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Azoulay, Pierre

Works: 22 works in 150 publications in 2 languages and 1,133 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  Methods (Music) 
Roles: Author, Redactor
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Publications about Pierre Azoulay
Publications by Pierre Azoulay
Most widely held works by Pierre Azoulay
Les mecanismes de l'economie de marche by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
9 editions published in 1977 in French and held by 99 libraries worldwide
Les modeles de decision dans l'entreprise by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
8 editions published in 1974 in French and held by 79 libraries worldwide
Network effects and diffusion in pharmaceutical markets : antiulcer drugs by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
16 editions published between 1997 and 1999 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
We examine the role of network effects in the demand for pharmaceuticals at both the brand level and for a therapeutic class of drugs. These effects emerge when use of a drug by others conveys information about its efficacy and safety to patients and physicians. This can lead to herd behavior where a particular drug -- not necessarily the most efficacious or safest -- can come to dominate the market despite the availability of close substitutes, and can also affect the rate of market diffusion. Using data for H2-antagonist antiulcer drugs, we examine two aspects of these effects. First, we use hedonic price procedures to estimate how the aggregate usage of a drug affects brand valuation. Second, we estimate discrete-time diffusion models at both the industry and brand levels to measure the impact on rates of diffusion and market saturation
Consumption externalities and diffusion in pharmaceutical markets : antiulcer drugs by Ernst R Berndt( Book )
12 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 59 libraries worldwide
Abstract: We examine the role of consumption externalities in the demand for pharmaceuticals at both the brand level and over a therapeutic class of drugs. These effects emerge when use of a drug by others affects its value, and/or conveys information abut efficacy and safety to patients and physicians. This can affect that rate of market diffusion for a new entrant, and can lead to herb behavior whereby a particular drug can dominate the market despite the availability of close substitutes. We use data for H2-antagonist antiulcer drugs to estimate a dynamic demand model and quantify these effects. The model has three components: an hedonic price equation that measures how the aggregate usage of a drug, as well as conventional attributes, affect brand valuation; equations relating equilibrium market shares to quality-adjusted prices and marketing levels; and diffusion equations describing the dynamic adjustment process. We find that consumption externalities influence both valuations and rates of diffusion, but that they operate at the brand and not the therapeutic class level
Acquiring knowledge within and across firm boundaries : evidence from clinical development by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 45 libraries worldwide
Considerable evidence suggests that information is acquired more easily within than across firm boundaries. I explore why this is observed in the setting of clinical development. Since the mid-1980s, pharmaceutical firms have partly contracted out the operational aspects of clinical trials to Contract Research Organizations (CROs). Using detailed project-level data for 53 firms, I document that even after controlling for a number of alternative explanations, knowledge-intensive projects are more likely to be assigned to internal teams, while data-intensive projects are more likely to be outsourced. The statistical exercise is complemented by in-depth interviews with six pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. The qualitative evidence confirms that incentives for knowledge and data production are more easily kept in balance in the firm's own internal labor market than in that of its suppliers. Moreover, firms use relational contracts to ensure that their employees' incentives are both balanced and relatively high-powered
Agents of embeddedness by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 45 libraries worldwide
A rich literature argues that interorganizational networks foster learning and coordinated adaptation among their constituents, but embedded ties between organizations are not ubiquitous. What explains this heterogeneity? Acknowledging the influence of agency relationships within organizations can help refine the scope of embeddedness arguments. This idea is explored in an in-depth qualitative examination of sourcing practices in drug development. The outsourcing of central laboratory services is characterized by repeated interactions, relationship-specific investments, and fine-grained information transfer between buyers and suppliers. In contrast, embedded relationships with contract research organizations have failed to materialize, despite the repeated efforts of exchange partners. Drawing on fieldwork conducted at six pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms, I explain why outsourcing deals take the form of embedded relationships in the first setting, and of seemingly inefficient spot contracts in the second setting. The evidence suggests that the structure of constituent firms' internal labor markets powerfully shapes and constrains the scope of interorganizational networks
The determinants of faculty patenting behavior : demographics or opportunities? by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
10 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 39 libraries worldwide
We examine the individual, contextual, and institutional determinants of faculty patenting behavior in a panel dataset spanning the careers of 3,884 academic life scientists. Using a combination of discrete time hazard rate models and fixed effects logistic models, we find that patenting events are preceded by a flurry of publications, even holding constant time-invariant scientific talent and the latent patentability of a scientist's research. Moreover, the magnitude of the effect of this flurry is influenced by context --- such as the presence of coauthors who patent and the patent stock of the scientist's university. Whereas previous research emphasized that academic patenters are more accomplished on average than their non-patenting counterparts, our findings suggest that patenting behavior is also a function of scientific opportunities. This result has important implications for the public policy debate surrounding academic patenting
PublicationHarvester : an open-source software tool for policy research by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
11 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
We present PublicationHarvester, an open-source software tool for gathering publication information on individual life scientists. The software interfaces with MEDLINE, and allows the end-user to specify up to four MEDLINE-formatted names for each researcher. Using these names along with a user-specified search query, PublicationHarvester generates yearly publication counts, optionally weighted by Journal Impact Factors. These counts are further broken-down by order on the authorship list (first, last, second, next-to-last, middle) and by publication type (clinical trials, regular journal articles, reviews, letters/editorials, etc.) The software also generates a keywords report at the scientist-year level, using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assigned by the National Library of Medicine to each publication indexed by Medline. The software, source code, and user manual can be downloaded at
The impact of academic patenting on the rate, quality, and direction of (public) research by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
Superstar extinction by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
9 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 14 libraries worldwide
We estimate the magnitude of spillovers generated by 161 academic "superstars" onto their collaborators' research output. These life scientists died while still being actively engaged in science, thus providing an exogenous source of variation in the structure of their collaborators' coauthorship networks. Following the death of a superstar, we find that collaborators experience, on average, a lasting 5 to 10% decline in their quality-adjusted publication rates. By exploring interactions of the treatment effect with a wide range of star, coauthor and star/coauthor dyad characteristics, we seek to adjudicate between plausible mechanisms that might explain this finding. Taken together, our results suggest that spillovers are circumscribed in ideas space, but not in physical or social space. Superstar extinction reveals the boundaries of the scientific field to which the star contributes -- the "invisible college."
Incentives and creativity : evidence from the academic life sciences by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
8 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 14 libraries worldwide
Despite its presumed role as an engine of economic growth, we know surprisingly little about the drivers of scientific creativity. In this paper, we exploit key differences across funding streams within the academic life sciences to estimate the impact of incentives on the rate and direction of scientific exploration. Specifically, we study the careers of investigators of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), which tolerates early failure, rewards long-term success, and gives its appointees great freedom to experiment; and grantees from the National Institute of Health, which are subject to short review cycles, pre-defined deliverables, and renewal policies unforgiving of failure. Using a combination of propensity-score weighting and difference-in-differences estimation strategies, we find that HHMI investigators produce high-impact papers at a much higher rate than two control groups of similarly-accomplished NIH-funded scientists. Moreover, the direction of their research changes in ways that suggest the program induces them to explore novel lines of inquiry
NIH peer review : challenges and avenues for reform by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
5 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
The National Institute of Health (NIH), through its extramural grant program, is the primary public funder of health-related research in the United States. Peer review at NIH is organized around the twin principles of investigator initiation and rigorous peer review, and this combination has long been a model that science funding agencies throughout the world seek to emulate. However, lean budgets and the rapidly changing ecosystem within which scientific inquiry takes place have led many to ask whether the peer-review practices inherited from the immediate post-war era are still well-suited to twenty first century realities. In this essay, we examine two salient issues: (1) the aging of the scientist population supported by NIH and (2) the innovativeness of the research supported by the institutes. We identify potential avenues for reform as well as a means for implementing and evaluating them
Retractions by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
5 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
To what extent does "false science" impact the rate and direction of scientific change? We examine the impact of more than 1,100 scientific retractions on the citation trajectories of articles that are close neighbors of retracted articles in intellectual space but were published prior to the retraction event. Our results indicate that following retraction and relative to carefully selected controls, related articles experience a lasting five to ten percent decline in the rate at which they are cited. We probe the mechanisms that might underlie these negative spillovers over intellectual space. One view holds that adjacent fields atrophy post-retraction because the shoulders they offer to follow-on researchers have been proven to be shaky or absent. An alternative view holds that scientists avoid the "infected" fields lest their own status suffers through mere association. Two pieces of evidence are consistent with the latter view. First, for-profit citers are much less responsive to the retraction event than are academic citers. Second, the penalty suffered by related articles is much more severe when the associated retracted article includes fraud or misconduct, relative to cases where the retraction occurred because of honest mistakes -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The diffusion of scientific knowledge across time and space : evidence from professional transitions for the superstars of medicine by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
7 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
Are scientific knowledge flows embodied in individuals, or "in the air"? To answer this question, we measure the effect of labor mobility in a sample of 9,483 elite academic life scientists on the citation trajectories associated with individual articles (resp. patents) published (resp. granted) before the scientist moved to a new institution. We find that article-to-article citations from the scientific community at the superstar's origin location are barely affected by their departure. In contrast, article-to-patent citations, and especially patent-to-patent citations, decline at the origin location following a star's departure, suggesting that spillovers from academia to industry are not completely disembodied. We also find that article-to-article citations at the superstar's destination location markedly increase after they move. Our results suggest that, to be realized, knowledge flows to industry may require more face-to-face interaction than those to academics. Moreover, to the extent that academic scientists do not internalize the effect of their location decisions on the circulation of ideas, our results raise the intriguing possibility that barriers to labor mobility in academic science limit the recombination of individual bits of knowledge, resulting in a suboptimal rate of scientific exploration
Matthew : effect or fable? by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
4 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
In a market context, a status effect occurs when actors are accorded differential recognition for their efforts depending on their location in a status ordering, holding constant the quality of these efforts. In practice, because it is very difficult to measure quality, this ceteris paribus proviso often precludes convincing empirical assessments of the magnitude of status effects. We address this problem by examining the impact of a major status-conferring prize that shifts actors' positions in a prestige ordering. Specifically, using a precisely constructed matched sample, we estimate the effect of a scientist becoming a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator (HHMI) on citations to articles the scientist published before the prize was awarded. We do find evidence of a post-appointment citation boost, but the effect is small and limited to a short window of time. Consistent with theories of status, however, the effect of the prize is significantly larger when there is uncertainty about article quality, and when prize-winners are of (relatively) low status at the time of election to HHMI
Minorités et forces armées : compte-rendu du séminaire organisé dans le cadre de l'Académie de défense nationale des forces armées autrichiennes, Vienne, 1997-1998 by Centre d'études en sciences sociales de la défense( Book )
3 editions published in 1999 in French and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Do pharmaceutical sales respond to scientific evidence? by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
3 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
The impact of academic patenting on the rate, quality, and direction of (public) research output by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
5 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
We examine the influence of faculty patenting activity on the rate, quality, and content of public research outputs in a panel dataset spanning the careers of 3,862 academic life scientists. Using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) to account for the dynamics of self-selection into patenting, we find that patenting has a positive effect on the rate of publication of journal articles, but no effect on the quality of these publications. Using several measures of the "patentability" of the content of research papers, we also find that patenters may be shifting their research focus to questions of commercial interest. We conclude that the often-voiced concern that patenting in academe has a nefarious effect on public research output is, at least in its simplest form, misplaced
The mobility of elite life scientists professional and personal determinants by Pierre Azoulay( Book )
3 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
As scientists' careers unfold, mobility can allow researchers to find environments where they are more productive and more effectively contribute to the generation of new knowledge. In this paper, we examine the determinants of mobility of elite academics within the life sciences, including individual productivity measures and for the first time, measures of the peer environment and family factors. Using a unique data set compiled from the career histories of 10,004 elite life scientists in the U.S., we paint a nuanced picture of mobility. Prolific scientists are more likely to move, but this impulse is constrained by recent NIH funding. The quality of peer environments both near and far is an additional factor that influences mobility decisions. Interestingly, we also identify a significant role for family structure. Scientists appear to be unwilling to move when their children are between the ages of 14-17, which is when US children are typically enrolled in middle school or high school. This suggests that even elite scientists find it costly to disrupt the social networks of their children and take these costs into account when making career decisions
Does science advance one funeral at a time? by Pierre Azoulay( file )
2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
We study the extent to which eminent scientists shape the vitality of their fields by examining entry rates into the fields of 452 academic life scientists who pass away while at the peak of their scientific abilities. Key to our analyses is a novel way to delineate boundaries around scientific fields by appealing solely to intellectual linkages between scientists and their publications, rather than collaboration or co-citation patterns. Consistent with previous research, the flow of articles by collaborators into affected fields decreases precipitously after the death of a star scientist (relative to control fields). In contrast, we find that the flow of articles by non-collaborators increases by 8% on average. These additional contributions are disproportionately likely to be highly cited. They are also more likely to be authored by scientists who were not previously active in the deceased superstar's field. Overall, these results suggest that outsiders are reluctant to challenge leadership within a field when the star is alive and that a number of barriers may constrain entry even after she is gone. Intellectual, social, and resource barriers all impede entry, with outsiders only entering subfields that offer a less hostile landscape for the support and acceptance of "foreign" ideas
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Alternative Names
Azoulay, P.
Azoulay, P. (Pierre)
English (128)
French (20)
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