standard errors that seem appropriate, some computationally less-intensive simulation procedures yield confidence intervals that are slightly too narrow. The precision of estimates is shown to diminish markedly if unobserved location effects at the village level are not well captured in underlying consumption models. With well specified models there is only slight evidence of bias, but the authors show that bias increases if underlying models fail to capture latent location effects. Correlations between estimated and true welfare at the local level are highest for mean expenditure and poverty measures and lower for inequality measures
Imputed welfare estimates in regression analysis by Chris Elbers( file )
3 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 37 libraries worldwide
The authors discuss the use of imputed data in regression analysis, in particular the use of highly disaggregated welfare indicators (from so-called "poverty maps"). They show that such indicators can be used both as explanatory variables on the right-hand side and as the phenomenon to explain on the left-hand side. The authors try out practical ways of adjusting standard errors of the regression coefficients to reflect the error introduced by using imputed, rather than actual, welfare indicators. These are illustrated by regression experiments based on data from Ecuador. For regressions with imputed variables on the left-hand side, the authors argue that essentially the same aggregate relationships would be found with either actual or imputed variables. They address the methodological question of how to interpret aggregate relationships found in such regressions
On the unequal inequality of poor communities ( file )
2 editions published in 2004 in Undetermined and English and held by 36 libraries worldwide
Imputed welfare estimates in regression analysis by Chris Elbers( Book )
7 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
Elbers, Lanjouw, and Lanjouw discuss the use of imputed data in regression analysis, in particular the use of highly disaggregated welfare indicators (from so-called "poverty maps"). They show that such indicators can be used both as explanatory variables on the right-hand side and as the phenomenon to explain on the left-hand side. The authors try out practical ways of adjusting standard errors of the regression coefficients to reflect the error introduced by using imputed, rather than actual, welfare indicators. These are illustrated by regression experiments based on data from Ecuador. For regressions with imputed variables on the left-hand side, the authors argue that essentially the same aggregate relationships would be found with either actual or imputed variables. They address the methodological question of how to interpret aggregate relationships found in such regressions. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to develop methods of welfare estimation at the micro level
Micro-level estimation of welfare by Jean Olson Lanjouw( file )
4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 34 libraries worldwide
The authors construct and derive the properties of estimators of welfare that take advantage of the detailed information about living standards available in small household surveys and the comprehensive coverage of a census or large sample. By combining the strengths of each, the estimators can be used at a remarkably disaggregated level. They have a clear interpretation, are mutually comparable, and can be assessed for reliability using standard statistical theory. Using data from Ecuador, the authors obtain estimates of welfare measures, some of which are quite reliable for populations as small as 15,000 households--a "town." They provide simple illustrations of their use. Such estimates open up the possibility of testing, at a more convincing intra-country level, the many recent models relating welfare distributions to growth and a variety of socioeconomic and political outcomes. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to develop tools for the analysis of poverty and income distribution
On the unequal inequality of poor communities by Chris Elbers( Book )
6 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and held by 26 libraries worldwide
Important differences exist between communities with respect to their needs, capacities, and circumstances. As central governments are not able to discern these differences fully, they seek to achieve their policy objectives by relying on decentralized mechanisms that use local information. However, household and individual characteristics within communities can also vary substantially. A growing theoretical literature suggests that inequality within communities can influence policy outcomes, and that this influence could be harmful or helpful, depending on the circumstances. Empirical investigations into the impact of inequality have, to date, largely been held back by a lack of systematic evidence on community-level inequality. The authors use household survey and population census data to estimate per capita consumption inequality within communities in three developing countries: Ecuador, Madagascar, and Mozambique. Communities are found to vary markedly from one another in terms of the degree of inequality they exhibit. The authors also show that there should be no presumption that inequality is less severe in poor communities. They argue that the kind of community-level inequality estimates generated in this paper can be used in designing and evaluating decentralized antipoverty programs
Micro-level estimation of welfare by Chris Elbers( Book )
5 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
Are neighbors equal? : estimating local inequality in three developing countries by Chris Elbers( Book )
6 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 19 libraries worldwide
Primary education in Zambia by A. A. M. de Kemp( Book )
2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
Growth regressions and economic theory by C Elbers( Book )
3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 5 libraries worldwide
Convergence, shocks and poverty: micro evidence on growth under uncertainty by C Elbers( Book )
3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 5 libraries worldwide
Insurance and rural welfare: what can panel data tell us? by Chris Elbers( Book )
6 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Assessing the scope for insurance in rural communities usually requires a structural model of household behavior under risk. One of the few empirical applications of such models is the study by Rosenzweig and Wolpin (1993) who conclude that Indian farmers in the ICRISAT villages would not benefit from the introduction of formal weather insurance. In this paper we investigate how models such as theirs can be estimated from panel data on production and assets. We show that if assets can take only a limited number of values the coefficients of the model cannot be estimated with reasonable precision. We also show that this can affect the conclusion that insurance would not be welfare improving
Evaluation of development policy : treatment versus program effects by C Elbers( Book )
2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
There is a growing interest, notably in development economics, in extending project evaluation methods to the evaluation of multiple interventions ("programs"). In program evaluations one is interested in the aggregate impact of a program rather than the effect on individual beneficiaries. In many situations randomized controlled trials cannot identify this impact. We propose a measure of program impact, the total program effect (TPE), which is a generalization of the treatment effect on the treated (ATET). We show how the TPE can be estimated
Welfare in villages and towns : micro-measurement of poverty and inequality by Chris Elbers( Book )
2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Vulnerability in a stochastic dynamic model by C Elbers( Book )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Most measures of vulnerability are a-theoretic and essentially static. In this paper we use a stochastic Ramsey model to find a household's optimal welfare and we measure vulnerability as the shortfall from the welfare attained if the household consumed permanently at the poverty line. The results indicate that vulnerability is very sensitive to the time horizon considered. We find that the accuracy of existing regression-based vulnerability measures can be greatly improved by including asset measures in the regression
Evaluation of Development Programs Randomized Controlled Trials or Regressions? by Chris Elbers( file )
2 editions published in 2013 in Undetermined and English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Can project evaluation methods be used to evaluate programs: complex interventions involving multiple activities? A program evaluation cannot be based simply on separate evaluations of its components if interactions between the activities are important. In this paper a measure is proposed, the total program effect (TPE), which is an extension of the average treatment effect on the treated (ATET). It explicitly takes into account that in the real world (with heterogeneous treatment effects) individual treatment effects and program assignment are often correlated. The TPE can also deal with the common situation in which such a correlation is the result of decisions on (intended) program participation not being taken centrally. In this context RCTs are less suitable even for the simplest interventions. The TPE can be estimated by applying regression techniques to observational data from a representative sample from the targeted population. The approach is illustrated with an evaluation of a health insurance program in Vietnam
Growth and risk : methodology and micro evidence by C Elbers( Book )
3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
There has been a revival of interest in the effect of risk on economic growth. We quantify both ex ante and ex post effects of risk using a stochastic version of the Ramsey model. We develop a simulation-based econometric methodology which allows us to estimate the model in the structural form suggested by theory. The methodology is applied to micro data from a remarkable long-running panel data set for rural households in Zimbabwe. We find that risk substantially reduces growth: in the ergodic distribution the mean (across households) capital stock is 46% lower than in the absence of risk. This is, we believe, the first micro-based estimate of the effect of shocks on growth. About two-thirds of the impact of risk is due to the ex ante effect (i.e. the behavioral response to risk) which is usually not taken into account in policy design. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of policy interventions which reduce exposure to shocks or help households in risk man!agement may be seriously underestimated
Estimation of normal mixtures in a nested error model with an application to small area estimation of poverty and inequality by Chris Elbers( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper proposes a method for estimating distribution functions that are associated with the nested errors in linear mixed models. The estimator incorporates Empirical Bayes prediction while making minimal assumptions about the shape of the error distributions. The application presented in this paper is the small area estimation of poverty and inequality, although this denotes by no means the only application. Monte-Carlo simulations show that estimates of poverty and inequality can be severely biased when the non-normality of the errors is ignored. The bias can be as high as 2 to 3 percent on a poverty rate of 20 to 30 percent. Most of this bias is resolved when using the proposed estimator. The approach is applicable to both survey-to-census and survey-to-survey prediction
 
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Alternative Names
Elbers, Chris
Elbers, Christianus Theodorus Maria
Languages
English (78)
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