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Bhattacharya, Jay

Works: 65 works in 337 publications in 1 language and 3,136 library holdings
Genres: Textbooks 
Roles: Author, Thesis advisor
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Publications about Jay Bhattacharya
Publications by Jay Bhattacharya
Most widely held works by Jay Bhattacharya
Health economics of Japan : patients, doctors, and hospitals under a universal health insurance system by Aki Yoshikawa( Book )
6 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and held by 152 libraries worldwide
Health economics by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
10 editions published between 2013 and 2014 in English and held by 136 libraries worldwide
Offers sound pedagogy, economic rigor and policy-theory integration. It focuses on building intuition alongside appropriate mathematical formality, translating mathematical language into accessible economic narrative. It includes material on socioeconomic disparities in health, the obesity epidemic, and behavioral health economics
Food insecurity or poverty? : measuring need-related dietary adequacy by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
We examine the extent to which food insecurity questions and the standard poverty measure are correlated with various dietary and physiologic outcomes. Our findings suggest that the correlations vary tremendously by age. We find that the food insecurity questions are correlated with the dietary outcomes of older household members, but that they are not consistently related to the diets of children. In contrast, poverty predicts dietary outcomes among preschoolers. Among adults, both poverty and food insecurity questions are good predictors of many dietary outcomes
Cause-specific mortality among medicare enrollees by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
12 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
Abstract: Life tables with specific causes of death, particularly when adjusted for demographic and other personal characteristics, can be important components of cost-effectiveness and other economic studies. However, there are few sources of nationally representative information that can be used to develop life tables that incorporate cause-specific mortality. To produce such estimates, we relate annual mortality rates to a set of individual characteristics, applying a statistical model with a flexible functional form to data obtained from a random sample of Medicare eligibility and hospital insurance files, covering the years 1986-1990. Insofar as national data sources can be found to compare to the estimates of these models, the results are comparable. For example, the survival figures are comparable to the life table figures supplied as part of the series of vital statistics of the United States. The framework can be extended to analyze expenditures for both inpatient and outpatient care and to estimate lifetime profiles of Medicare expenditures for individuals falling into various demographic and clinical categories. The framework can also be extended to analyze the mortality and utilization associated with use of specific procedures
Are the young becoming more disabled? by Darius Lakdawalla( Book )
13 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 61 libraries worldwide
Abstract: A fair amount of research suggests that health has been improving among the elderly over the past 10 to 15 years. Comparatively little research effort, however, has been focused on analyzing disability among the young. In this paper, we argue that health among the young has been deteriorating, at the same time that the elderly have been becoming healthier. Moreover, this growth in disability may end up translating into higher disability rates for tomorrow's elderly. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, we find that, from 1984 to 1996, the rate of disability among those in their 40s rose by one full percentage point, or almost forty percent. Over the same period, the rate of disability declined for the elderly. The recent growth in disability has coincided with substantial growth in asthma and diabetes among the young. Indeed, the growth in asthma alone seems more than enough to explain the change in disability. Therefore, we argue that the growth in disability stems from real changes in underlying health status
Youths at nutritional risk : malnourished or misnourished? by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
12 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 61 libraries worldwide
We use data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine the prevalence and determinants of poor nutritional outcomes among American youths. One strength of our analysis is that we focus on an array of nutritional outcomes, and we find in fact that the determinants of these outcomes vary considerably form outcome to outcome. We interpret our results using a model in which investments in health capital are affected by both resource constraints and a human capital production function that summarizes available nutrition information. We find that although many youths suffer from nutrient deficiencies, these conditions are not generally sensitive to measures of resource constraints, and hence are unlikely to be due solely to a shortage of food. Conversely, we find that our proxies for information matter. Our results suggest that broad-based policies designed to alter the composition of the diet may hold the greatest promise for addressing the nutritional problems of American youths
Heat or eat? : cold weather shocks and nutrition in poor American families by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
14 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 57 libraries worldwide
We examine the effects of cold weather periods on family budgets and on nutritional outcomes in poor American families. Expenditures on food and home fuels are tracked by linking the Consumer Expenditure Survey to temperature data. Using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we track calorie consumption, dietary quality, vitamin deficiencies, and anemia in summer and winter months. We find that both rich and poor families increase fuel expenditures in response to unusually cold weather (a 10 degree F drop below normal). At same time, poor families reduce food expenditures by roughly the same amount as the increase in fuel expenditures, while rich families increase food expenditures. Poor adults and children reduce caloric intake by roughly 200 calories during winter months, unlike richer adults and children. In sensitivity analyses, we find that decreases in food expenditure are most pronounced outside the South. We conclude that poor parents and their children outside the South spend and eat less food during cold weather temperature shocks. We surmise that existing social programs fail to buffer against these shocks
Does Medicare benefit the poor? : new answers to an old question by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
13 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 57 libraries worldwide
Previous research has found that Medicare benefits flow primarily to the most economically advantaged groups and that the financial returns to Medicare are consequently higher for the rich than for the poor. Taking a different approach, we find very different results. According to the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, the poorest groups receive the most benefits at any given age. In fact, the advantage of the poor in benefit receipt is so great that it easily overcomes their higher death rates. This leads to the result that the financial returns to Medicare are actually much higher for poorer groups in the population and that Medicare is a highly progressive public program. These new results appear to owe themselves to our measurement of socioeconomic status at the individual level, in contrast to the aggregated measures used by previous research
Market evidence of misperceived prices and mistaken mortality risks by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 51 libraries worldwide
This paper develops a market-based test of whether consumers make systematic mistakes in assessing their own mortality risks, and whether they are able to make 'correct' price comparisons between insurance and credit markets. This test relies on data from secondary life insurance markets, wherein consumers sell their life insurance policies to firms in return for an up front payment. We find evidence consistent with the hypotheses that: (1) unhealthy consumers are systematically too optimistic about their mortality risks and (2) consumers focus on nominal price information in deciding to sell life insurance, rather than on the real discounted expected price
Breakfast of champions? : the school breakfast program and the nutrition of children and families by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 46 libraries worldwide
We use the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III to examine the effect of the availability of the school breakfast program (SBP). Our work builds on previous research in four ways: First, we develop a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without. Second, we examine serum measures of nutrient in addition to intakes based on dietary recall data. Third, we ask whether the SBP improves the diet by increasing/or decreasing the intake of nutrients relative to meaningful threshold levels. Fourth, we examine the effect of the SBP on other members of the family besides the school-aged child. We have three main findings. First, the SBP helps students build good eating habits: SBP increases scores on the healthy eating index, reduces the percentage of calories from fat, and reduces the probability of low fiber intake. Second, the SBP reduces the probability of serum micronutrient deficiencies in vitamin C, vitamin E, and folate, and it increases the probability that children meet USDA recommendations for potassium and iron intakes. Since we find no effect on total calories these results indicate that the program improves the quality of food consumed. Finally, in households with school-aged children, both preschool children and adults have healthier diets and consume less fat when the SBP is available. These results suggest that school nutrition programs may be an effective way to combat both nutritional deficiencies and excess consumption among children and their families
Time-inconsistency and welfare by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
10 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 46 libraries worldwide
Self-control devices, such as rehabilitation programs, group commitment, and informal fines, can make time-inconsistent smokers better off. Health economists have used this result to argue in favor of cigarette taxes that restrain smoking. However, taxes alone are not Pareto-improving overall, because they benefit today's smoker at the expense of her future selves, who have less demand for self-control. We suggest an alternative class of taxation policies that provide selfcontrol and benefit a smoker at every point in life. Smokers could be allowed to purchase smoking licenses' when they start to smoke, and in exchange commit their future selves to face compensated cigarette taxes. We show that this scheme which could be made voluntary improves the welfare of current and future smokers, generates positive revenue for the government, and can be made incentive-compatible. Similar schemes can also be envisioned to address problems of timeinconsistency in other contexts
The incidence of the healthcare costs of obesity by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
10 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 44 libraries worldwide
The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically in the U.S. Obese individuals tend to be sicker and spend more on health care, raising the question of who bears the incidence of obesity-related health care costs. This question is particularly interesting among those with group coverage through an employer given the lack of explicit risk adjustment of individual health insurance premiums in the group market. In this paper, we examine the incidence of the healthcare costs of obesity among full time workers. We find that the incremental healthcare costs associated with obesity are passed on to obese workers with employer-sponsored health insurance in the form of lower cash wages. Obese workers in firms without employer-sponsored insurance do not have a wage offset relative to their non-obese counterparts. Our estimate of the wage offset exceeds estimates of the expected incremental health care costs of these individuals for obese women, but not for men. We find that a substantial part of the lower wages among obese women attributed to labor market discrimination can be explained by the higher health insurance premiums required to cover them
Health insurance and the obesity externality by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
11 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 42 libraries worldwide
Abstract: To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes--(1) underwriting on weight is allowed, and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in body weight, and reduced social welfare
Technology, monopoly, and the decline of the viatical settlements industry by Neeraj Sood( Book )
9 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
Abstract: We distinguish two explanations for falling prices--an increase in market power, and a change in market expectations about the likelihood of further improvements in HIV care. We find that both explanations have contributed to diminishing settlement prices over the last decade, but increased market power has been the more important driver in the most recent years. Our estimates imply that the increase in market power of firms reduced the value of life insurance holdings of HIV persons by about $1.0 billion
Employment and adverse selection in health insurance by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
We construct and test a new model of employer-provided health insurance provision in the presence of adverse selection in the health insurance market. In our model, employers cannot observe the health of their employees, but can decide whether to offer insurance. Employees sort themselves among employers who do and do not offer insurance on the basis of their current health status and the probability distribution over future health status changes. We show that there exists a pooling equilibrium in which both sick and healthy employees are covered as long as the costs of job switching are higher than the persistence of health status. We test and verify some of the key implications of our model using data from the Current Population Survey, linked to information provided by the U.S. Department of Labor about the job-specific human capital requirements of jobs
The other ex-ante moral hazard in health by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
9 editions published between 2008 and 2010 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
It is well known that public or pooled insurance coverage can induce a form of ex-ante moral hazard: people make inefficiently low investments in self-protective activities. This paper points out another ex-ante moral hazard that arises through an induced innovation externality. This alternative mechanism, by contrast, causes people to devote an inefficiently high level of self-protection. As an empirical example of this externality, we analyze the innovation induced by the obesity epidemic. Obesity is associated with an increase in the incidence of many diseases. The induced innovation hypothesis is that an increase in the incidence of a disease will increase technological innovation specific to that disease. The empirical economics literature has produced substantial evidence in favor of the induced innovation hypothesis. We first estimate the associations between obesity and disease incidence. We then show that if these associations are causal and the pharmaceutical reward system is optimal the magnitude of the induced innovation externality of obesity roughly coincides with the Medicare-induced health insurance externality of obesity. The current Medicare subsidy for obesity therefore appears to be approximately optimal. We also show that the pattern of diseases for obese and normal weight individuals are similar enough that the induced innovation externality of obesity on normal weight individuals is positive as well
Treatment effect bounds : an application to Swan-Ganz catheterization by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
11 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
"We implement alternative bounding strategies to reanalyze data from the observational study by Connors et al. (1996) on the impact of Swan-Ganz catheterization on mortality outcomes. We implement both traditional bounds, which exploit access to an instrumental variable but impose no other assumptions (Manski, 1990), and the new bounds of Shaikh and Vytlacil (2004), which impose additional relatively mild nonparametric structural assumptions. Both of these approaches require an instrumental variable that shifts the probability of catheterization, but that does not alter mortality risks. We propose and justify using indicators of weekday admission as an instrumental variable in this context. We find that, while the traditional instrumental variable bounds are almost entirely uninformative in our application, the Shaikh and Vytlacil (2004) bounds often produce a clear answer - catheterization reduces mortality at 7 days, and increases it at 30 days and after. Our findings suggest an explanation for the fact that many ICU doctors are deeply committed to the use of the Swan-Ganz catheter. Since most ICU patients leave the ICU well before 30 days after admission have elapsed, ICU doctors never observe the increase in mortality. They do, however, observe the decline in mortality at 7 days"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Is medicine an ivory tower? : Induced innovation, technological opportunity, and for-profit vs. non-profit innovation by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
10 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 23 libraries worldwide
"This paper examines whether the composition of medical research responds to changes in disease incidence and research opportunities. The paper also provides new evidence on induced pharmaceutical innovation. In both cases we use the change in the demographic structure of the market (measured by age structure and obesity prevalence) to test the induced innovation hypothesis. Technological opportunity is calculated from estimates of structural productivity parameters. The extent of inventive activity is measured from the MEDLINE database on 16 million biomedical publications. We match these data with data on disease incidence. We show that medical research responds to changes in disease incidence and research opportunities. We also find that pharmaceutical innovation responds to aging- and obesity-induced changes in potential market size"--Abstract
On inferring demand for health care in the presence of anchoring, acquiescence, and selection biases by Jay Bhattacharya( Book )
8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 22 libraries worldwide
In the contingent valuation literature, both anchoring and acquiescence biases pose problems when using an iterative bidding game to infer willingness to pay. Anchoring bias occurs when the willingness to pay estimate is sensitive to the initially presented starting value. Acquiescence bias occurs when survey respondents exhibit a tendency to answer 'yes' to questions, regardless of their true preferences. More generally, whenever a survey format is used and not all of those contacted participate, selection bias raises concerns about the representativeness of the sample. In this paper, we estimate students' willingness to pay for student health care at Stanford University while accounting for all of these biases. As there is no cost sharing for students, we assess willingness to pay by having a random sample of students play an online iterative bidding game. Our main results are that (1) demand for student health care is elastic by conventional standards; (2) ignoring anchoring bias would lead to a substantially biased measure of the demand elasticity; (3) there is evidence for acquiescence bias in student answers to the opening question of the iterative bidding game and failure to address this leads to the biased conclusion that demand is inelastic; and (4) standard selection correction methods indicate no bias from selective non-response and newer bounding methods support this conclusion of elastic demand
Nanotechnology in industrial wastewater treatment by Arup Roy( file )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Nanotechnology in Industrial Wastewater Treatment is a state of the art reference book. The book is particularly useful for wastewater technology development laboratories and organizations. All professional and academic areas connected with environmental engineering, nanotechnology based wastewater treatment and related product design are incorporated and provide an essentialresource. The book describes the application and synthesis of Ca-based and magnetic nano-materials and their potential application for removal/treatment of heavy metals from wastewater. Nanotechnology in Industrial Wastewater Treatment discusses the rapid wastewater treatment methods using Ca-based nanomaterials and magnetic nanomaterials. This is an emerging area of new science and technology in wastewater treatment. The main audiences for the book are water industry professionals, research scholars and students in the area of Environmental Engineering and Nanotechnology
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Alternative Names
Bhattacharya, J.
Bhattacharya, Jayanta.
English (202)
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