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Stanford University Department of Psychology

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Most widely held works by Stanford University
Quiet rage : the Stanford prison study by Stanford University( visu )
8 editions published between 1988 and 2004 in English and held by 519 libraries worldwide
Quiet rage discusses a prison simulation experiment conducted with student volunteers in 1971 to study the psychological consequences of becoming a prisoner or a prison guard. This film documents the psychological stresses the participants experienced and analyses the resulting power relationship that led to the experiment's premature conclusion. It includes flashbacks and follow-ups with participants along with a discussion of the ethics of the experiment and its relevance for prison reform
Father relations of war-born children; the effect of postwar adjustment of fathers on the behavior and personality of first children born while the fathers were at war by Lois Meek Stolz( Book )
7 editions published between 1954 and 1986 in English and held by 433 libraries worldwide
Technical report - Department of Psychology, Stanford University by Stanford University( serial )
in English and held by 15 libraries worldwide
Quiet rage : the Stanford prison experiment ( visu )
3 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
Discusses a prison simulation experiment conducted in 1971 with students at Stanford University and considers the causes and effects that make prisons such an emotional issue. Documentary includes new film, flashback editing, and follow-ups, revealing the chronology of the transition of good into evil, of normal into the abnormal
Technical report by Stanford University( serial )
in English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Reduction of sex differences in problem solving by improvement of attitude through group discussion by Gloria Louise Carey( Book )
2 editions published in 1955 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
The reported investigation started with the idea that some of the sex differences in problem solving could be accounted for by differences in non-intellectual factors. The question that needed to be asked is: How well do women like to solve problems. If problem solving is an activity preferred by men and disliked by women, there exists a good possibility that sex differences in performance are actually a reflection of sex differences in attitude. As a test of this hypothesis, an attempt was made to answer some specific questions: Can a scale be constructed which will measure attitude toward problem solving; Is there a sex difference on such a scale; Is problem-solving attitude related to problem-solving performance; Will an attempt to change attitude be followed by a change in performance; Will women respond more favorably than men to an attempt to improve their attitudes
Behavior therapy with an autistic child ( visu )
2 editions published in 1965 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
This program presents a session of behavior therapy with a six-year-old male child who is considered autistic. Initially, a very brief description of behavior therapy is presented by two psychologists. Scenes from an actual session are then presented. Prior to the filming, the child and the therapist had had no contact with each other. During the first fifteen minutes of the session, the child's behavior is guided and controlled by means of social reinforcement. During this time the child is whiny, unruly, and uncooperative. The therapist then uses the systematic application of reinforcement in the form of small chocolate candies to encourage obedience and responsive behavior. Changes in the child's behavior are observed. He doesn't appear whiny, and responds more appropriately and cooperatively to the therapist. The two psychologists then briefly summarize the use of behavior therapy with this child. The benefits of this type of therapy on a long-range basis are noted
Choosing a physician depends on how you want to feel : the role of ideal affect in health-related decision making by Tamara Sims( file )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Choosing the right physician has important consequences for patient satisfaction and health outcomes. How do people decide which physician to choose? Although research has demonstrated that how people actually feel (their "actual affect") influences their health care preferences, we predicted that how people ideally want to feel (their "ideal affect") would play an even more important role. Consistent with this prediction, the more college students (Study 1) and community adults (Study 2) wanted to feel high arousal positive states on average ([ideal HAP]; e.g., excited), the more likely they were to choose a HAP-focused (vs. low arousal positive [e.g., calm] or LAP-focused) physician. Experimentally increasing the value of HAP also increased participants' choice of a HAP (vs. LAP) physician (Study 3). Wanting to feel low arousal positive states (ideal LAP) did not predict physician choice until participants were given a neutral (non-emotional) option: under these conditions, ideal LAP predicted choice of the LAP physician, and ideal HAP predicted choice of the HAP physician (Study 4). Across studies 2-4, the association between ideal affect and choice was mediated by perceived physician trustworthiness. When community adults were assigned to either a HAP or LAP virtual physician (Study 5), ideal HAP predicted greater self-reported adherence to the HAP physician's recommendations, and ideal LAP predicted greater self-reported adherence to the LAP physician's recommendations. Across all five studies, actual affect did not predict preferences for physicians. These findings suggest that people choose and listen to physicians who express the affective states that they ideally want to feel, in part because they trust those physicians more. Together, these studies demonstrate the importance of ideal affect in health-related decision making
Functional heterogeneity in parietal cortex during episodic memory retrieval by John Benjamin Hutchinson( file )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
The memory for specific events and instances in time--episodic memory--is a central aspect of human cognition. It has long been thought that episodic memory is supported by a distributed network of regions in the brain, including frontal cortex and the medial temporal lobes. A growing body of neuroimaging evidence in the last several years has additionally suggested posterior parietal cortex (PPC) involvement during episodic retrieval. Several accounts have argued that the region's involvement reflects the engagement of two specific attentional processes, goal-driven and reflexive attention, distinctly residing in dorsal and ventral regions of PPC, respectively. Strict interpretations of such accounts, however, have recently been called into question, as attention- and memory-related processes might not occupy overlapping subregions of PPC. The research described here systematically assesses the anatomical and functional relationship between attention- and memory-related operations in PPC in a series of three experiments. The first experiment revealed four distinct patterns of activity across left lateral PPC--two thought to relate to mnemonic processes and two thought to relate to attention engaged during retrieval. The second experiment directly tested whether a region thought to index attention during retrieval from the first experiment was recruited in an independent attention task, with results suggesting that attention-sensitive regions are indeed engaged in a systematic manner during retrieval. The final experiment further probed the interaction between memory, attention, and decision-making processes engaged during retrieval, and replicated and extended the findings from the first experiment. Collectively, the findings from the research provide a more detailed depiction of how anatomically and functionally separable regions of PPC support distinct mechanisms of memory and attention
Incentive processing in the aging brain : individual differences in value-based learning and decision making across the adult life span by Gregory R Samanez-Larkin( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
As the proportion of older adults continues to grow rapidly here in the U.S. and across the globe, aging adults may be required to make increasingly more independent health-related and financial decisions. Thus, it is increasingly imperative to better understand the impact of age-related psychological changes on decision making. Although a growing body of research has linked age-related deficits in attention, memory, and cognitive control to changes in medial temporal and lateral prefrontal cortical function, remarkably little research has investigated the influence of aging on valuation and associated mesolimbic function in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Likewise, theoretical accounts link age-related declines in a number of basic cognitive abilities to dopamine function, but research has largely neglected age differences in value-based learning and decision making which also rely on the dopamine system. Recent findings reveal age-related declines in the structure of striatal and medial frontal circuits, however it was not previously clear whether these structural declines contribute to functional deficits in incentive processing. Thus, the seven experiments presented here explored potential age differences across a range of value-based tasks from basic anticipatory and consummatory responses to reward cues (Experiments 1--2) to probabilistic value-based learning (Experiments 2--5) to investment decision making (Experiments 6--7). The studies focus on both age-related and non-age-related individual differences in learning and decision making across the adult life span. Overall, three sets of key findings emerge. The first set of experiments on anticipatory affect reveal evidence for an age-related asymmetry in the anticipation of monetary gains and losses, such that older adults appear less sensitive to the prospect of financial loss than younger adults. In a subset of adults, this anticipatory affective bias contributes to loss avoidance learning impairments through the sensitivity of the anterior insula. Thus, although a relative lack of anxiety about potential loss may contribute to increased well-being, this asymmetry may put individuals with blunted loss anticipation at risk for certain types of financial mistakes. In fact, we show that individuals who perform poorly on the laboratory-based loss avoidance learning task accrue more financial debt in the real world. The second set of experiments focus on age differences in value-based learning and reveal that although older adults show intact neural representation of the actual value of reward outcomes, there is an age-related decline in the neural representation of prediction error at outcome in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Age differences in learning are magnified when choice set size is increased, but when the number of trials is extended older adults reach the same performance criterion as younger adults. The third set of experiments focus on age differences in risky financial decision making and reveal that older adults make more suboptimal choices than younger adults when choosing risky assets. Neuroimaging analyses reveal that the representation of expected value in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex is correlated with optimal investment decisions, and that the age-related increase in risky investment mistakes is mediated by a novel neural measure of variability in nucleus accumbens activity. The presentation of value information through visual decision aids improves investment choices in both younger and older adults. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span. Across the experiments, the findings suggest that both age-related affective biases and probabilistic learning impairments can influence decision making both in the laboratory and in the real world through insular and mesolimbic brain regions. Importantly, age-related impairments are reduced under supportive task conditions (designed to target the brain systems identified using neuroimaging). Together, the set of experiments presented here suggests that understanding how the brain processes value information may eventually inform the design of more targeted and effective behavioral interventions for investors of all ages
High-resolution functional imaging of the habenula in healthy and depressed individuals by Daniella Julia Furman( file )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Neuroscientists have recently identified a role for the habenula, a phylogenetically primitive and conserved component of the vertebrate epithalamus, in predicting, and responding to, the occurrence of negative events. In monkeys, habenula circuitry has been found to operate in parallel and opposition to the dopaminergic reward response system: whereas midbrain dopamine release has been linked to the anticipation and receipt of reward, and to the initiation of motor behaviors required to attain reward, the habenula is posited to respond both to cues predicting future punishment or reward omission and to unexpected negative outcomes. Further, activation of the habenula inhibits the release of midbrain dopamine, thereby suppressing behavior in the face of negative feedback or the anticipation of future failure. Very few studies, however, have examined habenula function in humans, likely due to the difficulty in resolving this small structure with conventional neuroimaging methods. Consequently, we have an incomplete picture of whether the human habenula, like the homologous structure in non-human primates, encodes the prediction of future suboptimal outcomes and whether its activation in response to negative outcomes varies with the extent to which they were expected. Further, we do not know how variation in habenula activity is related to individual differences in cognitive and affective responses to negative occurrences. Indeed, investigators have speculated that perturbations in habenula activity contribute to the pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), a psychiatric illness characterized by abnormalities in behavioral, cognitive, and affective responding to negative feedback and by marked pessimism in evaluating the likelihood of future events. Although accumulating evidence of structural and metabolic anomalies in depressed humans and in animal models of depression supports this hypothesis, no work to date has examined the extent to which depressed individuals exhibit abnormal activation of the habenula during the prediction or receipt of negative feedback. The current study was designed to characterize habenula response to, and anticipation of, negative outcomes in both neurotypical and depressed individuals using a combination of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and manual segmentation methods. The results suggest that, in healthy adults, the habenula encodes the probability of a negative outcome, influences behavioral responding, and signals the degree of discrepancy between initial predictions and actual outcomes. In contrast, in depressed individuals, the habenula does not accurately track the likelihood of a negative event, influence behavioral responding, or exhibit the normal pattern of activation in response to the receipt of negative feedback. While additional work is needed to determine the downstream behavioral, affective, and cognitive consequences of abnormal habenula function in MDD, the observed results suggest that depressed individuals are characterized by dysfunction in a neural system involved in the generation of expectations about the future and in the comparison of negative expectations and reality
Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system : final report by Herbert H Clark( Book )
2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
This project has three related goals: 1) To describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication including the identification of the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss; 2) To identify the types and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt controllers and pilots to focus on communication itself. The costs of these programs were analyzed in term of communication efficiency and the techniques used to resolve these problems; 3) To identify factors associated with communication problems such as deviation from conventional ATC procedures
Prospect theory and the economics of litigation by Jeffrey John Rachlinski( Archival Material )
1 edition published in 1994 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Cultural variation in choice and its consequences : implications for decision making, victim blaming, and social policies by Krishna Mukundrai Savani( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Choice is one of the most important categories of actions, both in American society in general and in the specific fields of psychology and economics. Extensive research over the past century has examined how people make choices, but the question of whether and when an action counts as a choice remains unstudied. While most scientists assume that whether an action counts as a choice is based upon the objective availability of multiple options, the present research tests whether what counts as a choice is also a matter of construal, a construal that is shaped by cultural models of agency. Studies 1 to 6 find that people in U.S. American contexts, where the disjoint model of agency is prevalent, are more likely than those in Indian contexts, where the conjoint model of agency is prevalent, to construe behaviors as choices. In Study 1, Americans reported making significantly more choices during the day than did Indians. In Studies 2 and 3, after the experimenter subtly induced participants to engage in the same series of behaviors, Americans were again more likely than Indians to construe their actions as choices. In Study 4, while watching a video of an actor spending time in his apartment, Americans identified the actor as making significantly more choices than did Indians. In Studies 5a and 5b, Americans were even more likely and Indians were even less likely to construe more important real life decisions as choices. In Study 6, Indians also showed a greater tendency to construe actions as choices when these actions involved responding to other people than when they did not, but Americans were equally likely to construe personal and interpersonal actions as choices. These findings show that whether people construe actions as choices is significantly shaped by sociocultural systems of meanings and practices. Studies 7 to 12 examined some of the positive and negative consequences of construing actions as choices in American contexts. Based upon the idea that choice and control are key components of the disjoint model of agency, these studies tested whether inducing Americans to construe actions as choices makes them more likely to make personal, interpersonal, and societal decisions under the assumption of personal control. Studies 7 and 8 found that inducing Americans to construe another person's actions as choices led them to make more risk-seeking and ambiguity-seeking decisions, which have been associated in previous research with increased perceived control. Studies 9 and 10 found that inducing Americans to construe another person's actions as choices led them to blame victims of negative life outcomes for making bad choices, reflecting the assumption that people have control over their actions and outcomes. Finally, Studies 11 and 12 found that inducing Americans to construe another person's actions as choices led them to oppose social policies benefiting society at the cost of individual liberty, but to support social policies enhancing individual freedom. Together, these studies document that whether an action counts as a choice is a matter of construal to a significant extent, and whether people construe actions as choices has profound psychological consequences, both positive and negative. The findings suggest that the existing societal trend of framing more and more issues as matters of choice is unlikely to have universally positive consequences, and might also have a variety of unanticipated negative consequences
Learning from the positivity effect : informed and motivated behavior change by Casey Moren Lindberg( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
The story of old age is not one of pure loss. Indeed, old age represents a time of certain cognitive decline in some domains, but also a time of growth and stability in others. Wisdom, maturity, expertise, and emotional regulation show improvements across adulthood. Goals also shift over the life span, from those aimed at gaining information and preparing for the future to emotionally meaningful pursuits later in life. These differences lead to goal-consistent cognitive biases in the young and the old. Younger people attend to negative information more than positive information. Older adults attend to positive information more than negative information. This developmental shift, called the positivity effect, is presumably adaptive in a life-span context. Yet either set of chronically activated goals can be maladaptive in certain contexts. Because the positivity effect is malleable -- influenced by the way task relevant goals are structured -- it may be possible to frame information in ways that reduce biases in young and old. The present program of research aims to show how biases can be reduced when participants are given information about relevant research findings and have the necessary psychological tools to adjust their behavior accordingly. No previous work has investigated the impact of disclosing information about the positivity effect directly to participants. Such an informed debiasing attempt could prove fruitful for future attempts to educate the public about their own attentional biases. Study 1 demonstrates the positivity effect in a picture recall task; Study 2 adds images to an existing image set in order to more accurately study debiasing of the positivity effect in future studies; Study 3 demonstrates that people are generally unaware of the positivity effect; Study 4 demonstrates that simple information disclosure about the positivity effect is insufficient to change participants' behavior on a picture presentation/recall task and a health care decision task; Study 5 demonstrates that participants' motivation to change is key to behavior change
Visual and spatial reasoning in design : preprints of the International Conference on Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design : MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, 15-17 June 1999 by International Conference on Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design( Book )
1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Resting networks in primary insomnia by Michael Cunyuan Chen( file )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Insomnia is a prevalent and costly disorder of sleep-related distress, yet little is known about its etiology. To better understand the neurobiology underlying insomnia, we examined resting state and directed sleep brain activity in insomniacs and healthy controls using simultaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Using dual regression analysis of BOLD signal brain networks derived from independent component analysis, we found increased coactivation of the insula in salience networks in insomniacs compared to healthy controls. This increase was accompanied by altered EEG power in insomniacs compared to healthy controls, as well as altered BOLD connectivity signatures of EEG frequency bands. These results suggest that aberrant connectivity of the insula and salience networks contribute to neural dysfunction in insomnia
Feeling wronged leads to entitlement and selfishness by Emily Maria Zitek( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Five studies demonstrate that feeling wronged leads to a sense of entitlement and to selfish behavior. In Study 1, participants who were instructed to recall a time when their lives were unfair were more likely to refuse to help the experimenter with a supplementary task than were participants who recalled a time when they were bored. In Study 2, the same manipulation increased intentions to engage in a number of selfish behaviors, and this effect was mediated by self-reported entitlement to obtain positive (and avoid negative) outcomes. In Study 3, participants who lost a computer game for an unfair reason (a glitch in the program) requested a more selfish money allocation for a future task than did participants who lost the game for a fair reason, and this effect was again mediated by entitlement. In Studies 4 and 5, bad luck from a fair, random system led to the same kinds of effects for men. In Study 4, students (especially men) who received bad numbers in a housing lottery expressed less intention to behave charitably. In Study 5, men who were assigned to bad outcomes by the roll of a die were less willing to help out by signing up for an additional experiment than were men in the control condition, and self-reported entitlement again mediated the effect
On resisting social influence : technical report by Susan Andersen( Book )
1 edition published in 1979 in Undetermined and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Resisting social influences becomes important when such influences can be appropriately thought of as 'mind control.' When information is systematically hidden, withheld or distorted it is impossible to make unbiased decisions. Under these circumstances, people may be subtly led to believe they are 'freely' choosing to act. It is precisely this kind of decision that persists and most affects our behavior since we come to believe in those attitudes and actions for which we have generated our own justifications. The thesis of this essay is that 'mind control' exists not in exotic gimmicks, but rather in the most mundane aspects of experience. Because it does, it is possible to reduce our susceptibility to unwanted coercive control by increasing our vigilance and learning to utilize certain basic strategies of analysis. In this paper, we present resistance strategies which are broadly applicable to the wide array of mind-manipulation attempts that surround us daily--in a 'self- help' format that provides for ready accessibility. Findings from relevant social-psychological research, from interviews and personal experiences with con men, cultists, super-salesmen and other perpetrators of mind control comprise the reservoir of information from which we have drawn
Prediction and novelty in the human medial temporal lobe by Janice Chen( file )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Prediction is at the core of memory. A memory system stores information about the past in service of preparation for the future, and thus the act of memory retrieval may be viewed as an act of prediction about upcoming events. Converging evidence from animal and compuational models suggests that within the hippocampus, stored memories are compared to current sensory input in order to compute novelty -- when expectation deviates from actual outcome. Specifically, hippocampal subfield CA1 is thought to support this computation of mismatch between past and present. Detection of novelty in turn is hypothesized to modulate encoding processes, providing a mechanism for gating the entry of information into long-term memory. Using high-resolution functional MRI, I examined hippocampal subfield (CA1, CA23/DG[dentate gyrus], subiculum) and medial temporal lobe (MTL: entorhinal, perirhinal, parahippocampal) cortical activation during associative retrieval and associative mismatches in humans. In Experiment 1, subjects performed cued image retrieval and made explicit comparisons of memory to matching or mismatching decision probes. Activity in multiple hippocampal and MTL cortical subregions tracked associative retrieval success, whereas activity in CA1 and perirhinal cortex tracked the presence of associative mismatches. In Experiment 2, subjects viewed sequences of images while performing an incidental task (1-back target detection). In CA1, CA23/DG, and perirhinal cortex, activation was greater when image sequences were presented in rearranged order (mismatch with memory) compared to repeated order (match with memory). In CA1 only, this mismatch enhancement was significantly modulated by prediction strength: the mismatch enhancement was greater when predictions were stronger. In a separate behavioral experiment, recognition memory was found to be better for images that had appeared in rearranged-order (mismatch) than repeated-order (match) sequences, supporting the notion that mismatch detection leads to encoding upregulation. In Experiment 3, subjects viewed sequences of images containing either temporal predicitive information only or combined temporal and spatial predictive information. When novel images were embedded within previously viewed sequences, activation in CA1 was significantly related to subsequent memory for items which had violated predictions (remembered> forgotten), with this enhancement modulated by the amount of predictive information. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that CA1 acts as a comparator, detecting when memory for the past and sensory input in the present diverge. More broadly, the current studies reveal the dynamics of the human hippocampus and MTL cortices during the acts of prediction, novelty detection, and memory encoding -- a continuous cycle of events that enable preparation for the future based on past experience
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