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Lanjouw, Peter

Overview
Works: 103 works in 283 publications in 1 language and 2,697 library holdings
Roles: Author, Editor, Honoree
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 338.9542
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Peter Lanjouw
Publications by Peter Lanjouw
Most widely held works by Peter Lanjouw
Constructing an indicator of consumption for the analysis of poverty : principles and illustrations with reference to Ecuador by Jesko Hentschel( Book )
17 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 128 libraries worldwide
Economic development in Palanpur over five decades by Peter Lanjouw( Book )
21 editions published between 1998 and 2002 in English and held by 121 libraries worldwide
This is an account of economic development in Palanpur, a village in rural north India, based on surveys of the village over the period 1957 to 1993. The analysis focuses on the reasons behind its uneven progress, tying in background issues
Rural nonfarm employment : a survey by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
10 editions published in 1995 in English and Undetermined and held by 76 libraries worldwide
Household welfare measurement and the pricing of basic services by Jesko Hentschel( file )
12 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 72 libraries worldwide
November 1998 In many countries, markets for basic services such as electricity, water, or gas are characterized by rationing, subsidies, or increasing marginal tariff pricing. If consumption is used as a welfare indicator, household's different access to, and payments for, such publicly provided services have to be taken into account. Hentschel and Lanjouw discuss when and how to adjust expenditures derived from household surveys to reflect the consumption of basic services. They discuss simple adjustment methods for markets that are subsidized, rationed, or subject to increasing marginal tariff pricing. Using Ecuador as an example, they show how incorporating adjustments in markets for water, electricity, and cooking gas can significantly alter estimates of poverty and are therefore important to a comprehensive measure of welfare. For Ecuador, adjustments must be made for water, for example, because the nonpoor urban population often has access to subsidized public water and the poor depend on the private market; adjustments must be made for electricity because increasing marginal tariff rates lead to different prices per kWh. Adjustments need not be made for cooking gas, which is highly subsidized in Ecuador, because the amount consumers use is not rationed. The authors compare the sensitivity of poverty indicators and the poverty profile in Ecuador to adjustments in nominal expenditures for basic services in Ecuador. The poverty profile showed relatively few changes, but poverty indicators (headcount and the poverty gap for extreme poverty) showed changes that were statistically significant. The results dramatize how important it is to carefully analyze markets for basic services when deriving welfare measures from household surveys. Such adjustments, by improving the measure of welfare, can also encourage wider acceptance and use of consumption as a welfare indicator and a guide for developing public policy. This paper-a joint product of the Poverty Group, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network and the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the Bank to develop guidelines and tools for welfare analyses based on household surveys. Jesko Hentschel may be contacted at jhentschel@worldbank.org
The evolution of poverty and inequality in Indian villages by Raji Jayaraman( file )
12 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 70 libraries worldwide
January 1998 Continued agricultural growth and diversification into nonagricultural activities are essential if India is to continue reducing rural poverty. But policymakers hoping to alleviate rural poverty must also be aware of the causes and implications of persisting, if not increasing, inequality within villages. Jayaraman and Lanjouw review longitudinal village studies from a variety of disciplinary perspectives to identify changes in living standards in rural India in recent decades. They scrutinize the main forces of economic change-agricultural intensification, changes in land relations, and occupational diversification-to explain changes in level and distribution of living standards in rural communities. These forces of economic change appear to have offset or at least mitigated the pressure that growing populations can place on existing resources. But the decline in rural poverty has been slow and irregular at best. Nor is poverty reduction only a matter of economic development. For instance, the rural poor often attribute much of the improvement in their living conditions to reduced dependence on patrons. There are few reports in village studies of particularly effective government policies aimed at reducing poverty. The long-term poor still tend to be from the disadvantaged castes and to live in households that rely on income from agricultural labor. There is little evidence that inequalities within village communities have declined. In some cases improved material well-being of rural households has led to greater social stratification rather than less, with women and members of the lower castes suffering the consequences. Such inequalities could limit how policy interventions or continued growth can reduce poverty further. Policymakers must ensure accountability to keep abuses-for example, the privileged classes directing all benefits to themselves-to a minimum. This paper-a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study the dynamics of poverty in the South Asia region
Benefit incidence and the timing of program capture by Peter Lanjouw( Book )
11 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 69 libraries worldwide
August 1998 Benefits from schooling and antipoverty programs in rural India were captured early by the nonpoor. The poor tend to benefit from program expansion, and lose from contraction. Conventional methods of assessing benefit incidence hide this fact. Survey-based estimates of average program participation conditional on income are often used in assessing the distributional impacts of public spending reforms. But program participation could well be nonhomogeneous, so that marginal impacts of program expansion or contraction differ greatly from average impacts. Using the geographic variation found in sample survey data for rural India for 1993-94, Lanjouw and Ravallion estimate the marginal odds of participating in schooling and antipoverty programs. Their results suggest early capture of these programs by the nonpoor. Thus, conventional methods of assessing benefit incidence underestimate the gains to India's rural poor from higher public outlays, and their loss from program cuts. This paper-a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group-was prepared as a background paper for the Bank's 1998 Poverty Assessment for India. The authors may be contacted at planjouw@worldbank.org or mravallion@worldbank.org
Ecuador's rural nonfarm sector as a route out of poverty by Peter Lanjouw( file )
10 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 69 libraries worldwide
March 1998 The nonagricultural rural sector represents a potentially important route out of poverty in Ecuador. Poverty declines as the share of income from nonagricultural sources rises. Nonagricultural employment and earnings are positively associated with better education and infrastructure access. Poverty could be expected to fall substantially with expansion in nonfarm sectors such as construction, transport, commerce, and services. Lanjouw analyzes a recent household survey for Ecuador to assess the role of the nonagricultural rural sector in reducing poverty. That sector accounts for roughly 40 percent of rural incomes in Ecuador, three-fourths of which comes from nonagricultural enterprises as opposed to wage labor. The sector provides employment to nearly 40 percent of men and 50 percent of economically active women. The nonagricultural rural sector represents a potentially important route out of poverty: Poverty declines as the share of income from nonagricultural sources rises. Nonagricultural employment and earnings are positively associated with higher education levels and better access to infrastructure services. Although women are more likely than men to be employed in this sector, their earnings for given education levels and other household characteristics are significantly lower. All other things equal, the greatest fall in poverty could be expected from expanding employment opportunities in transport, commerce-related activities, and such services as administration and the hotel and restaurant trade. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study the role of the nonfarm sector in the rural economy. The author may be contacted at planjouw@worldbank.org
A measured approach to ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity : concepts, data, and the twin goals by Dean Jolliffe( Book )
4 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 47 libraries worldwide
In 2013, the World Bank Group adopted two new goals to guide its work: ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. More specifically, the goals are to reduce extreme poverty in the world to less than 3 percent by 2030, and to foster income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population in each country. While poverty reduction has been a mainstay of the World Bank's mission for decades, the Bank has now set a specific goal and timetable, and for the first time, the Bank has explicitly included a goal linked to ensuring that growth is shared by all. The discussion until now has centered primarily on articulating the new goals. This report, the latest in World Bank's Policy Research Report series, goes beyond that and lays out their conceptual underpinnings, discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses by contrasting them with alternative indicators, and proposes empirical approaches and requirements to track progress towards the goals. The report makes clear that the challenges posed by the World Bank Group's new stance extend not just to the pursuit of these goals but, indeed, to their very definition and empirical content. The report also argues that an improved data infrastructure, consisting of many elements including the collection of more and better survey data, is critical to ensure that progress towards these goals can be measured, and policies to help achieve them can be identified and prioritized
Poverty comparisons with non-compatible data : theory and illustrations by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
11 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 39 libraries worldwide
January 1997 Poverty rates calculated on the basis of different definitions of consumption may reveal substantial biases, but under certain conditions robust comparisons are possible. Nonfood spending is often thought to be especially poorly measured, but the more comprehensive is the measure of consumption spending, the better it is as a measure of welfare. Comparisons of poverty rates are only rarely based on identical underlying definitions of welfare. The authors examine the sensitivity of poverty rates calculated from alternative definitions of consumption. They consider what theory can say about the direction of bias in comparisons and show that under certain conditions robust comparisons are possible. Data from Ecuador, El Salvador, and Pakistan show that the magnitude of biases can be substantial. Their robustness result is used as a baseline to explore the tradeoffs involved in aggregating noisy expenditure components. Although nonfood expenditures are often thought to be especially poorly measured, the authors' data indicate that the more comprehensive is the measure of consumption spending, the better it is as a measure of welfare. This paper - a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department - is part of a larger effort in the department to improve the reliability and comparability of poverty measures
How Good A Map ? Putting Small Area Estimation To The Test by Gabriel Demombynes( file )
5 editions published between 2007 and 2012 in English and held by 38 libraries worldwide
The authors examine the performance of small area welfare estimation. The method combines census and survey data to produce spatially disaggregated poverty and inequality estimates. To test the method, they compare predicted welfare indicators for a set of target populations with their true values. They construct target populations using actual data from a census of households in a set of rural Mexican communities. They examine estimates along three criteria: accuracy of confidence intervals, bias, and correlation with true values. The authors find that while point estimates are very stable, the precision of the estimates varies with alternative simulation methods. While the original approach of numerical gradient estimation yields standard errors that seem appropriate, some computationally less-intensive simulation procedures yield confidence intervals that are slightly too narrow. The precision of estimates is shown to diminish markedly if unobserved location effects at the village level are not well captured in underlying consumption models. With well specified models there is only slight evidence of bias, but the authors show that bias increases if underlying models fail to capture latent location effects. Correlations between estimated and true welfare at the local level are highest for mean expenditure and poverty measures and lower for inequality measures
Poverty, education, and health in Indonesia who benefits from public spending? ( file )
2 editions published in 2001 in Undetermined and English and held by 36 libraries worldwide
Static and dynamic incidence analysis underscores the importance of Indonesia's public spending on primary health care to the poor. In education, evidence suggests that the poor are well represented in primary schooling and would benefit from increased public provisioning of secondary schooling
Poverty in India during the 1990s a regional perspective by Yoko Kijima( file )
2 editions published in 2003 in Undetermined and English and held by 36 libraries worldwide
Poverty and economic transition how do changes in economies of scale affect poverty rates of different households? by Peter Lanjouw( file )
1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
Gender and the allocation of adult time evidence from the Peru LSMS panel data by Nadeem Ilahi( file )
1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
Analysis of time use data for Peru in 1994 and 1997 shows that women work up to a fifth more than men do and that women in poor households work more than those in rich ones, while there is no difference for men
Poverty comparisons with non-compatible data theory and illustrations by Jean Olson Lanjouw( file )
1 edition published in 1997 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
Poverty, education, and health in Indonesia : who benefits from public spending? by Peter Lanjouw( Book )
8 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
Static and dynamic incidence analysis underscores the importance of Indonesia's public spending on primary health care to the poor. In education, evidence suggests that the poor are well represented in primary schooling and would benefit from increased public provisioning of secondary schooling
Poverty and household size by Peter Lanjouw( Book )
8 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 30 libraries worldwide
Poverty and the economic transition : how do changes in economies of scale affect poverty rates for different households? by Peter Lanjouw( Book )
6 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 29 libraries worldwide
November 1998 Has the economic transition in Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union been harder on pensioner households or on households containing children? Do per capita measures of welfare give a misleading picture? Much attention has been paid to the relative vulnerability of two well-defined household groups during the transition. Some observers argue that old-age pensioner households have been relatively protected because of a less steep decline in real pensions compared with wages in most transition economies. By contrast, households with young children are believed to have experienced a substantial decline in living standards under reform and show strikingly higher rates of measured poverty than pensioner households. But others argue that the elderly have suffered more than the young during the transition. Can these conflicting viewpoints about the relative poverty of old and young households be arbitrated? Lanjouw, Milanovic, and Paternostro show that strong (though implicit) assumptions underpin certain poverty comparisons. Notably, using a per capita measure of individual welfare assumes that there are no economies of scale in household consumption, in the sense that the per capita cost of reaching a specific level of welfare does not fall as household size increases. Relaxing that assumption could affect comparisons, showing higher poverty rates among the elderly because their households tend to be smaller than the households containing children. Even the nature of the transition has implications for economies of scale. The relative cost of housing and other goods and services with at least some public-good characteristics has risen rapidly. These relative price shifts hit small households particularly hard, because a greater share of their expenditures goes to public and quasi-public goods. But transition economies have also experienced big increases in the relative prices of goods and services consumed largely by children, such as kindergarten and other education services. These increases affect younger households more. Since there is no accepted way to establish the true extent of economies of scale in a given country, the question can't be answered exactly. But clearly a small departure from a per capita measure may be enough in some cases to overturn the conventional relative ranking of poverty headcounts: poverty among the elderly may then turn out to be worse than among children. This paper-a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study changes in welfare and inequality during the transition. The authors may be contacted at planjouw@worldbank.org or bmilanovic@worldbank.org
Gender and the allocation of adult time : evidence from the Peru LSMS panel data by Nadeem Ilahi( Book )
3 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 25 libraries worldwide
Analysis of time use data for Peru in 1994 and 1997 shows that women work up to a fifth more than men do and that women in poor households work more than those in rich ones, while there is no difference for men
"Who Remained in Poverty, Who Moved Up, and Who Fell Down? An Investigation of Poverty Dynamics in Senegal in the Late 2000s" by Hai-Anh Dang( file )
2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Poverty estimates based on cross-section data provide static snapshots of poverty rates. Although a time series of cross-section data can offer some insights into poverty trends, it does not allow for an assessment of dynamics at the household level. Such a dynamic perspective on poverty generally calls for panel data and this kind of analysis can usefully inform poverty reduction policy, notably the design of social protection interventions. Absent actual panel data for Senegal, this paper applies new statistical methods to construct synthetic panel data from two rounds of cross-section household surveys in 2005 and 2011. These data are used to study poverty transitions. The results suggest that, in marked contrast to the picture obtained from cross-section data, there exists a great deal of mobility in and out of poverty during this period. More than half the population experiences changes in its poverty status and more than two-thirds of the extreme (food) poor move up one or two welfare categories. Factors such as rural residence, disability, exposure to some kind of natural disaster, and informality in the labor market are associated with a heightened risk of falling into poverty. Belonging to certain ethnicities and factors such as migration, working in the non-agriculture sector, and having access to social capital are associated with a lower risk of falling into poverty
 
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