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Cohen, Geoffrey

Works: 10 works in 10 publications in 1 language and 10 library holdings
Genres: Conference proceedings 
Roles: Thesis advisor
Classifications: QC762.E64X 1974,
Publication Timeline
Publications about Geoffrey Cohen
Publications by Geoffrey Cohen
Most widely held works by Geoffrey Cohen
An experimental test of the effect of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced feedback on just world beliefs, motivation, and performance does social disadvantage matter? by Mathew Kenneth Cor( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The just world beliefs, self-reported commitment to long-term academic goals, time spent studying, and change in performance after receiving norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and control feedback were compared. Students from two high schools in Northern California serving lower middle and upper middle class populations respectively took a difficult math test and were provided with failure feedback based on either a norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, or non-referenced standard. Participants were offered an opportunity to study before they took a second difficult math test. For socially disadvantaged students (as indicated by mother's highest level of education), norm-referenced feedback resulted in significantly less time studying for the second test. In addition, a significant interaction between level of social disadvantage and type of feedback on change in performance is revealed. In particular, norm-referenced feedback is found to have a significant negative effect on the change in performance of disadvantaged students and a significant positive effect on the change in performance of advantaged students. While feedback type did not significantly affect student just world beliefs, a relationship between just world beliefs and time spent studying that is moderated by level of social disadvantage is revealed. The results add to the literature by generalizing findings from previous research to a different population and to different measures of just world beliefs and motivation suggesting a potential developmental component to the relationship between just world beliefs and motivation. The research also sheds new light on how norm-referenced feedback differentially affects student outcomes depending on level of social disadvantage
Scaled-up social psychology intervening wisely and broadly in education by David Paunesku( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Over the last several decades, research has examined how students' beliefs about school and about their own abilities affect their academic goals, motivation, and achievement (for reviews see, Dweck, Walton, & Cohen, 2011; Farrington et al., 2012). It has also investigated how these beliefs and associated patterns of behavior can be influenced through interaction with others (Gunderson et al., 2013; Linnenbrink, 2005; Mueller & Dweck, 1998; Turner et al., 2002) and through precise, psychological interventions (J. Aronson, Fried, & Good, 2002; Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck, 2007; Cohen, Garcia, Apfel, & Master, 2006; Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht, 2003; Walton & Cohen, 2007, 2011; Wilson & Linville, 1982, 1985; Yeager & Walton, 2011). This research has focused on the educational context, but it has provided rich, generalizable insights. It has revealed a complex cross-section of the ways in which individuals' worries and motivations interact with their social environments to affect their behavior and major life outcomes. The education context is in many ways ideal for the study of psychology. There are unambiguous, regularly-collected, socially meaningful outcomes; there are complex, but consistently structured relationships; and there is diversity, yet commonality, in people's aspirations and concerns. The schoolhouse has always been a rich source of data for psychologists (Berliner, 2006; Davidson & Benjamin, 1987). However, as computers increasingly saturate education, the schoolhouse and its contemporary equivalents provide unprecedented opportunities for psychological researchers: Opportunities to make a measurable and socially meaningful impact on the lives of students and teachers; opportunities to display to society at large the benefits of a careful, psychologically-wise approach to solving social problems; and opportunities to learn about psychological theory by pushing its predictions to the limit in new contexts and at new scales of operation. This dissertation investigates these opportunities from several different perspectives. Chapter 1 focuses on education as a context for psychological research: I elaborate on the factors that make education a rich context for psychological research, and I describe how researchers have used this context to apply and to further basic psychological theory. In Chapter 2, I focus on the the benefits, challenges, and methods of large-scale research. Chapters 3-5 each present data from a different, large-scale efficacy study. Chapter 3 presents a study of the robustness and generalizability of two social psychological interventions across a sample of over 1500 students from 13 socio- demographically heterogeneous schools. Chapter 4 describes the process of selecting and customizing psychological interventions to address psychological obstacles to success in community college math. Chapter 5 tests the efficacy of psychologically wise encouragement in a sample of over 250,000 online learners. In Chapter 6, I explore how the local context influences students' responses to a growth mindset intervention and the relationship between individual students' mindsets and achievement. Finally, Chapter 7 reviews what we have learned about psychology through recent large-scale studies in education; it considers what new areas deserve exploration; it provides loose estimates for the economic impacts of psychological interventions in schools; and it discusses psychological interventions as a vehicle for large-scale social change
The ancient workings at Gakgale by Geoffrey Cohen( Article )
1 edition published in 1977 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Coping with challenges in middle school the role of implicit theories of emotion by Carissa Romero( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The ability to cope with challenges predicts functioning across a wide range of domains. One factor that has been shown to predict functioning is people's implicit theories -- their beliefs about the malleability of personal attributes. The current research presents four studies that examine implicit theories of emotion during the challenging middle school period. Studies 1 and 2 compared the relationship between emotion theories and emotional functioning with the relationship between intelligence theories and academic functioning in a sample of 115 middle schoolers. Consistent with past research, Study 1 found that intelligence theories predicted academic functioning during the challenging transition year in middle school. Sixth graders with an incremental theory of intelligence earned higher grades than students with an entity theory. Extending past research, Study 1 found that emotion theories predicted emotional functioning. Sixth graders with an incremental theory of emotion reported fewer depressive symptoms and greater well-being. Further, Study 1 found that intelligence theories and emotion theories predict functioning through similar processes. Students with an incremental theory of intelligence valued effort more, and their effort beliefs mediated the relationship between an incremental theory and higher grades. Similarly, students with an incremental theory of emotion used more adaptive emotion regulation strategies, specifically reappraisal, and reappraisal mediated the relationship between an incremental theory of emotion and both fewer depressive symptoms and greater well-being. Study 2 followed the students from Study 1 through the end of the middle school period and found that implicit theories predicted students' trajectories throughout middle school. Students with an incremental theory of intelligence in sixth grade were more likely to move to advanced math courses over time. Similarly, students who began sixth grade with lower well-being were more likely to feel better over time if they reported having an incremental theory of emotion in sixth grade. Since Studies 1 and 2 were the first studies to explore emotion theories in middle school students, Study 3 examined emotion theories in a larger, more heterogeneous sample. In a sample of 1,353 sixth through eighth graders, an incremental theory of emotion predicted more reappraisal use, less misery, and greater well-being. Further, reappraisal mediated the relationship between emotion theories and emotional outcomes. Finally, Study 4 taught students an incremental theory of emotion and reappraisal use through a brief, online intervention. Students who were randomly assigned to the treatment condition reported more incremental theories of emotion and greater use of reappraisal several weeks after the intervention. If long-term follow up of these students shows a positive and lasting impact on emotional outcomes, an emotion theory intervention can be a powerful tool to set students on positive emotional trajectories
Reducing stereotype threat in classrooms : a review of social-psychological intervention studies on improving the achievement of Black students by Joshua Aronson( Book )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The report identifies teacher-focused classroom-level strategies (based on solid research evidence) intended to reduce stereotype threat and improve the academic performance of underachieving minority students. The information is useful for educators seeking strategies to reduce the achievement gap
Biased expectations in times of predicament essays on help-seeking and indecision by Daniel A Newark( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This dissertation examines the accuracy of behavioral and attitudinal expectations in times of predicament. The first two chapters use experimental research methods to study people's predictions when they are in need of tangible favors. Specifically, chapter one explores help-seekers' expectations of receiving assistance from someone who has refused to provide aid in the past. Based on findings from four social-psychological studies, this chapter argues that help-seekers underestimate the likelihood of receiving help in this situation. This underestimation is driven by help-seekers' failure to appreciate the discomfort of refusing to provide help not only once, but twice, as well as their assumption that a person who has refused to help once is invariably an unhelpful person. Chapter two investigates the quality of help that help-seekers' expect, conditional on receiving help. Four additional studies find that help-seekers underestimate the effort that helpers put into their assistance. Once again, the psychological mechanism driving this bias appears to be help-seekers' failure to appreciate helpers' discomfort. The final chapter of this dissertation is a conceptual work examining people's expectations while struggling in a state of indecision. What behaviors and functions do people expect while distressed by a decision they do not know how to make? This chapter argues that decision-makers are unduly pessimistic about indecision, seeing it primarily as a disquieting pathology of choice. This is due, in part, to the strength of cultural and cognitive norms surrounding decision-making and results in decision-makers failing to see indecision's potential as an arena for identity formation
Reducing stereotype threat in classrooms a review of social-psychological intervention studies on improving of Black students : summary by Joshua Aronson( file )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Performance and health in surgical residency exploring the roles of gender, stereotype threat, and values affirmation by Arghavan Salles( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Women who pursue surgical training do so despite the stereotype that men are better surgeons than women. Thus, in addition to the typical difficulties encountered during residency, women in surgical training have the burden of proving that they are as capable as men. In this context, women may experience stereotype threat, a phenomenon thta occurs when people fear being seen in light of a negative stereotype about a group to which they belong. Stereotype threat has been shown to undermine minority learners' performance in other settings. This study assessed whether stereotype threat affected women in surgical training with regard to their performance and psychological health. I additionally tested a social-psychological intervention known as values affirmation, which has been shown to reduce the effects stereotype threat in other populations, on surgical residents. I measured residents' performance (using professional and laboratory performance measures) and psychological health. Greater levels of stereotype threat were associated with poorer psychological health for women, but they were not associated with poorer performance. While omnibus tests of values affirmation were not significant, exploratory internal analyses tentatively suggested that values affirmation benefited examination and clinical performance for women and working memory for both men and women. This is the first study of stereotype threat in a medical context and is the first attempt to understand the effects of both stereotype threat and affirmation on psychological health and performance in this setting. I discuss the implications of these findings as they relate to the retention of women in surgical training and the performance of surgical residents, i.e., delivery of patient care
Does making a test high stakes for students artificially inflate acheivement gap by race & gender? Evidence from the California High School Exit Exam by Nicole Leigh Arshan( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
In a prior study of high school exit exams, my co-authors and I found that socio-economically disadvantaged students -- female, low income, English Language Learners (ELLs) and students of color -- are less likely to pass a high school exit exam than their more socio-economically advantaged peers, even when controlling for prior and concurrent achievement on a similar exam with no individual stakes for students (Reardon, Atteberry, & Arshan, 2011). These findings raise significant concerns about the accuracy of standardized test scores and the role they may play in reproducing societal and educational inequality. In this dissertation I use the same data to more thoroughly explore the achievement gaps on the high stakes California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) and low stakes California Standards Test (CST). I posit that the reasons we may observe a CAHSEE/ CST gap fall into three broad categories. The first category consists of statistical artifacts resulting from measurement error and violations of statistical assumptions. The second category of explanations consists of unintended consequences to policy decisions. These decisions may exacerbate achievement differences between groups but do not stem from performance differences between different groups introduced along with the high stakes of the test. If there is no evidence that the CAHSEE/ CST gaps are driven by true differences in ability -- either due to differences in student knowledge (including test prep) or differences in rigor of content or preparation--then these gaps are most likely the direct result of the "high stakes" nature of the exam. I use student level administrative data from three large California districts to examine these possibilities. I demonstrate that these measures are not driven by school segregation or measurement error using school fixed effects, multiple measures of ability, test scores shrunken to the group mean and instrumental variables. I find that women overperform on the English Language Arts (ELA) exam and underperform on the mathematics exam. Other groups underperform on both exams. Breaking down the exams by the content substrands, I find that the writing sample, which is included in the high stakes CAHSEE, but not the low stakes CST, drives the female overperformance on the ELA section. I conclude that the patterns of these gaps, including dramatic differences by school attended, are consistent with a stereotype threat explanation. In an era of increasing accountability for students, these performance differences on meaningful tests need to be considered both by policymakers as a possible negative unintended consequence to student level accountability and by educators as an impediment to the current of future success of their students
EPR of magnetic ions in metals : proceedings of the Conference of Haute-Nendaz, 3-5 September 1973 ( Book )
1 edition published in 1974 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
English (10)
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