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Milligan, Kevin

Works: 37 works in 206 publications in 2 languages and 1,388 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
Publication Timeline
Publications about Kevin Milligan
Publications by Kevin Milligan
Most widely held works by Kevin Milligan
Incentive effects of social assistance : a regression discontinuity approach by Thomas Lemieux( Book )
16 editions published between 2004 and 2006 in English and held by 56 libraries worldwide
We examine the incentive effects of transfer programs using a unique policy episode. Prior to 1989, social assistance recipients without children in Quebec who were under age 30 received benefits 60 percent lower than recipients older than 30. We use this sharp discontinuity in policy to estimate the effects of social assistance on various labour market outcomes and on living arrangements using a regression discontinuity approach. We find strong evidence that more generous social assistance benefits reduce employment, and more suggestive evidence that they affect marital status and living arrangements. The regression discontinuity estimates exhibit little sensitivity to the degree of flexibility in the specification, and perform very well when we control for unobserved heterogeneity using a first difference specification. Finally, we show that commonly used difference-in-difference estimators may perform poorly when control groups are inappropriately chosen
The retirement incentive effects of Canada's income security programs by Michael Baker( Book )
13 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 54 libraries worldwide
Abstract: Like most other developed nations, Canada has a large income security system for retirement that provides significant and widely varying disincentives to work at older ages. Empirical investigation of their effects has been hindered by lack of appropriate data. We provide an empirical analysis of the retirement incentives of the Canadian Income Security (IS) system using a new and comprehensive administrative data base. We find that the work disincentives inherent in the Canadian IS system have large and statistically significant impacts on retirement. This suggests that program reform can some play a role in responses to the fiscal crises these programs periodically experience. We also demonstrate the importance of controlling for lifetime earnings in retirement models. Specifications without these controls overestimate the effects of the IS system. Finally, our estimates vary in sensible ways across samples lending greater confidence to our estimates
Simulating the response to reform of Canada's income security programs by Michael Baker( Book )
11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 53 libraries worldwide
We explore the fiscal implications of reforms to the Canadian retirement income system by decomposing the fiscal effect of reforms into two components. The mechanical effect captures the change in the government's budget assuming no behavioral response to the reform. The second component is the fiscal implication of the behavioral effect, which captures the influence of any induced changes in elderly labor supply on government budgets. We find that the behavioral response can account for up to half of the total impact of reform on government budgets. The behavioral response affects government budgets not only in the retirement income system but also through increased income, payroll, and consumption tax revenue on any induced labor market earnings among the elderly. We show that fully accounting for the behavioral response to reforms can change the cost estimates and distributive impact of retirement income reforms
Does education improve citizenship? evidence from the U.S. and the U.K. by Kevin Milligan( Book )
12 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 42 libraries worldwide
Many economists and educators of diverse political beliefs favor public support for education on the premise that a more educated electorate enhances the quality of democracy. While some earlier studies document an association between schooling and citizenship, little attempt has been made to address the possibility that unobservable characteristics of citizens underlie this relationship. This paper explores the effect of extra schooling induced through compulsory schooling laws on the likelihood of becoming politically involved in the US and the UK. We find that educational attainment is related to several measures of political interest and involvement in both countries. For voter turnout, we find a strong and robust relationship between education and voting for the US, but not for the UK. Using the information on validated voting, we find that misreporting of voter status can not explain our estimates. Our results suggest that the observed drop in voter turnout in the US from 1964 to 2000 would have been 10.4 to 12.3 percentage points greater if high school attainment had stayed at 1964 rates, holding all else constant. However, when we condition on registration, our US results approach the UK findings. This may indicate that registration rules present a barrier to low-educated citizens' participation
The integration of child tax credits and welfare : evidence from the national child benefit program by Kevin Milligan( Book )
11 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
"In 1998, the Canadian government introduced a new child tax credit. The innovation in the program was its integration with social assistance (welfare). Some provinces agreed to subtract the new federally-paid benefits from provincially-paid social assistance, partially lowering the welfare wall. Three provinces did not integrate benefits, providing a quasi-experimental framework for estimation. We find large changes in social assistance take-up and employment in provinces that provided the labour market incentives to do so. In our sample, the integration of benefits can account for around one third of the total decline in social assistance receipt between 1997 and 2000"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Life-cycle asset accumulation and allocation in Canada by Kevin Milligan( Book )
11 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 37 libraries worldwide
This paper documents the life-cycle patterns of household portfolios in Canada, and investigates several hypotheses about asset accumulation and allocation. Inferences are drawn from the 1999 Survey of Financial Security, with some comparisons to earlier wealth surveys from 1977 and 1984. I find cross-sectional evidence for asset decumulation at older ages when annuitized assets like pension wealth are included in the analysis. I also find that the portfolio share of financial assets increases sharply with age, while indicators of risk tolerance appear to decrease. This is consistent with families desiring more liquid and less risky assets as they age
Universal childcare, maternal labor supply, and family well-being by Michael Baker( Book )
9 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
The growing labor force participation of women with small children in both the U.S. and Canada has led to calls for increased public financing for childcare. The optimality of public financing depends on a host of factors, such as the "crowd-out" of existing childcare arrangements, the impact on female labor supply, and the effects on child well-being. The introduction of universal, highly-subsidized childcare in Quebec in the late 1990s provides an opportunity to address these issues. We carefully analyze the impacts of Quebec's "$5 per day childcare" program on childcare utilization, labor supply, and child (and parent) outcomes in two parent families. We find strong evidence of a shift into new childcare use, although approximately one third of the newly reported use appears to come from women who previously worked and had informal arrangements. The labor supply impact is highly significant, and our measured elasticity of 0.136 is slightly smaller than previous credible estimates. Finally, we uncover striking evidence that children are worse off in a variety of behavioral and health dimensions, ranging from aggression to motor-social skills to illness. Our analysis also suggests that the new childcare program led to more hostile, less consistent parenting, worse parental health, and lower-quality parental relationships
How does job-protected maternity leave affect mothers' employment and infant health? by Michael Baker( Book )
11 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 31 libraries worldwide
Maternity leaves can affect mothers' and infants' welfare if they first affect the amount of time working women stay at home post birth. We provide new evidence of the labor supply effects of these leaves from an analysis of the introduction and expansion of job-protected maternity leave in Canada. The substantial variation in leave entitlements across mothers by time and space is likely exogenous to their unobserved characteristics. This is important because unobserved heterogeneity correlated with leave entitlement potentially biases many previous studies of this topic. We find that modest mandates of 17-18 weeks do not increase the time mothers spend at home. The physical demands of birth and private arrangements appear to render short mandates redundant. These mandates do, however, decrease the proportion of women quitting their jobs, increase leave taking, and increase the proportion returning to their pre-birth employers. In contrast, we find that expansions of job-protected leaves to lengths up to 70 weeks do increase the time spent at home (as well as leave-taking and job continuity). We also examine whether this increase in time at home affects infant health, finding no evidence of an effect on the incidence of low birth weight or infant mortality
Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health : evidence from maternity leave mandates by Michael Baker( Book )
8 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
"Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data."--Abstract
How household portfolios evolve after retirement : the effect of aging and health shocks by Courtney Coile( Book )
10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 23 libraries worldwide
In this paper, we study how the portfolios of elderly U.S. households evolve after retirement, using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In particular, we investigate the influence of aging and health shocks on a household's ownership of various assets and on the dollar value and share of total assets held in each asset class. We find that households decrease their ownership of most asset classes as they age, with the strongest evidence for principal residences and vehicles, while increasing the share of assets held in bank accounts and CDs. Consistent with prior studies, we find that the death of a spouse is a strong predictor of selling the principal residence. However, we find that widowhood also leads households to sell vehicles, businesses, and real estate and to put money into bank accounts and CDs, and further that other health shocks have very similar impacts. Finally, we explore why health shocks affect asset holdings and find that the effect of a shock is greatly magnified when households have physical or mental impairments. This suggests that factors other than standard risk and return considerations may weigh heavily in many older households' portfolio decisions
Regional grants as pork barrel politics by Kevin Milligan( Book )
8 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
We investigate the political and economic factors influencing the allocation of regional development grants for a panel of Canadian electoral districts in the 1988-2001 period. In a strong party system such as Canada’s, models of political competition predict little role for individual legislators, as party leaders allocate resources to maximize party success. While spending is targeted toward some swingʺ districts, we do also find it is higher in districts represented by members of the government party, especially those in the federal Cabinet, and those of lower seniority. We develop a model featuring bargaining over legislative and nonlegislative favours that is consistent with the evidence
Son preference and the persistence of culture : evidence from Asian immigrants to Canada by Douglas Almond( Book )
6 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
Sex ratios at birth are above the biologically normal level in a number of Asian countries, notably India and China. Standard explanations include poverty and a cultural emphasis on male offspring. We study Asian immigrants to Canada using Census data, focussing on sex ratios across generations and religious groups. We find sex ratios to be normal at first parity, but rising with parity if there were no previous son. Since these immigrants are neither poor nor live in a society tolerant of sex discrimination/sex selection, our findings are more consistent with a preference for sons per se (and not for sons as a means to, e.g., old age support). Additionally, we uncover strong differences by religious affiliation that align with historical differences in doctrine concerning infanticide. Comparing across generations of Asian immigrants, we find fertility responds strongly to the sex composition of older children for first generation families. For the second generation, expression of son preference through the fertility channel is muted whereas sex selection seems to persist
Evidence from maternity leave expansions of the impact of maternal care on early child development by Michael Baker( Book )
8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent between 48 and 58 percent more time not working in the first year of their children's lives. We find that this extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed non-relatives, and replaced mostly full-time work. However, the estimates suggest a weak impact of the increase in maternal care on indicators of child development. Measures of family environment and motor-social development showed changes very close to zero. Some improvements in temperament were observed but occurred both for treated and untreated children
Do child tax benefits affect the wellbeing of children? : evidence from Canadian child benefit expansions by Kevin Milligan( Book )
8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
A vast literature has examined the impact of family income on the health and development outcomes of children. One channel through which increased income may operate is an improvement in a family's ability to provide food, shelter, clothing, books, and other expenditure-related inputs to a child's development. In addition to this channel, many scholars have investigated the relationship between income and the psychological wellbeing of the family. By reducing stress and conflict, more income helps to foster an environment more conducive to healthy child development. In this paper, we exploit changes in child benefits in Canada to study these questions. Importantly, our approach allows us to make stronger causal inferences than has been possible with the existing, mostly correlational, evidence. Using variation in child benefits across province, time, and family type, we study outcomes spanning test scores, mental health, physical health, and deprivation measures. The findings suggest that child benefit programs in Canada had significant positive effects on test scores, as has been featured in the existing literature. However, we also find that several measures of both child and maternal mental health and well-being show marked improvement with higher child benefits. We find strong and interesting differences in the effects of benefits by sex of the child: benefits have stronger effects on educational outcomes and physical health for boys, and on mental health outcomes for girls. Our findings also provide some support for the hypothesis that income transfers operate through measures of family emotional well-being
Social security programs and retirement around the world : the relationship to youth employment, introduction and summary by Jonathan Gruber( Book )
6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
This is the introduction and summary to the fourth phase of an ongoing project on Social Security Programs and Retirement Around the World. The first phase described the retirement incentives inherent in plan provisions and documented the strong relationship across countries between social security incentives to retire and the proportion of older persons out of the labor force. The second phase documented the large effects that changing plan provisions would have on the labor force participation of older workers. The third phase demonstrated the consequent fiscal implications that extending labor force participation would have on net program costs--reducing government social security benefit payments and increasing government tax revenues. This volume presents the results of analyses of the relationship between the labor force participation of older persons and the labor force participation of younger persons in twelve countries. Why countries introduced plan provisions that encouraged older persons to leave the labor force is unclear. After the fact, it is now often claimed that these provisions were introduced to provide more jobs for the young, assuming that fewer older persons in the labor force would open up more job opportunities for the young. Now, the same reasoning is often used to argue against efforts in the same countries to reduce or eliminate the incentives for older persons to leave the labor force, claiming that the consequent increase in the employment of older person would reduce the employment of younger persons. The validity of such claims is addressed in this volume
Nouvelle analyse des tendances récentes de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt au Canada au moyen des données de recensement by Marc Frenette( Book )
3 editions published in 2006 in French and held by 9 libraries worldwide
Nous présentons de nouveaux résultats concernant les niveaux et les tendances de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt au Canada au cours de la période allant de 1980 à 2000. Nous soutenons que les sources de données existantes ne révèlent pas nécessairement les variations dans les queues de la distribution du revenu alors qu'une grande part des changements que subit cette distribution s'y produisent. Nos données sont tirées des fichiers du recensement et complétées par des estimations de l'impôt payé calculées d'après les renseignements disponibles dans les bases de données fiscales administratives. Nous validons notre méthode de prévision de l'impôt payé par les individus repris dans les fichiers de recensement, puis nous comparons les niveaux et les tendances de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt déterminés d'après notre nouvelle source de données et d'après les données d'enquête généralement utilisées. Nous constatons que l'inégalité du revenu après impôt est considérablement plus importante si l'on se fonde sur les nouvelles données, principalement parce que les niveaux de revenu à l'extrémité inférieure de la distribution sont plus faibles qu'avec les données d'enquête habituelles. Les nouvelles données révèlent un accroissement plus important de l'inégalité du revenu après impôt à long terme et une variabilité nettement plus forte au cours du cycle économique. Ces résultats soulèvent des questions intéressantes quant au rôle du régime d'impôt et de transferts dans l'atténuation des tendances et des fluctuations de l'inégalité du revenu du marché
Health and Work At Older Ages Using Mortality To Assess Employment Capacity Across Countries by Kevin Milligan( Book )
5 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
While longevity increased substantially over the last 50 years and health at older ages has improved, labor force participation at older ages has declined. We use mortality rates as a marker for the 'health capacity'Ö to work at older ages in 12 OECD countries. Mortality rates can be compared across countries and over time within the same country. For a given level of mortality, we find employment rates of older men vary substantially through time and across countries. At each mortality rate in 2007, if men in France worked as much as men in the United States, they would work 4.6 years more over ages 55 to 69 than they actually did. Comparing the work and mortality of American men in 2007 to the base year of 1977, the same calculation yields 3.7 years more work. These findings suggest a large increase in the health capacity to work, as measured by mortality. The relationship between cross-country mortality and changes in work over time at older ages is weak, suggesting the take-up of this extra capacity to work has varied. However, the dispersion in employment given mortality is strongly influenced by the retirement incentives inherent in public pension programs -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
How is Economic Hardship Avoided by Those Retiring Before the Social Security Entitlement Age? by Kevin Milligan( Book )
6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
Governments around the world are reacting to extended lifespans and troubled pension finances by increasing the age of retirement benefit entitlement. One concern that arises is how those who are not working before reaching entitlement age are able to bridge their consumption to the age of entitlement. This paper studies those who retire before the age of full pension entitlement in the United States using data drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. The major finding is that four out of five people who have zero earnings at pre-entitlement ages are able to find a way to lift their incomes over the poverty line. For men, pension and annuity income is important while for women, spousal income helps most to get them over the line. Reaching the early retirement entitlement age at 62 also has a significant impact on poverty avoidance -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Maternity Leave and Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Development by Michael Baker( Book )
6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
We investigate the impact of maternity leave on the cognitive and behavioral development of children at ages 4 and 5. The impact is identified by legislated increases in the duration of maternity leave in Canada, which significantly increased the amount of maternal care children received in the second half of their first year. We carefully document that other observable inputs to child development do not vary across cohorts of children exposed to different maternity leave regimes. Our results indicate that these changes had no positive effect on indices of children's cognitive and behavioral development. We uncover a small negative impact on PPVT and Who Am I? scores, which suggests the timing of the mother/child separation due to the mother's return to work may be important
Effets incitatifs associés à l'aide sociale : approche de discontinuité de la régression by Thomas Lemieux( Book )
3 editions published in 2006 in French and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Avant 1989, les bénéficiaires sans enfants de l'aide sociale au Québec qui étaient âgés de moins de 30 ans touchaient des prestations beaucoup moins élevées que les bénéficiaires âgés de plus de 30 ans. Les auteurs ont utilisé cette discontinuité précise dans la politique pour estimer les effets de l'aide sociale sur divers résultats sur le marché du travail, à partir d'une approche de discontinuité de la régression
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Alternative Names
Milligan, K.
Milligan, K. S.
Milligan, Kevin S.
English (165)
French (6)
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