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Chisholm, Sallie W.

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Publications about Sallie W Chisholm
Publications by Sallie W Chisholm
Most widely held works by Sallie W Chisholm
Copper sulfate treatment of lakes and reservoirs : chemical and biological considerations by Diane M McKnight( Book )
3 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
Summary: Since 1905, copper sulfate has been widely used as a means of controlling nuisance algae in drinking water reservoirs. Reservoir managers, relying on experience, have developed procedures which are generally successful in combating summer blooms of these algae. In some cases, however, treatment programs fail to prevent blooms or may exacerbate the problem. Furthermore, at least two states have issued regulations which effectively prohibit the use of copper in drinking water reservoirs. This report reviews the recent scientific advances in this laboratory and elsewhere on the subject of interactions between copper and lake organisms. The report concludes that algicide treatments are often a necessary part of water quality management and that copper sulfate is still the safest and most effective algicide in most reservoirs. Alternatives to copper, such as organic algicide, are ecological "unknowns" and have determined effects on human health. By contrast, copper, when properly used, is safe for both humans and the environment, as evidenced by nearly eighty years of experience in the field. Part of the report discusses practical techniques for determining the optimal treatment strategy for a given reservoir. This is especially important in lakes or reservoirs that have experienced difficulties in controlling nuisance algae. Using the procedures developed in this laboratory, reservoir managers can design copper treatment programs that will effectively eliminate undesirable algae, with minimal environmental side effects and with a cost effective dosing of copper sulfate
The iron hypothesis : basic research meets environmental policy by Sallie W Chisholm( Book )
2 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Regulation of growth in an estuarine clone of Gonyaulax tamarensis lebour : salinity-dependent temperature responses by Carl J Watras( Book )
1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Ecological genomics : the application of genomic sciences to understanding the structure and function of marine ecosystems : report of a Workshop on Marine Microbial Genomics to Develop Recommendations for the National Science Foundation, April 19-20, 2000 by Workshop on Marine Microbial Genomics to Develop Recommendations for the National Science Foundation( Book )
2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Iron limits the cell division rate of Prochlorococcus in the eastern equatorial Pacific by Elizabeth Lowell Mann( Book )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Prochlorococcus, a small unicellular cyanobacterium, is an important member of the phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific. When these waters were enriched with iron during IronEx II, the chlorophyll per cell and cell size of Prochlorococcus increased, implying that they were iron limited. The extent of this limitation was unclear, however, and the number of Prochlorococcus remained constant. To examine whether cell division rates were stimulated significantly by iron, we used a cell cycle analysis approach to measure them in and out of the Fe-enriched patch and in Fe-enriched bottles. The cell division rate increased from 0.6 to 1.1 d-1 over 6 d of exposure to the elevated iron concentrations in the patch. Cells incubated in bottles with additional iron had rates of 1.4 d-1 or two doublings per day. Prochlorococcus mortality rates, measured independently, nearly doubled after the addition of iron. This matched the increase in the cell division rate and maintained a relatively constant population size. Thus the cell division rates of even the smallest phytoplankton in the equatorial Pacific are significantly iron limited, but biomass is constrained by both iron limitation and microzooplankton grazing. The differential response of individual phytoplankton groups to the addition of iron during IronEx II was at least partially a result of differential mortality rates over the time course of the experiment. How the community would respond to sustained fertilization, however, is not obvious
Oceans by Jacques Perrin( visu )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
"Oceans cover three-quarters of the Earth's surface, but many parts of the deep oceans have yet to be explored. Learn about the large-scale ocean circulation patterns that help to regulate temperatures and weather patterns on land, and the microscopic marine organisms that form the base of marine food webs."--Annenberg website
Cyanophages infecting the oceanic cyanobacterium prochlorococcus by Matthew Barry Sullivan( Article )
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Stirring times in the Southern Ocean by Sallie W Chisholm( Book )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Nutrient gradients in the western North Atlantic Ocean : relationship to microbial community structure and comparison to patterns in the Pacific Ocean by Kent Keller Cavender-Bares( Book )
1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Limnology and Oceanography, Volume 36, Number 8, December 1991. What Controls Phytoplankton Production in Nutrient-Rich Areas of the Open Sea? ( Book )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
In certain areas of the oceans (the Southern Ocean, subarctic Pacific, and equatorial Pacific), phytoplankton do not exhaust phosphate and nitrate in the surface waters. The result is a less efficient transfer of carbon from surface to deep waters via the biological pump. This high-nutrient, low-chlorophyl (HNLC) paradox has intrigued biological oceanographers for years. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the maintenance of phytoplankton biomass below the carrying capacity set by the availability of major nutrients, including: zooplankton grazing; inhibition of nitrate uptake by ammonium concentrations; light and temperature limitation; trace metal limitation or inhibition; ana physiological inefficiency. As is usually true of issues involving marine food webs, no single hypothesis has emerged to account for all the properties of HNLC regions. Because of scientific interest in the recent data from John Martin's group indicating that iron limitation might be responsible for the HNLC paradox, and due to interest by the media and policy makers in the question of whether large-scale iron fertilization could mitigate the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, a symposium was held by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography on the topic of What Controls Phytoplankton Production in Nutrient-Rich Areas of the Open Sea? Under this grant, papers resulting from the Symposium were published in the December, 1991 issue of Limnology and Oceanography (Volume 36, 8)
Dis-crediting ocean fertilization by Sallie W Chisholm( Book )
1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Strring times in the southern ocean by Sallie W Chisholm( Article )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Ecology and evolution of lanthipeptides in marine picocyanobacteria by Andrés Fernando Cubillos-Ruiz( Archival Material )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Microbial secondary metabolites are among the most structurally and functionally complex molecules in nature. Lanthipeptides are ribosomally derived peptide secondary metabolites that undergo extensive post-translational modification. Most lanthipeptides are bactericidal but they are also known to act as signaling molecules or morphogenetic peptides, nevertheless the function of many lanthipeptides remains unknown. Prochlorosins are a diverse group of lanthipeptides produced by strains of the ubiquitous marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Unlike other lanthipeptide-producing bacteria, picocyanobacteria utilize an unprecedented mechanism of catalytic promiscuity for the production multiple structurally diverse lanthipeptides using a single biosynthetic enzyme. Also unprecedented is the production of lanthipeptides by single celled, planktonic gram-negative bacteria in a dilute nutrient-limited habitat, which suggests that they may have an unconventional biological function. The overarching goal of this thesis is to further our understanding of the ecology and evolution of the prochlorosins, and provide insights into their biological role in the marine environment. Here, we demonstrate that the prochlorosin genes are widespread in the ocean and that globally distributed populations of marine picocyanobacteria have the genetic potential of producing thousands of different lanthipeptide structures. The diversity of prochlorosin structures provides an interesting model to study the evolutionary forces that drive the creation of new lanthipeptide structures. We present evidence that there is a unique evolutionary interplay between the components of prochlorosin biosynthesis pathway; while the peptide substrates independently expand and diversify within the genome, the catalytically promiscuous biosynthetic enzyme evolves under a strong purifying selection that maintains its substrate tolerant state. This relationship indicates that the lanthipeptide production trait in marine picocyanobacteria might find its evolutionary advantage in the plasticity of the production of multiple cyclic peptides with diverse ring topologies. The remarkable diversity of prochlorosins poses many questions regarding their biological role in the marine environment. In laboratory experiments, we explore of some of the potential bioactivity of the prochlorosins, namely their potential as signaling molecules, antimicrobials and nutrient sources. The results from this exploration open new perspectives for the role of the lanthipeptides in the natural environment - more specifically the oligotrophic ocean
What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea? by Sallie W Chisholm( Book )
1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Understanding Vertical Mixing and Photoacclimation Processes in the Surface Oceans Using Single Cell Analysis ( file )
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Vertical mixing in the surface layer of the ocean will affect phytoplankton growth by changing the light field to which cells are exposed. Conversely, indicators of phytoplankton photoacclimation should be diagnostic of mixing processes. A combination of laboratory and field experimental work, field observations, and theoretical models were used to quantify the relationship between vertical mixing and photoacclimation in determining the time and space evolution of single cell optical properties for the photosynthetic picoplankton, Prochiorococcus spp. Diel time-series observations from the Sargasso Sea revealed patterns in single-cell fluorescence distributions within Prochiorococcus spp. populations which correspond to decreasing mixing rates and photoacclimation during the day, and increased mixing at night. Reciprocal light shift experiments were used to quantify the photoacclimation kinetics for Prochicrococcus spp. fluorescence. In addition, a continuous culture system was developed which could simulate the effects of mixing across a light gradient at the level of the individual cell. When this system was operated at four different simulated diffusivities, Prochiorococcus marinus strain Med4 fluorescence distributions showed distinct patterns in the mean and higher moments which are consistent with a simple quasi-steady turbulent diffusion-photoacclimation model. Daytime photoacclimation drove the development of a gradient in mean fluorescence, a decrease in variance overall, and skewing of distributions away from the boundaries. These results suggest that picophytoplankton single-cell fluorescence distributions could prove to be a useful diagnostic indicator of the mixing environment
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Alternative Names

controlled identity Chisholm, Penny

Chisholm, S. W. (Sallie W.)
Sallie Chisholm
Sallie W. Chisholm ahli biologi asal Amerika Serikat
Sallie W. Chisholm Amerikaans biologe
English (24)
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