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Longstaff, Francis A. 1956-

Works: 49 works in 216 publications in 1 language and 1,224 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
Publication Timeline
Publications about Francis A Longstaff
Publications by Francis A Longstaff
Most widely held works by Francis A Longstaff
Paper millionaires : how valuable is stock to a stockholder who is restricted from selling it? by Matthias Kahl( Book )
13 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 52 libraries worldwide
Many firms have stockholders who face severe restrictions on their ability to sell their shares and diversify the risk of their personal wealth. We study the costs of these liquidity restrictions on stockholders using a continuous-time portfolio choice framework. These restrictions have major effects on the optimal investment and consumption strategies because of the need to hedge the illiquid stock position and smooth consumption in anticipation of the eventual lapse of the restrictions. These results provide a number of important insights about the effects of illiquidity in financial markets
The market price of credit risk : an empirical analysis of interest rate swap spreads by Jun Liu( Book )
12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 52 libraries worldwide
This paper studies the market price of credit risk incorporated into one of the most important credit spreads in the financial markets: interest rate swap spreads. Our approach consists of jointly modeling the swap and Treasury term structures using a general five-factor affine credit framework and estimating the parameters by maximum likelihood. We solve for the implied special financing rate for Treasury bonds and find that the liquidity component of on-the-run bond prices can be significant. We also find that credit premia in swap spreads are positive on average. These premia, however, vary significantly over time and were actually negative for much of the 1990s
The flight-to-liquidity premium in U.S. Treasury bond prices by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
13 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 50 libraries worldwide
We examine whether there is a flight-to-liquidity premium in Treasury bond prices by comparing them with prices of bonds issued by Refcorp, a U.S. Government agency, which are guaranteed by the Treasury. We find a large liquidity premium in Treasury bonds, which can be more than fifteen percent of the value of some Treasury bonds. This liquidity premium is related to changes in consumer confidence, the amount of Treasury debt available to investors, and flows into equity and money market mutual funds. This suggests that the popularity of Treasury bonds directly a.ects their value
Dynamic asset allocation with event risk by Jun Liu( Book )
11 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 50 libraries worldwide
Major events often trigger abrupt changes in stock prices and volatility. We study the implications of jumps in prices and volatility on investment strategies. Using the event-risk framework of Duffie, Pan, and Singleton (2000), we provide analytical solutions to the optimal portfolio problem. Event risk dramatically affects the optimal strategy. An investor facing event risk is less willing to take leveraged or short positions. The investor acts as if some portion of his wealth may become illiquid and the optimal strategy blends both dynamic and buy-and-hold strategies. Jumps in prices and volatility both have important effects
Corporate earnings and the equity premium by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 43 libraries worldwide
Corporate cash flows are highly volatile and strongly procyclical. We examine the asset-pricing implications of the sensitivity of corporate cash flows to economic shocks within a continuous-time model in which dividends are a stochastic fraction of aggregate consumption. We provide closed-form solutions for stock values and show that the equity premium can be represented as the sum of three components which we call the consumption-risk, event-risk, and corporate-risk premia. Calibrating to historical data, we show that the model implies a total equity premium many times larger than in the standard model. The model also generates levels of equity volatility consistent with those experienced in the stock market
Two trees : asset price dynamics induced by market clearing by John H Cochrane( Book )
11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 42 libraries worldwide
If stocks go up, investors may want to rebalance their portfolios. But investors cannot all rebalance. Expected returns may need to change so that the average investor is still happy to hold the market portfolio despite its changed composition. In this way, simple market clearing can give rise to complex asset market dynamics. We study this phenomenon in a very simple model. Our model has two Lucas trees.' Each tree has i.i.d.dividend growth, and the representative investor has log utility. We are able to give analytical solutions to the model. Despite this simple setup, price-dividend ratios, expected returns, and return variances vary through time. A dividend shock leads to underreaction' in some states, as expected returns rise and prices slowly adjust, and overreaction' in others. Expected returns and excess returns are predictable by price-dividend ratios in the time series and in the cross section, roughly matching value effects and return forecasting regressions. Returns generally display positive serial correlation and negative cross-serial correlation, leading to 'momentuem,' but the opposite signs are possible as well. A shock to one asset's dividend a.ects the price and expected return of the other asset, leading to substantial correlation of returns even when there is no correlation of cash flows and giving the appearance of contagion.' Market clearing allows the inverse portfolio' problem to be solved, in which the weights of the assets in the market portfolio are inverted' to solve for the parameters of the assets' return generating process
Optimal recursive refinancing and the valuation of mortgage-backed securities by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 42 libraries worldwide
We study the optimal recursive refinancing problem where a borrower minimizes his lifetime mortgage costs by repeatedly refinancing when rates drop sufficiently. Key factors affecting the optimal decision are the cost of refinancing and the possibility that the mortgagor may have to refinance at a premium rate because of his credit. The optimal recursive strategy often results in prepayment being delayed significantly relative to traditional models. Furthermore, mortgage values can exceed par by much more than the cost of refinancing. Applying the recursive model to an extensive sample of mortgage-backed security prices, we find that the implied credit spreads that match these prices closely parallel borrowers' actual spreads at the origination of the mortgage. These results suggest that optimal recursive models may provide a promising alternative to the reduced-form prepayment models widely used in practice
Financial claustrophobia : asset pricing in illiquid markets by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
There are many examples of markets where an agent who wants to get out of an investment position quickly may find himself trapped and forced to remain in that position because of a lack of liquidity. What are the asset-pricing implications when agents cannot always buy and sell assets immediately? We study this issue in a multi-asset exchange economy with heterogeneous agents. In this model, agents can trade initially, but then cannot trade again until after a trading blackout' period. The more liquid the market, the sooner agents can trade again. Faced with illiquidity, agents abandon diversification and choose highly polarized portfolios. Risky assets are held primarily by the less-patient short-horizon agents in the economy. Polarization causes the usual risk-return tradeo. to break down and an asset's price may have more to do with the demographics of who owns it than with the riskiness of its cash flows. Risky assets are generally more valuable in an illiquid market than in a liquid market. Market illiquidity can also have large effects on the equity premium
Corporate yield spreads : default risk or liquidity? new evidence from the credit-default swap market by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
8 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
We use the information in credit-default swaps to obtain direct measures of the size of the default and nondefault components in corporate spreads. We find that the majority of the corporate spread is due to default risk. This result holds for all rating categories and is robust to the definition of the riskless curve. We also find that the nondefault component is time varying and strongly related to measures of bond-specific illiquidity as well as to macroeconomic measures of bond-market liquidity
An empirical analysis of the pricing of collateralized debt obligations by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 26 libraries worldwide
We study the pricing of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) using an extensive new data set for the actively-traded CDX credit index and its tranches. We find that a three-factor portfolio credit model allowing for firm-specific, industry, and economywide default events explains virtually all of the time-series and crosssectional variation in CDX index tranche prices. These tranches are priced as if losses of 0.4, 6, and 35 percent of the portfolio occur with expected frequencies of 1.2, 41.5, and 763 years, respectively. On average, 65 percent of the CDX spread is due to firm-specific default risk, 27 percent to clustered industry or sector default risk, and 8 percent to catastrophic or systemic default risk. Recently, however, firm-specific default risk has begun to play a larger role
How sovereign is sovereign credit risk? by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
7 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 18 libraries worldwide
We study the nature of sovereign credit risk using an extensive sample of CDS spreads for 26 developed and emerging-market countries. Sovereign credit spreads are surprisingly highly correlated, with just three principal components accounting for more than 50 percent of their variation. Sovereign credit spreads are generally more related to the U.S. stock and high-yield bond markets, global risk premia, and capital flows than they are to their own local economic measures. We find that the excess returns from investing in sovereign credit are largely compensation for bearing global risk, and that there is little or no country-specific credit risk premium. A significant amount of the variation in sovereign credit returns can be forecast using U.S. equity, volatility, and bond market risk premia
Municipal debt and marginal tax rates : is there a tax premium in asset prices? by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
7 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 13 libraries worldwide
We study the marginal tax rate incorporated into short-term tax-exempt municipal rates using a unique new data set from the municipal swap market. By applying an affine term-structure framework, we are able to identify both the marginal tax rate and the credit/liquidity spread in one-week tax-exempt rates. Furthermore, we obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the risk premia associated with these variables. The average marginal tax rate during the sample period is 41.6 percent. We find that the marginal tax rate is significantly positively related to returns in the stock and bond markets. The risk premium associated with the marginal tax rate is negative, consistent with the strong contracyclical nature of aftertax fixed-income cash flows which increase in bad states of the economy as personal income and the effective marginal tax rates applied to those cash flows decline
Valuing toxic assets : an analysis of CDO equity by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
8 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
How does the market value complex structured-credit securities? This issue is central to understanding the current financial crisis and identifying effective policy measures. We study this issue from a novel perspective by contrasting the valuation of CDO equity with that of bank stocks. This is possible because both CDO equity and bank stock represent levered first-loss residual claims on an underlying portfolio of debt. There are strong similarities in the two types of equity investments. Using an extensive data set of CDX index tranche prices, we find that the discount rates applied by the market to bank and CDO equity are very comparable. In addition, a single factor explains more than 64 percent of the variation in bank and CDO equity returns. Although banks are presumably active credit-portfolio managers, we find that bank alphas are significantly negative during the sample period and comparable in magnitude to those of more-passively-managed CDO equity. Both banks and CDO equity display significant sensitivity to "shadow banking'' factors such as counterparty credit risk, the availability of collateralized financing for debt securities, and the liquidity of the derivatives market. A key implication is that we may be able to value "toxic'' assets using readily-available stock market information
Inflation tracking portfolios by Christopher T Downing( Book )
6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
We propose a new approach to constructing inflation tracking portfolios. The key to this approach is the insight that asset returns track expected inflation far better than they track current realized inflation. Thus, we can construct portfolios that track next month's inflation much more closely than they track this month's inflation. We show this staggered hedging approach can eliminate nearly 90 percent of the tracking error of more conventional inflation hedging strategies. We also find that long-short positions in equities play a dominant role in the effective hedging of inflation risk over extended horizons. These results suggest that the goal of protecting portfolios against inflation may be more feasible that is commonly believed -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Disagreement and asset prices by Bruce I Carlin( Book )
5 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 8 libraries worldwide
How do differences of opinion affect asset prices? Do investors earn a risk premium when disagreement arises in the market? Despite their fundamental importance, these questions are among the most controversial issues in finance. In this paper, we use a novel data set that allows us to directly measure the level of disagreement among Wall Street mortgage dealers about prepayment speeds. We examine how disagreement evolves over time and study its effects on expected returns, return volatility, and trading volume in the mortgage-backed security market. We find that increased disagreement is associated with higher expected returns, higher return volatility, and larger trading volume. These results imply that there is a positive risk premium for disagreement in asset prices. We also show that volatility in and of itself does not lead to higher trading volume. Rather, it is only when disagreement arises in the market that higher uncertainty is associated with more trading. Finally, we are able to distinguish empirically between two competing hypotheses regarding how information in markets gets incorporated into asset prices. We find that sophisticated investors appear to update their beliefs through a rational expectations mechanism when disagreement arises -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Deflation risk by Matthias Fleckenstein( Book )
5 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 8 libraries worldwide
We study the nature of deflation risk by extracting the objective distribution of inflation from the market prices of inflation swaps and options. We find that the market expects inflation to average about 2.5 percent over the next 30 years. Despite this, the market places substantial probability weight on deflation scenarios in which prices decline by more than 10 to 20 percent over extended horizons. We find that the market prices the economic tail risk of de- flation very similarly to other types of tail risks such as catastrophic insurance losses. In contrast, inflation tail risk has only a relatively small premium. De- flation risk is also significantly linked to measures of financial tail risk such as swap spreads, corporate credit spreads, and the pricing of super senior tranches. These results indicate that systemic financial risk and deflation risk are closely related
Systemic sovereign credit risk : lessons from the U.S. and Europe by Andrew Ang( Book )
8 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
We study the nature of systemic sovereign credit risk using CDS spreads for the U.S. Treasury, individual U.S. states, and major European countries. Using a multifactor affine framework that allows for both systemic and sovereign-specific credit shocks, we find that there is considerable heterogeneity across U.S. and European issuers in their sensitivity to systemic risk. U.S. and Euro systemic shocks are highly correlated, but there is much less systemic risk among U.S. sovereigns than among European sovereigns. We also find that U.S. and European systemic sovereign risk is strongly related to financial market variables. These results provide strong support for the view that systemic sovereign risk has its roots in financial markets rather than in macroeconomic fundamentals
Why does the Treasury issue TIPS? : the TIPS-Treasury bond puzzle by Matthias Fleckenstein( Book )
7 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
We show that the price of a Treasury bond and an inflation-swapped TIPS issue exactly replicating the cash flows of the Treasury bond can differ by more than $20 per $100 notional. Treasury bonds are almost always overvalued relative to TIPS. Total TIPS-Treasury mispricing has exceeded $56 billion, representing nearly eight percent of the total amount of TIPS outstanding. TIPS-Treasury mispricing is strongly related to supply factors such as Treasury debt issuance and the availability of collateral in the financial markets, and is correlated with other types of fixed-income arbitrages, These results pose a major puzzle to classical asset pricing theory. In addition, they raise the issue of why the Treasury issues TIPS, since in so doing it both gives up a valuable fiscal hedging option and leaves large amounts of money on the table
Corporate taxes and capital structure : a long-term historical perspective by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
6 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
We study the relation between leverage and corporate tax rates using an extensive data set constructed from all corporate income tax returns filed with the IRS from 1926 to 2009. This data set includes financial statement data from millions of private and public corporations of all sizes. We show that corporate leverage has increased significantly over the past century. We find strong evidence that changes in corporate leverage are directly related to changes in corporate tax rates for all but the smallest firms. These results are robust to the inclusion of control variables for the costs of financial distress, corporate liquidity, and capital market and macroeconomic conditions. The adjustment of leverage to changes in corporate tax rates is slower for smaller firms facing financial constraints. We find that the capital structures of the smallest firms are driven much more by external shocks than is the case for larger firms
Valuing thinly-traded assets by Francis A Longstaff( Book )
6 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
We model illiquidity as a restriction on the stopping rules investors can follow in selling assets, and apply this framework to the valuation of thinly-traded investments. We find that discounts for illiquidity can be surprisingly large, approaching 30 to 50 percent in some cases. Immediacy plays a unique role and is valued much more than ongoing liquidity. We show that investors in illiquid enterprises have strong incentives to increase dividends and other cash payouts, thereby introducing potential agency conflicts. We also find that illiquidity and volatility are fundamentally entangled in their effects on asset prices. This aspect may help explain why some assets are viewed as inherently more liquid than others and why liquidity concerns are heightened during financial crises
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Francis Longstaff American professor of insurance and finance
Longstaff, Francis 1956-
English (174)
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