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Lanjouw, Jean Olson

Works: 70 works in 309 publications in 1 language and 2,462 library holdings
Genres: Patents 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 339.22
Publication Timeline
Publications about Jean Olson Lanjouw
Publications by Jean Olson Lanjouw
Publications by Jean Olson Lanjouw, published posthumously.
Most widely held works by Jean Olson Lanjouw
Poverty comparisons and household survey design by Stephen Howes( Book )
17 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 167 libraries worldwide
Enforcing intellectual property rights by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
19 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
We study the determinants of patent suits and their outcomes over the period 1978-1999 by linking detailed information from the U.S. patent office, the federal court system, and industry sources. The probability of being involved in a suit is very heterogeneous, being much higher for valuable patents and for patents owned by individuals and smaller firms. Thus the patent system generates incentives, net of expected enforcement costs, that differ across inventors. Patentees with a large portfolio of patents to trade, or having other characteristics that encourage 'cooperative' interaction with disputants, more successfully avoid court actions. At the same time, key post-suit outcomes do not depend on observed characteristics. This is good news: advantages in settlement are exercised quickly, before extensive legal proceedings consume both court and firm resources. But it is bad news in that the more frequent involvement of smaller patentees in court actions is not offset by a more rapid resolution of their suits. However, our estimates of the heterogeneity in litigation risk can facilitate development of private patent litigation insurance to mitigate this adverse affect of high enforcement costs
The introduction of pharmaceutical product patents in India : "heartless exploitation of the poor and suffering"? by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
13 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
The decision to require that countries grant product patents for pharmaceutical innovations as a condition of membership in the World Trade Organization was very contentious. Almost 50 developing countries were not granting patent monopolies for drugs during the period the Uruguay round of GATT was being debated and these countries fiercely resisted the inclusion of this requirement, claiming that vastly higher drug prices would be associated with such patents. On the other side, business interest in the West urged them to consider the benefits such protection might bring both in terms of focusing more research on tropical diseases and encouraging greater domestic and foreign investment in local research activities. This paper discusses the various theoretical implications for a developing country of introducing product patents for pharmaceuticals. Using India as an example, it then brings together information gathered from both published sources and personal interviews to examine the potential magnitude of these effects. While not arriving at a conclusive answer to the question posed in the title, there are some suggestions about the way events might unfold as the policy is implemented
Rural nonfarm employment : a survey by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
10 editions published in 1995 in English and Undetermined and held by 76 libraries worldwide
Stylized facts of patent litigation : value, scope and ownership by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
15 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 75 libraries worldwide
This paper investigates the characteristics of litigated patents by combining for the first" time information about patent case filings from the U.S. district courts and detailed data from the" U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. We construct a series of indicators for the factors which the" theoretical literature suggests contribute to litigation: the frequency of disputes asymmetry of stakes, the structure of information, and costs. Compared to a random sample of" U.S. patents from the same cohorts and technology areas, we find that more valuable patents and" those with domestic owners are considerably more likely to be involved in litigation. Patents" owned by individuals are at least as likely to be the subject of a case as corporate patents and" litigation is particularly frequent in new technology areas. We interpret the results with reference" to theoretical models of litigation and settlement and discuss what they suggest about the effect" of patent litigation on the incentives to invest in R & D
Preliminary injunctive relief : theory and evidence from patent litigation by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
13 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 71 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the suggestion that established plaintiffs request preliminary injunctions to predate on less financially healthy firms. We first present a model in which differences in litigation costs drive the use of preliminary injunctions in civil litigation. The hypothesis is tested using a sample of 252 patent suits, which allows us to characterize the litigating parties while controlling for the nature of the dispute. The evidence is consistent with the predation hypothesis. We then explore various implications of the model and the impact of policy reforms
The enforcement of intellectual property rights : a survey of the empirical literature by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
14 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 70 libraries worldwide
This paper examines several recent avenues of empirical research into the enforcement of" intellectual property rights. To frame these issues, we start with a stylized model of the patent" litigation process. The bulk of the paper is devoted to linking the empirical literature on patent" litigation to the parameters of the model. The four major areas we consider are (i) how the" propensity to litigate patents varies with the expected benefits of litigation the cost of litigation affects the willingness to enforce patents, (iii) how the cost of enforcing" patents changes the private value of patent rights, and (iv) the impact of intellectual property" litigation on the innovation process itself
Economic consequences of a changing litigation environment : the case of patents by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
11 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 67 libraries worldwide
A model of patent infringement is developed to analyze the relationship between litigation and aspects of the legal environment such as the probability that the patent is found valid, the size of legal fees and their allocation across agents. Potential challengers first decide whether to infringe and then the patentee decides whether or not to prosecute. The outcome of this game has a fundamental impact on the value of patent protection to a patentee. This model is then linked to a patent renewal model which explicitly incorporates the legal parameters of interest from the litigation game. Estimates of the renewal model allow the empirical estimation of the private value of a patent protection. Simulations are presented for Germany which show the quantitative impact of changes in the legal environment on the value generated by the patent system and hence the incentives created for innovation
Imputed welfare estimates in regression analysis by Chris Elbers( file )
10 editions published between 2004 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 64 libraries worldwide
The authors discuss the use of imputed data in regression analysis, in particular the use of highly disaggregated welfare indicators (from so-called "poverty maps"). They show that such indicators can be used both as explanatory variables on the right-hand side and as the phenomenon to explain on the left-hand side. The authors try out practical ways of adjusting standard errors of the regression coefficients to reflect the error introduced by using imputed, rather than actual, welfare indicators. These are illustrated by regression experiments based on data from Ecuador. For regressions with imputed variables on the left-hand side, the authors argue that essentially the same aggregate relationships would be found with either actual or imputed variables. They address the methodological question of how to interpret aggregate relationships found in such regressions
Micro-level estimation of welfare by Jean Olson Lanjouw( file )
11 editions published in 2002 in English and Undetermined and held by 62 libraries worldwide
The authors construct and derive the properties of estimators of welfare that take advantage of the detailed information about living standards available in small household surveys and the comprehensive coverage of a census or large sample. By combining the strengths of each, the estimators can be used at a remarkably disaggregated level. They have a clear interpretation, are mutually comparable, and can be assessed for reliability using standard statistical theory. Using data from Ecuador, the authors obtain estimates of welfare measures, some of which are quite reliable for populations as small as 15,000 households--a "town." They provide simple illustrations of their use. Such estimates open up the possibility of testing, at a more convincing intra-country level, the many recent models relating welfare distributions to growth and a variety of socioeconomic and political outcomes. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to develop tools for the analysis of poverty and income distribution
How to count patents and value intellectual property : uses of patent renewal and application data by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
13 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 61 libraries worldwide
Engl. Zusammenfass
Do patents matter? : empirical evidence after GATT by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
13 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 60 libraries worldwide
Since the late 1980s the global intellectual property rights (IPR) system has been strengthening dramatically as much of the developing world introduces patent protection for new drug products. This may lead to more research on drugs to address developing country needs. As there are identifiable differences in the drug demands of these countries as compared to those already offering such protection the situation offers a unique opportunity to examine the incentive role of patent protection. We use new survey data from India, the results of interviews with industry, government and multinational institutions, and measures of R & D activity constructed from a variety of statistical sources to determine trends in the allocation of research to products specific to developing country markets. There is some, although limited, evidence of an increase in the mid- to late 1980s which appears to have leveled off in the 1990s. In interpreting the trends we examine factors that might enhance, or dampen, a firm's responsiveness to the availability of product patents. The picture presented here provides a baseline' against which future research activity can be compared once the new global patent regime is fully established and uncertainty about its implementation is resolved
The quality of ideas : measuring innovation with multiple indicators by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
12 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 56 libraries worldwide
We model early expectations about the value and technological importance ('quality') of a patented innovation as a latent variable common to a set of four indicators: the number of patent claims, forward citations, backward citations and family size. The model is estimated for four technology areas using a sample of about 8000 U.S. patents applied for during 1960-91. We measure how much noise' each individual indicator contains and construct a more informative, composite measure of quality. The variance in quality', conditional on the four indicators, is just one-third of the unconditional variance. We show the variance reduction generated by subsets of indicators, and find forward citations to be particularly important. Our measure of quality is significantly related to subsequent decisions to renew a patent and to litigate infringements. Using patent and R&D data for 100 U.S. manufacturing firms, we find that adjusting for quality removes much of the apparent decline in research productivity (patent counts per R&D) observed at the aggregate level
Patent protection : of what value and for how long? by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
10 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 53 libraries worldwide
Empirical estimates of the private value of patent protection are found for four technology area - computers, textiles, combustion engines, and pharmaceuticals - using new patent data for West Germany, 1953-1988. Patentees must pay to keep their patents in force. A dynamic stochastic discrete choice model of optimal renewal decisions is developed incorporating both learning about an innovation and the market as well as the possibility of infringements. The evolution of the distribution of returns over the life of a group of patents is calculated for each technology using a minimum distance simulation estimator. Results indicate that learning is completed within 6 years, that obsolescence is rapid, and that the distributions of patent value are very skewed. Research and development (R&D) expenditures are calculated and patent protection as an implicit subsidy to investment in R&D discussed
Poverty comparisons with non-compatible data : theory and illustrations by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
11 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and held by 39 libraries worldwide
January 1997 Poverty rates calculated on the basis of different definitions of consumption may reveal substantial biases, but under certain conditions robust comparisons are possible. Nonfood spending is often thought to be especially poorly measured, but the more comprehensive is the measure of consumption spending, the better it is as a measure of welfare. Comparisons of poverty rates are only rarely based on identical underlying definitions of welfare. The authors examine the sensitivity of poverty rates calculated from alternative definitions of consumption. They consider what theory can say about the direction of bias in comparisons and show that under certain conditions robust comparisons are possible. Data from Ecuador, El Salvador, and Pakistan show that the magnitude of biases can be substantial. Their robustness result is used as a baseline to explore the tradeoffs involved in aggregating noisy expenditure components. Although nonfood expenditures are often thought to be especially poorly measured, the authors' data indicate that the more comprehensive is the measure of consumption spending, the better it is as a measure of welfare. This paper - a product of the Poverty and Human Resources Division, Policy Research Department - is part of a larger effort in the department to improve the reliability and comparability of poverty measures
How Good A Map ? Putting Small Area Estimation To The Test by Gabriel Demombynes( file )
6 editions published between 2007 and 2012 in English and held by 38 libraries worldwide
The authors examine the performance of small area welfare estimation. The method combines census and survey data to produce spatially disaggregated poverty and inequality estimates. To test the method, they compare predicted welfare indicators for a set of target populations with their true values. They construct target populations using actual data from a census of households in a set of rural Mexican communities. They examine estimates along three criteria: accuracy of confidence intervals, bias, and correlation with true values. The authors find that while point estimates are very stable, the precision of the estimates varies with alternative simulation methods. While the original approach of numerical gradient estimation yields standard errors that seem appropriate, some computationally less-intensive simulation procedures yield confidence intervals that are slightly too narrow. The precision of estimates is shown to diminish markedly if unobserved location effects at the village level are not well captured in underlying consumption models. With well specified models there is only slight evidence of bias, but the authors show that bias increases if underlying models fail to capture latent location effects. Correlations between estimated and true welfare at the local level are highest for mean expenditure and poverty measures and lower for inequality measures
Patents, price controls and access to new drugs : how policy affects global market entry by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
11 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 36 libraries worldwide
Efforts to strengthen the global patent system for pharmaceuticals continue to be controversial, and what will likely be a similarly fraught international debate over price controls has begun. The outcome of international negotiations and the resulting policy decisions made by each country will have many ramifications - influencing the size of future investment in medical research, the availability of the resulting therapies, how the financial burdens are distributed across countries, and finally the health of consumers. This paper considers how legal and regulatory policies affect whether new drugs are marketed in a country, and how quickly. Less than one-half of the new pharmaceutical molecules that are marketed worldwide are sold in any given country, and those that are sold are often available to consumers in one country only six or seven years after those in another. Both price regulation and intellectual property rights influence these outcomes. The analysis covers a large sample of 68 countries at all income levels and includes all drug launches over the period 1982-2002. It uses newly compiled information on legal and regulatory policy, and is the first systematic analysis of the determinants of drug launch in poor countries
Poverty comparisons with non-compatible data theory and illustrations by Jean Olson Lanjouw( file )
1 edition published in 1997 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
Patent suits : do they distort research incentives? by Jean Olson Lanjouw( Book )
8 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 25 libraries worldwide
Patents and the global diffusion of new drugs by Iain Cockburn( Book )
10 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
This paper studies how patent rights and price regulation affect how fast new drugs are launched in different countries, using newly constructed data on launches of 642 new drugs in 76 countries for the period 1983-2002, and information on the duration and content of patent and price control regimes. Price regulation strongly delays launch, while longer and more extensive patent protection accelerates it. Health policy institutions, and economic and demographic factors that make markets more profitable, also speed up diffusion. The effects are robust to using instruments to control for endogeneity of policy regimes. The results point to an important role for patents and other policy choices in driving the diffusion of new innovations
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Alternative Names
Jean O. Lanjouw US-amerikanische Ökonomin, Wissenschaftlerin und Professorin
Jean Olson Lanjouw Amerikaans econome (1962-2005)
Jean Olson Lanjouw economista estadounidense
Jean Olson Lanjouw economista estatunidenca
Jean Olson Lanjouw économiste américaine
Lanjouw, Jean O.
Lanjouw, Jean O. 1962-2005
Lanjouw, Jenny
Olson Lanjouw, Jean 1962-2005
English (225)
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