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Stanford University Department of Psychology

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Works: 103 works in 118 publications in 1 language and 1,239 library holdings
Genres: Conference proceedings 
Classifications: HV6089, 364.6
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Publications about Stanford University
Publications by Stanford University
Most widely held works about Stanford University
 
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Most widely held works by Stanford University
Quiet rage the Stanford prison study by Philip G Zimbardo( visu )
5 editions published between 1988 and 2003 in English and held by 611 libraries worldwide
In the summer of 1971, Philip Zimbardo, Craig Haney, and Curtis Banks carried out a psychological experiment to test a simple question: What happens when you put good people in an evil place -- does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? College student volunteers were pretested and randomly assigned to play the role of prisoner or guard in a simulated prison at Stanford University. This film uses archival footage, flashbacks, post-experiment interviews with the prisoners and guards, and comparisons with real prisons. It documents the study from the surprise arrests of the participants by city police, to the termination of the study after only 6 days. The Stanford Prison Study remains one of the most famous studies conducted in the field of Social Psychology
Father relations of war-born children; the effect of postwar adjustment of fathers on the behavior and personality of first children born while the fathers were at war by Lois Meek Stolz( Book )
5 editions published between 1954 and 1986 in English and held by 451 libraries worldwide
Technical report - Department of Psychology, Stanford University by Stanford University( serial )
in English and held by 14 libraries worldwide
Technical report by Stanford University( serial )
in English and held by 8 libraries worldwide
Reduction of sex differences in problem solving by improvement of attitude through group discussion by Gloria Louise Carey( Book )
1 edition published in 1955 in English and held by 5 libraries worldwide
Father relations of war-born children by Lois Meek Stolz( Book )
1 edition published in 1954 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system final report by Herbert H Clark( Book )
2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
This project has three related goals: 1) To describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication including the identification of the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss; 2) To identify the types and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt controllers and pilots to focus on communication itself. The costs of these programs were analyzed in term of communication efficiency and the techniques used to resolve these problems; 3) To identify factors associated with communication problems such as deviation from conventional ATC procedures
Behavior therapy with an autistic child ( visu )
1 edition published in 1965 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
This program presents a session of behavior therapy with a six-year-old male child who is considered autistic. Initially, a very brief description of behavior therapy is presented by two psychologists. Scenes from an actual session are then presented. Prior to the filming, the child and the therapist had had no contact with each other. During the first fifteen minutes of the session, the child's behavior is guided and controlled by means of social reinforcement. During this time the child is whiny, unruly, and uncooperative. The therapist then uses the systematic application of reinforcement in the form of small chocolate candies to encourage obedience and responsive behavior. Changes in the child's behavior are observed. He doesn't appear whiny, and responds more appropriately and cooperatively to the therapist. The two psychologists then briefly summarize the use of behavior therapy with this child. The benefits of this type of therapy on a long-range basis are noted
Feeling wronged leads to entitlement and selfishness by Emily Maria Zitek( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Five studies demonstrate that feeling wronged leads to a sense of entitlement and to selfish behavior. In Study 1, participants who were instructed to recall a time when their lives were unfair were more likely to refuse to help the experimenter with a supplementary task than were participants who recalled a time when they were bored. In Study 2, the same manipulation increased intentions to engage in a number of selfish behaviors, and this effect was mediated by self-reported entitlement to obtain positive (and avoid negative) outcomes. In Study 3, participants who lost a computer game for an unfair reason (a glitch in the program) requested a more selfish money allocation for a future task than did participants who lost the game for a fair reason, and this effect was again mediated by entitlement. In Studies 4 and 5, bad luck from a fair, random system led to the same kinds of effects for men. In Study 4, students (especially men) who received bad numbers in a housing lottery expressed less intention to behave charitably. In Study 5, men who were assigned to bad outcomes by the roll of a die were less willing to help out by signing up for an additional experiment than were men in the control condition, and self-reported entitlement again mediated the effect
On resisting social influence technical report by Susan Andersen( Book )
1 edition published in 1979 in Undetermined and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Resisting social influences becomes important when such influences can be appropriately thought of as 'mind control.' When information is systematically hidden, withheld or distorted it is impossible to make unbiased decisions. Under these circumstances, people may be subtly led to believe they are 'freely' choosing to act. It is precisely this kind of decision that persists and most affects our behavior since we come to believe in those attitudes and actions for which we have generated our own justifications. The thesis of this essay is that 'mind control' exists not in exotic gimmicks, but rather in the most mundane aspects of experience. Because it does, it is possible to reduce our susceptibility to unwanted coercive control by increasing our vigilance and learning to utilize certain basic strategies of analysis. In this paper, we present resistance strategies which are broadly applicable to the wide array of mind-manipulation attempts that surround us daily--in a 'self- help' format that provides for ready accessibility. Findings from relevant social-psychological research, from interviews and personal experiences with con men, cultists, super-salesmen and other perpetrators of mind control comprise the reservoir of information from which we have drawn
Visual and spatial reasoning in design : preprints of the International Conference on Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design : MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, 15-17 June 1999 by International Conference on Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design( Book )
1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Incentive processing in the aging brain individual differences in value-based learning and decision making across the adult life span by Gregory Russell Samanez Larkin( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
As the proportion of older adults continues to grow rapidly here in the U.S. and across the globe, aging adults may be required to make increasingly more independent health-related and financial decisions. Thus, it is increasingly imperative to better understand the impact of age-related psychological changes on decision making. Although a growing body of research has linked age-related deficits in attention, memory, and cognitive control to changes in medial temporal and lateral prefrontal cortical function, remarkably little research has investigated the influence of aging on valuation and associated mesolimbic function in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Likewise, theoretical accounts link age-related declines in a number of basic cognitive abilities to dopamine function, but research has largely neglected age differences in value-based learning and decision making which also rely on the dopamine system. Recent findings reveal age-related declines in the structure of striatal and medial frontal circuits, however it was not previously clear whether these structural declines contribute to functional deficits in incentive processing. Thus, the seven experiments presented here explored potential age differences across a range of value-based tasks from basic anticipatory and consummatory responses to reward cues (Experiments 1--2) to probabilistic value-based learning (Experiments 2--5) to investment decision making (Experiments 6--7). The studies focus on both age-related and non-age-related individual differences in learning and decision making across the adult life span. Overall, three sets of key findings emerge. The first set of experiments on anticipatory affect reveal evidence for an age-related asymmetry in the anticipation of monetary gains and losses, such that older adults appear less sensitive to the prospect of financial loss than younger adults. In a subset of adults, this anticipatory affective bias contributes to loss avoidance learning impairments through the sensitivity of the anterior insula. Thus, although a relative lack of anxiety about potential loss may contribute to increased well-being, this asymmetry may put individuals with blunted loss anticipation at risk for certain types of financial mistakes. In fact, we show that individuals who perform poorly on the laboratory-based loss avoidance learning task accrue more financial debt in the real world. The second set of experiments focus on age differences in value-based learning and reveal that although older adults show intact neural representation of the actual value of reward outcomes, there is an age-related decline in the neural representation of prediction error at outcome in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Age differences in learning are magnified when choice set size is increased, but when the number of trials is extended older adults reach the same performance criterion as younger adults. The third set of experiments focus on age differences in risky financial decision making and reveal that older adults make more suboptimal choices than younger adults when choosing risky assets. Neuroimaging analyses reveal that the representation of expected value in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex is correlated with optimal investment decisions, and that the age-related increase in risky investment mistakes is mediated by a novel neural measure of variability in nucleus accumbens activity. The presentation of value information through visual decision aids improves investment choices in both younger and older adults. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span. Across the experiments, the findings suggest that both age-related affective biases and probabilistic learning impairments can influence decision making both in the laboratory and in the real world through insular and mesolimbic brain regions. Importantly, age-related impairments are reduced under supportive task conditions (designed to target the brain systems identified using neuroimaging). Together, the set of experiments presented here suggests that understanding how the brain processes value information may eventually inform the design of more targeted and effective behavioral interventions for investors of all ages
Learning from the positivity effect informed and motivated behavior change by Casey Moren Lindberg( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
The story of old age is not one of pure loss. Indeed, old age represents a time of certain cognitive decline in some domains, but also a time of growth and stability in others. Wisdom, maturity, expertise, and emotional regulation show improvements across adulthood. Goals also shift over the life span, from those aimed at gaining information and preparing for the future to emotionally meaningful pursuits later in life. These differences lead to goal-consistent cognitive biases in the young and the old. Younger people attend to negative information more than positive information. Older adults attend to positive information more than negative information. This developmental shift, called the positivity effect, is presumably adaptive in a life-span context. Yet either set of chronically activated goals can be maladaptive in certain contexts. Because the positivity effect is malleable -- influenced by the way task relevant goals are structured -- it may be possible to frame information in ways that reduce biases in young and old. The present program of research aims to show how biases can be reduced when participants are given information about relevant research findings and have the necessary psychological tools to adjust their behavior accordingly. No previous work has investigated the impact of disclosing information about the positivity effect directly to participants. Such an informed debiasing attempt could prove fruitful for future attempts to educate the public about their own attentional biases. Study 1 demonstrates the positivity effect in a picture recall task; Study 2 adds images to an existing image set in order to more accurately study debiasing of the positivity effect in future studies; Study 3 demonstrates that people are generally unaware of the positivity effect; Study 4 demonstrates that simple information disclosure about the positivity effect is insufficient to change participants' behavior on a picture presentation/recall task and a health care decision task; Study 5 demonstrates that participants' motivation to change is key to behavior change
Learning via prediction mapping continuous stimuli to discrete symbols by Adam Daniel November( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
How do we use and represent words? How do we learn to break up the dimensions of continuous variation of the world into discrete categories? In this thesis, I explore how recasting this problem in terms of simple prediction provides insight into the computational nature of word learning. Through a series of computational simulations and human experiments that manipulate the structure of information in time, I find that when using features of the world to predict words, the representations learned are likely to be more useful for discriminating the appropriate response. However, these representations are also likely to be distorted, favoring diagnostic information, and thus sacrificing general utility across contexts. At the same time, trying to use words to predict the relevant features of the world will result in less distorted representations, but will not enhance discrimination. Demonstrating these effects while controlling for various potentially confounding variables strengthens the case that prediction is central to word learning
Cultural variation in choice and its consequences implications for decision making, victim blaming, and social policies by Krishna Mukundrai Savani( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Choice is one of the most important categories of actions, both in American society in general and in the specific fields of psychology and economics. Extensive research over the past century has examined how people make choices, but the question of whether and when an action counts as a choice remains unstudied. While most scientists assume that whether an action counts as a choice is based upon the objective availability of multiple options, the present research tests whether what counts as a choice is also a matter of construal, a construal that is shaped by cultural models of agency. Studies 1 to 6 find that people in U.S. American contexts, where the disjoint model of agency is prevalent, are more likely than those in Indian contexts, where the conjoint model of agency is prevalent, to construe behaviors as choices. In Study 1, Americans reported making significantly more choices during the day than did Indians. In Studies 2 and 3, after the experimenter subtly induced participants to engage in the same series of behaviors, Americans were again more likely than Indians to construe their actions as choices. In Study 4, while watching a video of an actor spending time in his apartment, Americans identified the actor as making significantly more choices than did Indians. In Studies 5a and 5b, Americans were even more likely and Indians were even less likely to construe more important real life decisions as choices. In Study 6, Indians also showed a greater tendency to construe actions as choices when these actions involved responding to other people than when they did not, but Americans were equally likely to construe personal and interpersonal actions as choices. These findings show that whether people construe actions as choices is significantly shaped by sociocultural systems of meanings and practices. Studies 7 to 12 examined some of the positive and negative consequences of construing actions as choices in American contexts. Based upon the idea that choice and control are key components of the disjoint model of agency, these studies tested whether inducing Americans to construe actions as choices makes them more likely to make personal, interpersonal, and societal decisions under the assumption of personal control. Studies 7 and 8 found that inducing Americans to construe another person's actions as choices led them to make more risk-seeking and ambiguity-seeking decisions, which have been associated in previous research with increased perceived control. Studies 9 and 10 found that inducing Americans to construe another person's actions as choices led them to blame victims of negative life outcomes for making bad choices, reflecting the assumption that people have control over their actions and outcomes. Finally, Studies 11 and 12 found that inducing Americans to construe another person's actions as choices led them to oppose social policies benefiting society at the cost of individual liberty, but to support social policies enhancing individual freedom. Together, these studies document that whether an action counts as a choice is a matter of construal to a significant extent, and whether people construe actions as choices has profound psychological consequences, both positive and negative. The findings suggest that the existing societal trend of framing more and more issues as matters of choice is unlikely to have universally positive consequences, and might also have a variety of unanticipated negative consequences
Two mechanisms of human contingency learning by Daniel Alexander Sternberg( file )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Understanding how we learn the relationships between events in the world, and how we learn to respond appropriately to those events has been an important focus of research in psychology and the cognitive sciences for many years. While many different theories have been proposed, two broad classes of accounts have been particularly popular. Findings from studies of animal conditioning and tasks requiring humans learners to make very fast responses have led to proposals that learning in these tasks is based on a process of gradual adjustments to pathways linking representations of cue events to representations of their outcomes and appropriate responses to those outcomes. However, many of the same findings can also be explained as a process of making explicit inferences about the likely causal relationships between events. Findings from human contingency learning tasks have been argued to support the idea that learners in these tasks rely on an inference-based reasoning process. This has led some to doubt that both types of processes necessarily exist. The experiments presented in this thesis set out to look for evidence that both processes exist, and that they are preferentially involved in different kinds of learning situations. In the presented experiments, participants saw displays containing single or paired objects and learned which displays were usually followed by the appearance of a dot shortly afterward. Some participants predicted whether the dot would appear and then saw the outcome, while others were required to respond very quickly if the dot appeared shortly after the objects. For prediction participants, instructions that guided them to infer which objects had the power to cause the dot outcome determined whether contingencies associated with one object affected predictions about its pair mate. For fast-paced responding participants, contingencies associated with one object affected responses to the pair-mate, even when more neutral instructions were provided. These results challenge single-mechanism accounts and support the proposal that the mechanisms underlying performance in the two tasks are distinct. The remainder of the thesis focuses on the development of computational models of the different kinds of processes thought to underlie responding in these tasks
Affective norms, deviance, and moral judgment by Lauren Szczurek( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The present research provides support for Affective Norm Theory (ANT), a new theory proposing that cultural context and situational norms interact to define both what is considered an appropriate affective display, and how observers respond to affective norm violations, or instances where the affect a person displays is inconsistent with both situational norms and observer expectations. A series of studies supports the hypotheses put forward by ANT: that in European American cultural contexts, (H1) observers notice affective deviance and (H2) negatively evaluate individuals who display deviant affect, that (H3) one reason affective displays are so powerful is because observers can use deviant displays to draw inferences about moral values, and that (H4) observers narrow the range of affective expressions they find appropriate in response to a stimulus when they interpret it as having moral content. Discussion focuses on the role of beliefs about the meaning of affective displays, individual difference measures, and the importance of gender and cultural context in defining and understanding affective norms and expectations
Mental time lines across the world how do people think about time in Hebrew, Mandarin, and English? by Orly Fuhrman( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Across cultures people rely on space to represent time. However, the particular spatial layout created to represent time differs across cultures, and is affected by different sources of culturo-linguistic experience. In the studies described in this dissertation I focus on two such sources of information; reading directionality and spatial metaphors. First, I show that Hebrew and English speakers consistently arrange temporal sequences in a way that is congruent with their writing directionality, left to right for English speakers, and right to left for Hebrew speakers. Moreover, making judgments about earlier and later events with a key orientation that is incongruent with one's writing directionality (e.g, 'right' for earlier events in the English speaking group) creates interference, and produces slower responses. I then compare English and Mandarin speakers, to see whether the way speakers of these languages think about time reflects the way they habitually talk about it. In Mandarin, vertical metaphors of time are used more frequently and systematically than they are in English. Accordingly, the findings suggest that Mandarin speakers are faster to make temporal order judgments when the 'earlier' key is positioned on top of the 'later' key. English speakers do not show that congruency effect. Overall, the findings presented in this work suggest that culturally specific spatial representations are accessed automatically when people think about time, even in non-linguistic tasks, for temporal sequences that are not usually laid out in space in a particular directionality, and even when space is implicit to the task
Prediction and novelty in the human medial temporal lobe by Janice Chen( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Prediction is at the core of memory. A memory system stores information about the past in service of preparation for the future, and thus the act of memory retrieval may be viewed as an act of prediction about upcoming events. Converging evidence from animal and compuational models suggests that within the hippocampus, stored memories are compared to current sensory input in order to compute novelty -- when expectation deviates from actual outcome. Specifically, hippocampal subfield CA1 is thought to support this computation of mismatch between past and present. Detection of novelty in turn is hypothesized to modulate encoding processes, providing a mechanism for gating the entry of information into long-term memory. Using high-resolution functional MRI, I examined hippocampal subfield (CA1, CA23/DG[dentate gyrus], subiculum) and medial temporal lobe (MTL: entorhinal, perirhinal, parahippocampal) cortical activation during associative retrieval and associative mismatches in humans. In Experiment 1, subjects performed cued image retrieval and made explicit comparisons of memory to matching or mismatching decision probes. Activity in multiple hippocampal and MTL cortical subregions tracked associative retrieval success, whereas activity in CA1 and perirhinal cortex tracked the presence of associative mismatches. In Experiment 2, subjects viewed sequences of images while performing an incidental task (1-back target detection). In CA1, CA23/DG, and perirhinal cortex, activation was greater when image sequences were presented in rearranged order (mismatch with memory) compared to repeated order (match with memory). In CA1 only, this mismatch enhancement was significantly modulated by prediction strength: the mismatch enhancement was greater when predictions were stronger. In a separate behavioral experiment, recognition memory was found to be better for images that had appeared in rearranged-order (mismatch) than repeated-order (match) sequences, supporting the notion that mismatch detection leads to encoding upregulation. In Experiment 3, subjects viewed sequences of images containing either temporal predicitive information only or combined temporal and spatial predictive information. When novel images were embedded within previously viewed sequences, activation in CA1 was significantly related to subsequent memory for items which had violated predictions (remembered> forgotten), with this enhancement modulated by the amount of predictive information. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that CA1 acts as a comparator, detecting when memory for the past and sensory input in the present diverge. More broadly, the current studies reveal the dynamics of the human hippocampus and MTL cortices during the acts of prediction, novelty detection, and memory encoding -- a continuous cycle of events that enable preparation for the future based on past experience
The mentor's dilemma providing critical feedback across the racial and gender divides by Geoffrey L Cohen( Computer File )
1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
 
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controlled identity Stanford University

Stanford University. Dept. of Psychology
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English (51)
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