skip to content

Bhattacharya, Jay

Works: 31 works in 180 publications in 1 language and 1,613 library holdings
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
Publication Timeline
Publications about Jay Bhattacharya
Publications by Jay Bhattacharya
Most widely held works by Jay Bhattacharya
Health economics of Japan : patients, doctors, and hospitals under a universal health insurance system by Akihiro Yoshikawa( Book )
6 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and held by 159 libraries worldwide
Food insecurity or poverty? : measuring need-related dietary adequacy by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
10 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 99 libraries worldwide
We examine the extent to which food insecurity questions and the standard poverty measure are correlated with various dietary and physiologic outcomes. Our findings suggest that the correlations vary tremendously by age. We find that the food insecurity questions are correlated with the dietary outcomes of older household members, but that they are not consistently related to the diets of children. In contrast, poverty predicts dietary outcomes among preschoolers. Among adults, both poverty and food insecurity questions are good predictors of many dietary outcomes
Cause-specific mortality among medicare enrollees by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
9 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 82 libraries worldwide
Life tables with specific causes of death, particularly when adjusted for demographic and other personal characteristics, can be important components of cost-effectiveness and other economic studies. However, there are few sources of nationally representative information that can be used to develop life tables that incorporate cause-specific mortality. To produce such estimates, we relate annual mortality rates to a set of individual characteristics, applying a statistical model with a flexible functional form to data obtained from a random sample of Medicare eligibility and hospital insurance files, covering the years 1986-1990. Insofar as national data sources can be found to compare to the estimates of these models, the results are comparable. For example, the survival figures are comparable to the life table figures supplied as part of the series of vital statistics of the United States. The framework can be extended to analyze expenditures for both inpatient and outpatient care and to estimate lifetime profiles of Medicare expenditures for individuals falling into various demographic and clinical categories. The framework can also be extended to analyze the mortality and utilization associated with use of specific procedures
Are the young becoming more disabled? by Darius Lakdawalla( Book )
9 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
A fair amount of research suggests that health has been improving among the elderly over the past 10 to 15 years. Comparatively little research effort, however, has been focused on analyzing disability among the young. In this paper, we argue that health among the young has been deteriorating, at the same time that the elderly have been becoming healthier. Moreover, this growth in disability may end up translating into higher disability rates for tomorrow's elderly. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, we find that, from 1984 to 1996, the rate of disability among those in their 40s rose by one full percentage point, or almost forty percent. Over the same period, the rate of disability declined for the elderly. The recent growth in disability has coincided with substantial growth in asthma and diabetes among the young. Indeed, the growth in asthma alone seems more than enough to explain the change in disability. Therefore, we argue that the growth in disability stems from real changes in underlying health status
Does Medicare benefit the poor? : new answers to an old question by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
9 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
Previous research has found that Medicare benefits flow primarily to the most economically advantaged groups and that the financial returns to Medicare are consequently higher for the rich than for the poor. Taking a different approach, we find very different results. According to the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, the poorest groups receive the most benefits at any given age. In fact, the advantage of the poor in benefit receipt is so great that it easily overcomes their higher death rates. This leads to the result that the financial returns to Medicare are actually much higher for poorer groups in the population and that Medicare is a highly progressive public program. These new results appear to owe themselves to our measurement of socioeconomic status at the individual level, in contrast to the aggregated measures used by previous research
Youths at nutritional risk : malnourished or misnourished? by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
8 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 76 libraries worldwide
We use data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine the prevalence and determinants of poor nutritional outcomes among American youths. One strength of our analysis is that we focus on an array of nutritional outcomes, and we find in fact that the determinants of these outcomes vary considerably form outcome to outcome. We interpret our results using a model in which investments in health capital are affected by both resource constraints and a human capital production function that summarizes available nutrition information. We find that although many youths suffer from nutrient deficiencies, these conditions are not generally sensitive to measures of resource constraints, and hence are unlikely to be due solely to a shortage of food. Conversely, we find that our proxies for information matter. Our results suggest that broad-based policies designed to alter the composition of the diet may hold the greatest promise for addressing the nutritional problems of American youths
Heat or eat? : cold weather shocks and nutrition in poor American families by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
11 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 75 libraries worldwide
We examine the effects of cold weather periods on family budgets and on nutritional outcomes in poor American families. Expenditures on food and home fuels are tracked by linking the Consumer Expenditure Survey to temperature data. Using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we track calorie consumption, dietary quality, vitamin deficiencies, and anemia in summer and winter months. We find that both rich and poor families increase fuel expenditures in response to unusually cold weather (a 10 degree F drop below normal). At same time, poor families reduce food expenditures by roughly the same amount as the increase in fuel expenditures, while rich families increase food expenditures. Poor adults and children reduce caloric intake by roughly 200 calories during winter months, unlike richer adults and children. In sensitivity analyses, we find that decreases in food expenditure are most pronounced outside the South. We conclude that poor parents and their children outside the South spend and eat less food during cold weather temperature shocks. We surmise that existing social programs fail to buffer against these shocks
Market evidence of misperceived prices and mistaken mortality risks by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
7 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 70 libraries worldwide
This paper develops a market-based test of whether consumers make systematic mistakes in assessing their own mortality risks, and whether they are able to make 'correct' price comparisons between insurance and credit markets. This test relies on data from secondary life insurance markets, wherein consumers sell their life insurance policies to firms in return for an up front payment. We find evidence consistent with the hypotheses that: (1) unhealthy consumers are systematically too optimistic about their mortality risks and (2) consumers focus on nominal price information in deciding to sell life insurance, rather than on the real discounted expected price
Breakfast of champions? : the school breakfast program and the nutrition of children and families by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
6 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 68 libraries worldwide
"We use the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III to examine the effect of the availability of the school breakfast program (SBP). Our work builds on previous research in four ways: First, we develop a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without. Second, we examine serum measures of nutrient in addition to intakes based on dietary recall data. Third, we ask whether the SBP improves the diet by increasing/or decreasing the intake of nutrients relative to meaningful threshold levels. Fourth, we examine the effect of the SBP on other members of the family besides the school-aged child. We have three main findings. First, the SBP helps students build good eating habits: SBP increases scores on the healthy eating index, reduces the percentage of calories from fat, and reduces the probability of low fiber intake. Second, the SBP reduces the probability of serum micronutrient deficiencies in vitamin C, vitamin E, and folate, and it increases the probability that children meet USDA recommendations for potassium and iron intakes. Since we find no effect on total calories these results indicate that the program improves the quality of food consumed. Finally, in households with school-aged children, both preschool children and adults have healthier diets and consume less fat when the SBP is available. These results suggest that school nutrition programs may be an effective way to combat both nutritional deficiencies and excess consumption among children and their families"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Time-inconsistency and welfare by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
5 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
"Self-control devices, such as rehabilitation programs, group commitment, and informal fines, can make time-inconsistent smokers better off. Health economists have used this result to argue in favor of cigarette taxes that restrain smoking. However, taxes alone are not Pareto-improving overall, because they benefit today's smoker at the expense of her future selves, who have less demand for self-control. We suggest an alternative class of taxation policies that provide selfcontrol and benefit a smoker at every point in life. Smokers could be allowed to purchase smoking licenses' when they start to smoke, and in exchange commit their future selves to face compensated cigarette taxes. We show that this scheme which could be made voluntary improves the welfare of current and future smokers, generates positive revenue for the government, and can be made incentive-compatible. Similar schemes can also be envisioned to address problems of timeinconsistency in other contexts"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Treatment effect bounds an application to Swan-Ganz catheterization by Jay Bhattacharya( file )
8 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
"We implement alternative bounding strategies to reanalyze data from the observational study by Connors et al. (1996) on the impact of Swan-Ganz catheterization on mortality outcomes. We implement both traditional bounds, which exploit access to an instrumental variable but impose no other assumptions (Manski, 1990), and the new bounds of Shaikh and Vytlacil (2004), which impose additional relatively mild nonparametric structural assumptions. Both of these approaches require an instrumental variable that shifts the probability of catheterization, but that does not alter mortality risks. We propose and justify using indicators of weekday admission as an instrumental variable in this context. We find that, while the traditional instrumental variable bounds are almost entirely uninformative in our application, the Shaikh and Vytlacil (2004) bounds often produce a clear answer - catheterization reduces mortality at 7 days, and increases it at 30 days and after. Our findings suggest an explanation for the fact that many ICU doctors are deeply committed to the use of the Swan-Ganz catheter. Since most ICU patients leave the ICU well before 30 days after admission have elapsed, ICU doctors never observe the increase in mortality. They do, however, observe the
Health insurance and the obesity externality by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
9 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and Undetermined and held by 64 libraries worldwide
"If rational individuals pay the full costs of their decisions about food intake and exercise, economists, policy makers, and public health officials should treat the obesity epidemic as a matter of indifference. In this paper, we show that, as long as insurance premiums are not risk rated for obesity, health insurance coverage systematically shields those covered from the full costs of physical inactivity and overeating. Since the obese consume significantly more medical resources than the non-obese, but pay the same health insurance premiums, they impose a negative externality on normal weight individuals in their insurance pool. To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes----(1) underwriting on weight is allowed, and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in body weight, and reduced social welfare. Using data on medical expenditures and body weight from the National Health and Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate that, in a health plan with a coinsurance rate of 17.5%, the obesity externality imposes a welfare cost of about $150 per capita. Our results also indicate that the welfare loss can be reduced by technological change that lowers the pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs of losing weight, and also by increasing the coinsurance rate"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
The incidence of the healthcare costs of obesity by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
6 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide
"The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically in the U.S. Obese individuals tend to be sicker and spend more on health care, raising the question of who bears the incidence of obesity-related health care costs. This question is particularly interesting among those with group coverage through an employer given the lack of explicit risk adjustment of individual health insurance premiums in the group market. In this paper, we examine the incidence of the healthcare costs of obesity among full time workers. We find that the incremental healthcare costs associated with obesity are passed on to obese workers with employer-sponsored health insurance in the form of lower cash wages. Obese workers in firms without employer-sponsored insurance do not have a wage offset relative to their non-obese counterparts. Our estimate of the wage offset exceeds estimates of the expected incremental health care costs of these individuals for obese women, but not for men. We find that a substantial part of the lower wages among obese women attributed to labor market discrimination can be explained by the higher health insurance premiums required to cover them"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Technology, monopoly, and the decline of the viatical settlements industry by Neeraj Sood( Book )
6 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 60 libraries worldwide
"The viatical settlement industry provides an opportunity for terminally-ill consumers, typically HIV patients, to exploit a previously untapped source of equity in existing life insurance contracts to finance consumption and medical expenses. The 1996 introduction and dissemination of effecive anti-HIV medication reduced AIDS mortality, but also reduced viatical settlement prices, even holding fixed changes in life expectancy. Using Freedom of Information Act requests to state insurance regulatory agencies, we have assembled a unique dataset of over twelve thousand viatical transactions from firms licensed in states that regulate viatical settlement markets. We distinguish two explanations for falling prices--an increase in market power, and a change in market expectations about the likelihood of further improvements in HIV care. We find that both explanations have contributed to diminishing settlement prices over the last decade, but increased market power has been the more important driver in the most recent years. Our estimates imply that the increase in market power of firms reduced the value of life insurance holdings of HIV persons by about $1.0 billion"--NBER website
Employment and adverse selection in health insurance by Jay Bhattacharya( Computer File )
6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 54 libraries worldwide
We construct and test a new model of employer-provided health insurance provision in the presence of adverse selection in the health insurance market. In our model, employers cannot observe the health of their employees, but can decide whether to offer insurance. Employees sort themselves among employers who do and do not offer insurance on the basis of their current health status and the probability distribution over future health status changes. We show that there exists a pooling equilibrium in which both sick and healthy employees are covered as long as the costs of job switching are higher than the persistence of health status. We test and verify some of the key implications of our model using data from the Current Population Survey, linked to information provided by the U.S. Department of Labor about the job-specific human capital requirements of jobs
The link between public and private insurance and HIV-Relative mortality by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 49 libraries worldwide
The other ex-ante moral hazard in health by Jay Bhattacharya( Computer File )
6 editions published between 2008 and 2010 in English and held by 44 libraries worldwide
It is well known that public or pooled insurance coverage can induce a form of ex-ante moral hazard: people make inefficiently low investments in self-protective activities. This paper points out another ex-ante moral hazard that arises through an induced innovation externality. This alternative mechanism, by contrast, causes people to devote an inefficiently high level of self-protection
Does health insurance make you fat? by Jay Bhattacharya( Computer File )
6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 44 libraries worldwide
The prevalence of obesity has been rising dramatically in the U.S., leading to poor health and rising health care expenditures. The role of policy in addressing rising rates of obesity, however, is controversial. Policy recommendations for interventions intended to influence body weight decisions often assume the obesity creates negative externalities for the non-obese. We build on earlier work demonstrating that this argument depends on two important assumptions: 1) that the obese do not pay for their higher medical expenditures through differential payments for health care and health insurance, and 2) that body weight decisions are responsive to the incidence of medical care costs associated with obesity. In this paper, we test the latter proposition - that body weight is influenced by insurance coverage - using two approaches. First, we use data from the Rand Health Insurance Experiment, in which people were randomly assigned to varying levels of health insurance, to examine the effect of generosity of insurance coverage on body weight along the intensive coverage margin. Second, we use instrumental variables methods to estimate the effect of type of insurance coverage (private, public and none) on body weight along the extensive margin. We explicitly address the discrete nature of the endogenous indicator of health insurance coverage by estimating a nonlinear instrumental variables model. We find weak evidence that more generous insurance coverage increases body mass index. We find stronger evidence that being insured increases body mass index and obesity
Is medicine an ivory tower? induced innovation, technological opportunity, and for-profit vs. non-profit innovation by Jay Bhattacharya( file )
5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 44 libraries worldwide
This paper examines whether the composition of medical research responds to changes in disease incidence and research opportunities. The paper also provides new evidence on induced pharmaceutical innovation. In both cases we use the change in the demographic structure of the market (measured by age structure and obesity prevalence) to test the induced innovation hypothesis. Technological opportunity is calculated from estimates of structural productivity parameters. The extent of inventive activity is measured from the MEDLINE database on 16 million biomedical publications. We match these data with data on disease incidence. We show that medical research responds to changes in disease incidence and research opportunities. We also find that pharmaceutical innovation responds to aging- and obesity-induced changes in potential market size
Public avoidance and the epidemiology of novel H1N1 influenza A by Byung-Kwang Yoo( Book )
5 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared that novel influenza A (nH1N1) had reached pandemic status worldwide. The response to the spread of this virus by the public and by the public health community was immediate and widespread. Among the responses included voluntary avoidance of public spaces, closure of schools, the ubiquitous placement of hand sanitizer, and the use of face masks in public places. Existing forecasting models of the epidemic spread of nH1N1, used by public health officials to aid in making many decisions including vaccination policy, ignore avoidance responses in the formal modeling. In this paper, we build a forecasting model of the nH1N1 epidemic that explicitly accounts for avoidance behavior. We use data from the U.S. summer and the Australian winter nH1N1 epidemic of 2009 to estimate the parameters of our model and forecast the course of the epidemic in the U.S. in 2010. We find that accounting for avoidance responses results in a better fitting forecasting model. We also find that in models with avoidance, the marginal return in terms of saved lives and reduced infection rates of an early vaccination campaign are higher
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Alternative Names
Bhattacharya, J.
Bhattacharya, Jayanta
English (138)
Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.