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Croser, Johanna L.

Overview
Works: 19 works in 55 publications in 1 language and 124 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: HC10, 382.41
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Johanna L Croser
Publications by Johanna L Croser
Most widely held works by Johanna L Croser
Changing contributions of different agricultural policy instruments to global reductions in trade and welfare by Johanna L Croser( Book )
5 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 13 libraries worldwide
Trade negotiators and policy advisors are keen to know the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to international trade and economic welfare. Nominal rates of assistance or producer support estimates are incomplete indicators, especially when (especially in developing countries) some commodities are taxed and others are subsidized in which case positive contributions can offset negative contributions. This paper develops and estimates a new set of more-satisfactory indicators to examine the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to reductions in agricultural trade and welfare, drawing on recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes and a recently compiled database on distortions to agricultural prices for 75 developing and high-income countries over the period 1960 to 2004
How do agricultural policy restrictions to global trade and welfare differ across commodities? by P. J Lloyd( Book )
8 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
For decades the world's agricultural markets have been highly distorted by national government policies, but very differently for different commodities. Hence a weighted average across countries of nominal rates of assistance or consumer tax equivalents for a product can be misleading as an indicator of the trade or welfare effects of policies affecting that product's global market. This is especially the case when some countries tax and others subsidize its production or consumption. This article develops a new set of more-satisfactory indicators for that purpose, drawing on the recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes. It then exploits a global agricultural distortions database recently compiled by the World Bank to generate the first set of estimates of those two indicators for each of 28 key agricultural commodities from 1960 to 2004, based on a sample of 75 countries that together account for more than three-quarters of the world's production of those agricultural commodities. These reveal the considerable extent of reforms in agricultural policies of developing as well as high-income countries over the past two decades
How Do Agricultural Policy Restrictions To Global Trade And Welfare Differ Across Commodities? by P. J Lloyd( Computer File )
4 editions published between 2009 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 5 libraries worldwide
For decades the world's agricultural markets have been highly distorted by national government policies, but very differently for different commodities. Hence a weighted average across countries of nominal rates of assistance or consumer tax equivalents for a product can be misleading as an indicator of the trade or welfare effects of policies affecting that product's global market. This is especially the case when some countries tax and others subsidize its production or consumption. This article develops a new set of more-satisfactory indicators for that purpose, drawing on the recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes. It then exploits a global agricultural distortions database recently compiled by the World Bank to generate the first set of estimates of those two indicators for each of 28 key agricultural commodities from 1960 to 2004, based on a sample of 75 countries that together account for more than three-quarters of the world's production of those agricultural commodities. These reveal the considerable extent of reforms in agricultural policies of developing as well as high-income countries over the past two decades
Global distortions to agricultural markets : new indicators of trade and welfare impacts, 1955 to 2007 by P. J Lloyd( file )
4 editions published between 2009 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 3 libraries worldwide
"Despite recent reforms, world agricultural markets remain highly distorted by government policies. Traditional indicators of those price distortions can be poor guides to the policies' economic effects. Recent theoretical literature provides indicators of trade and welfare-reducing effects of price and trade policies which this paper builds on to develop more-satisfactory indexes. The authors exploit a new Agricultural Distortion database to generate estimates of them for developing and high-income countries over the past half century. These better approximations of the trade and welfare effects of sector policies are generated without a formal model of global markets or even price elasticity estimates. "--World Bank web site
Changing contributions of different agricultural policy instruments to global reductions in trade and welfare by Johanna L Croser( Sound Recording )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Agricultural distortions in Sub-Saharan Africa trade and welfare indicators, 1961 to 2004 by Johanna L Croser( Sound Recording )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Novel indicators of the trade and welfare effects of agricultural distortions in OECD countries by Kym Anderson( Sound Recording )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Global distortions to agricultural markets new indicators of trade and welfare impacts, 1955 to 2007 by P. J Lloyd( Sound Recording )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
An empirical analysis of global agricultural price distorting policies : 1960 to 2007 by Johanna L Croser( Book )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Economists have long been interested in measuring the extent, effects and causes of agricultural price and trade policies. The topic has drawn attention because agricultural trade between countries has almost never been free, and yet it is widely accepted that trade policy distortions affect the incentives of producers and consumers and cause a redistribution of resource use in the economy. Traditional aggregations of agricultural price and trade distortions can be poor guides to the economic effects of agricultural price and trade policies. Measures without theoretical foundation - such as simple- or trade-weighted average price distortions - may introduce biases in analysis. Recent decades have seen improvements in aggregation theory in the form of scalar index numbers of the trade- and welfare-reducing effects of price and trade policies. Despite the new theory, however, analysts have continued to use less satisfactory measures in practice. This thesis calculates partial-equilibrium versions of trade restrictiveness indices from the Anderson-Neary family of indices for agricultural policy distortions in 75 developed and developing countries over a period 1960 to 2007. The data for the empirical work are from the recently released World Bank Distortions to Agricultural Incentives database. The thesis calculates indices at the country level for the sample countries. Two partial-equilibrium indices are calculated - a Trade Reduction Index (TRI) and a Welfare Reduction Index (WRI). The TRI (WRI) is the uniform trade tax that yields the same loss in trade volume (welfare) as the structure of disaggregated distortions. The results of the country-level estimates show that standard weighted averages of price distortions understate the extent of global distortion from agricultural policies. One manuscript of the thesis focuses in particular on the trade restrictiveness of agricultural policy in Sub-Sahara Africa, and finds that weighted averages greatly understate the extent of regional distortion from agricultural policy by netting out offsetting distortions in exportable and import-competing sectors. The thesis also calculates indices of agricultural policy distortions for individual commodity markets. Whereas all previous work within the trade restrictiveness indices literature has focused on constructing index numbers of distortions from the perspective of a single country, this thesis proposes taking a global view instead for individual commodity markets. Indices are estimated for 28 key agricultural commodities. Generally, the indices are well above weighted-averages of price distortions. The most distorted global markets are the milk, sugar and rice markets. The thesis also employs the Anderson-Neary framework to consider the trade- and welfare-reducing effect of individual policy instruments. The aim of the work is to determine the relative contributions of different policy instruments to reductions in global trade and welfare over time and across countries. The most significant result empirically is the importance of export taxes pre-1990s and their substantial contribution to the fall in global trade- and welfare-restrictiveness of agricultural policy over the past two decades. Finally, the thesis examines the extent to which the Protection for Sale Model (PFS) of Grossman and Helpman (1994) holds for agricultural sectors at different stages of development. The test uses a new methodology proposed by Imai, Katayama and Krishna (2008). The Distortions to Agricultural Incentives dataset is used for the analysis. The PFS model is estimated in a cross-country setting, which allows for examination of the role of different government institutional factors in PFS framework
New indicators of how much agricultural policies restrict global trade by Kym Anderson( file )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
"Despite recent reforms, world agricultural markets remain highly distorted by government policies. Traditional indicators of agricultural and food price distortions such as producer and consumer support estimates (PSEs and CSEs) can be poor guides to the policies' trade effects. Two recent studies provide much better indicators of trade- (and welfare-)reducing effects of farm price and trade policies, but they provide somewhat differing numbers. This paper explains why those estimates differ and how they might be improved for use in on-going annual monitoring of the trade restrictiveness of agricultural policies in both high-incmoe and developing countries
How do agricultural policy restrictions to global trade and welfare differ across commodities ? by P. J Lloyd( Sound Recording )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Novel (1) indicators of the trade and welfare effects of agricultural distortions in OECD countries by Kym Anderson( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Agricultural markets in OECD countries have long been highly distorted by government policies. Traditional weighted average aggregates of the price distortions they involve, such as producer and consumer support estimates (PSEs and CSEs), can be poor indicators of the trade restrictiveness and economic welfare losses associated with them, especially if a country's support estimates vary a lot across the product range. Supplementing those measures with estimates of trade and welfare effects of price supports requires the use of a sectoral or economy wide model and price elasticity data. This paper shows that, in the absence of such a model, and a willingness to make simple assumptions about elasticities, it is possible to generate more satisfactory indicators than PSEs and CSEs using no more than the price and quantity data used to generate them. These new indexes provide an attractive supplement to the current policy monitoring regime developed by the OECD Secretariat
Global distortions to agricultural markets (1) new indicators of trade and welfare impacts, 1955 to 2007 by P. J Lloyd( file )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Despite recent reforms, world agricultural markets remain highly distorted by government policies. Traditional indicators of those price distortions such as producer and consumer support estimates (PSEs and CSEs) can be poor guides to the policies' economic effects. Recent theoretical literature provides scalar index numbers of trade- and welfarereducing effects of price and trade policies which this paper builds on to develop moresatisfactory indexes that can be generated using no more than the data used to generate PSEs and CSEs. We then exploit a new Agricultural Distortion database to provide time series estimates of index numbers for 75 developing and high-income countries over the past half century
How much do agricultural policies restrict trade? comparing trade restrictiveness indexes by Kym Anderson( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Recently the Bank has provided new indicators for monitoring the extent to which agricultural policies restrict international trade in farm goods. They come from two studies with differing methodologies and data sources, and each provides less-than-perfect estimates. This note shows how and explains why the two indexes differ for some countries
The impact of trade policy reform on income distribution and poverty in Indonesia : a CGE analysis by Johanna L Croser( file )
1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
How do agricultural policy (1) restrictions to global trade and welfare differ across commodities? by Johanna L Croser( file )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
For decades the world's agricultural markets have been highly distorted by national government policies, but very differently for different commodities such that a ranking of weighted average nominal rates of assistance across countries can be misleading as an indicator of the trade or welfare effects of policies affecting global markets. This article develops a new set of more-satisfactory indicators, drawing on the recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes. It then estimates those two indicators for each of 28 key agricultural commodities from 1960 to 2004, based on a sample of 75 countries that together account for more than three-quarters of the world's production of those agricultural commodities
 
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