skip to content

World Bank Development Research Group

Overview
Works: 463 works in 802 publications in 1 language and 12,546 library holdings
Genres: History 
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 332
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about World Bank
Publications by World Bank
Most widely held works by World Bank
Financial liberalization : how far, how fast? by Gerard Caprio( Book )
1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 313 libraries worldwide
"The goal of this volume is to bring a more broad-based empirical experience than has been customary to the theoretical debate on how financial systems should be managed. This is achieved not only with cross-country economic studies, but also with an account of carefully chosen and widely contrasting country cases, drawn from Europe, Latin America, Africa, East and South Asia, and the former Soviet Union. The widespread financial crises of recent years have all too dramatically illustrated the shortcomings of financial policy under liberalization. The complexity of the issues mocks any idea that a standard liberalization template will be universally effective. The evidence here described confirms that policy recommendations need to take careful account of country conditions. The volume is the outcome of a research project sponsored by the World Bank's Development Economics Research Group. Professor Joseph E. Stiglitz is the winner of the 2001 Nobel Prize for Economics." http://www.loc.gov/catdir/description/cam021/00065151.html
History, historians and development policy : a necessary dialogue ( Book )
3 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 202 libraries worldwide
Leading historians and policy advisors explore the implications of incorporating historical sensibilities into key development policy issues
Decentralizing the provision of health services : an incomplete contracts approach by William Jack( Book )
2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 68 libraries worldwide
How should central and local governments allocate authority for the planning, financing, and delivery of health services?
Inter-regional resource transfer and economic growth in Indonesia by Toshihiko Kawagoe( Book )
5 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 66 libraries worldwide
February 1998 Rapid economic growth in Indonesia starting in the 1970s was fueled by market-based resource transfers, which helped modernize regional economies, creating the driving force for industrialization; and more welfare-oriented, government-based resource transfers, or development spending, which favored the poorer outer islands. In 1970, Indonesia was a poor agricultural state, with a per capita GNP of only US$80-the lowest among Asian economies and substantially lower than such African countries as Kenya and Ghana. Agriculture-with about 50 percent of GDP and 66 percent of the labor force- the dominant sector. In the 1970s, however, Indonesia showed rapid economic growth (5 percent a year). Softened world oil markets brought a slowdown in growth in the early 1980s, but growth recovered and per capita GNP in 1994 was US$880, comparable with the Philippines and substantially higher than many South Asian and African countries. Agriculture had only a 22 percent share of GDP; industry, 41 percent; and services, 42 percent. But Indonesia is enormously diverse and some parts of it did much better economically than others. As the country's economy grew, market-based resource transfers helped modernize regional economies, creating the driving force for industrialization. By contrast, government-based resource transfers, in the form of development spending, were more welfare-oriented, favoring the poorer outer islands (and did not contribute to industrialization). In other words, economic growth was sustained by two driving forces, government- and market-based transfers, which complemented each other. The oil boom was a bonanza, producing new fiscal revenue, a luxury only oil-exporting countries could enjoy. It is not always a ticket to successful industrialization, as the tragic experiences of such oil-exporting economies as Mexico show. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a Japanese research project on the political economy of rural development strategies
Explaining the increase in inequality during the transition by Branko Milanovic( file )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
Since the beginning of transition to market economy, inequality has increased in all transition countries. The factors driving inequality up: increasing wage inequality (as workers move from a relatively egalitarian state sector to a less equal private sector), and the rising share of income from self-employment and property (both very unequally distributed). Social transfers have failed to dampen the increase in inequality because they have remained, as under socialism, unfocused. The transition from planned to market economy has witnessed one of the biggest and fastest increases in inequality ever recorded. On average, inequality in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union increased from a Gini coefficient of 25?28 (below the OECD average) to 35?38 (above OECD average) in less than 10 years. In some countries, such as Bulgaria, Russia, and Ukraine, the increase in inequality has been even more dramatic, outpacing the yearly speed of Gini increase in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s by three to four times. What are the factors pushing inequality up? Milanovic constructs a simple model of transition defined as the removal of restriction on private sector development. As the private sector becomes free, it attracts workers who leave the shrinking state sector. Wage inequality in the private sector is greater than in the old, relatively egalitarian state sector. This is one of the forces pushing inequality up. The second is the growth of income from self-employment and property, both of which are fairly unequal sources of income both before the transition and now. In addition, some of the released state sector workers remain unemployed. Their incomes decline. Increased inequality is thus accompanied by the hollowing out of the middle class (where the middle class is defined as the former state sector workers). One part of state sector workers moves to higher incomes as workers in the private sector or entrepreneurs; another remains jobless. The model is contrasted with the actual developments in six transition economies: Bulgaria (over 1989-95), Hungary (1987-93), Latvia (1989-96), Poland (1987-95), Russia (1989-94), and Slovenia (1987-95). In all countries, wage inequality has increased (in some, like Russia, dramatically); income from self-employment has remained as unequal as before but its share in total income has risen, and the importance of social transfers in total income has increased, but its focus on the poor has not improved. This paper-a product of the Development Economics Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study social issues in transition economies. The author may be contacted at bmilanovic@worldbank.org
Stabilization, adjustment, and growth prospects in transition economies by Cevdet Denizer( file )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 64 libraries worldwide
November 1997 Except for the Baltics, the countries of the former Soviet Union developed and implemented reform later and more slowly than the countries of Eastern Europe. Why? Political change marked the difference between the approaches of the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Baltics and most Eastern European countries wanted to break away from communism and the FSU domination-so their transition was characterized first by political change. Communists were discredited and removed from power, creating a period of extraordinary politics and a window of opportunity for reform. The collapse of the FSU did not lead to political change in most FSU states. There were indications of discontent with the Union, but except for the Baltics these were not as strong as in the Eastern European countries and there were no explicit demands for independence. The former communists hoped that the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) set up after the collapse of the FSU would evolve into a loose federation, maintaining old trade and financial links. Many FSU countries avoided policies different from Russia's. Most political leaders did not initially think that they would need structural reform policies which could diverge from Russian policies. The pace of reform quickened only after the collapse of the ruble zone in the FSU in 1993. Knowing where to go helped shape reform. The Eastern European and Baltic countries, wanting to join the European Union and encouraged to do so, first initiated political reform, which led to economic reform. Most FSU countries, not knowing with whom to align, initially saw no choice but the Russian Federation. Once reforms are launched, the outcomes are quite similar. Growth starts about two full years after stabilization, although it took about a year longer in the FSU. Initial conditions are important to the transition. Short to medium-term prospects seem most favorable to Eastern Europe and the Baltics, although they still have to catch up with the OECD countries. If admitted to the European Union, they may attain high growth rates even in the longer term. The FSU countries have even more catching up to do. In the short to medium term, countries with slower population growth rates and strong reform efforts should enjoy rapid per capita growth. The Central Asian countries, with their high population growth rates, need economic growth rates faster than their population growth rates. This leaves little room for slowing reform. Given the benefits of integration, there is a strong case for Central Asian countries pushing for an economic union, which would also facilitate the restructuring of their economies. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study the progress of transition economies
Pay and grade differentials at the World Bank by Deon Filmer( file )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 64 libraries worldwide
April 1998 At the World Bank, only about half of salary and grade differentials between men and women and between staff from high- and low-income countries are attributable to differences in worker characteristics. Neither omitted-variable bias nor quotas imposed to ensure diversity are compelling explanations for remaining differentials in salary and grade. Discrimination is likely to explain some of the remainder. Large international organizations such as the World Bank pursue many objectives in hiring policies, including reduced costs, cultural diversity, and the avoidance of discrimination. There can be sharp tradeoffs between these objectives. Diversity is enhanced by recruiting from an international labor market, for example, but international organizations face unusually large differences in reservation wages for staff capable of doing the same work. One way to reduce costs would be to pay employees their reservation wages, which implies unequal pay for equal work, or discrimination. Filmer, Grosh, King, and van de Walle show how these tradeoffs are resolved in the World Bank's hiring processes. They estimate disparities in salary and grades between men and women and by country of origin that cannot be attributed to differences in the productive characteristics of workers. The results indicate that about half the salary and grade differentials between men and women and staff from high- and low-income countries are attributable to differences in worker characteristics. They explore a number of alternative explanations for the rest of the salary and grade differentials, including omitted-variable bias, quotas imposed to ensure diversity, and discrimination in hiring and promoting. They argue that neither omitted-variable bias nor quotas are compelling explanations for disparities and that discrimination probably exists, although certainly less than would be implied by a cost-minimizing hiring policy. A shift seems to be occurring in the hiring process at the Bank, possibly because (1) the application pool, including women and Part II nationals (from developing countries) has significantly improved in quality, (2) information gathering during hiring has intensified, decreasing guesswork, (3) there is more incentive to staff from minority groups, and (4) the Bank's increasing diversity in terms of gender and nationality groups is more conducive to high performance by the people against whom there may previously have been bias. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to apply economic analysis to policy issues
Reaching poor areas in a federal system by Martin Ravallion( file )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 64 libraries worldwide
The aid allocation to a province in a federal system should depend not only on how poor the province is but on how successfully it discriminates in favor of poor areas in public spending. In Argentina, stronger incentives are needed. Ravallion studies how well a federal antipoverty program reaches poor areas, taking the reactions of lower levels of government into account. He studies performance in reaching poor areas before and after World Bank-sponsored reforms in Argentina's antipoverty program. Program resources were substantially reallocated across provinces when Argentina's Trabajar 1 program was replaced by Trabajar 2, with increased spending and greater targeting to poor areas. Overall, performance in reaching poor areas (regardless of province) improved nationally. About a third of the gain in the program's ability to reach poor areas was attributed to the program's greater ability to reach poor provinces. The rest was attributed to better targeting of poor areas within provinces. The provinces differed greatly in ability to reach poor areas. History mattered. Differences in performance after reform partly reflected differences under the old program. Controlling for those factors, however, poorer provinces were less successful in targeting their poor areas. A higher provincial poverty rate attracted more central spending, which tended to result in more pro-poor spending within provinces. But even with greater central spending on poor provinces, poorer provinces were less successful at discriminating in favor of their poor areas. Decentralization generated substantial horizontal inequality in public spending on poor areas. The center clearly needs to give provincial governments stronger incentives to target the poor. Allocations to a province should depend not only on how poor the province is but on how successfully it discriminates in favor of poor areas. The results of this study suggest that stronger incentives are needed. This paper - a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to help assess the performance of the Bank's antipoverty projects. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Policies for Poor Areas (RPO 678-69). The author may be contacted at mravallion@worldbank.org
Spatial poverty traps? by Jyotsna Jalan( file )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 64 libraries worldwide
December 1997 Can location make the difference between growth and contraction in living standards for otherwise identical households? Apparently so. Evidence of spatial poverty traps strengthens the case for investing in the geographic capital of poor people. Can place of residence make the difference between growth and contraction in living standards for otherwise identical households? Jalan and Ravallion test for the existence of spatial poverty traps, using a micro model of consumption growth incorporating geographic externalities, whereby neighborhood endowments of physical and human capital influence the productivity of a household's own capital. By allowing for nonstationary but unobserved individual effects on growth rates, they are able to deal with latent heterogeneity (whereby hidden factors entail that seemingly identical households see different consumption gains over time), yet identify the effects of stationary geographic variables. They estimate the model using farm-household panel data from post-reform rural China. They find strong evidence of spatial poverty traps. Their results strengthen the case-both for efficiency and equity-for investing in the geographic capital of poor people. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to understand the geographic determinants of poverty and the implications for policy. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Policies for Poor Areas (RPO 681-39)
Agricultural development issues, evidence, and consequences by Yair Mundlak( file )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide
Investments in technology have yielded large gains for agriculture, and the benefits have been passed on to consumers in the form of lower prices. Thus history justifies public spending on agricultural research. A comprehensive examination of data from many countries shows that in 1967-92, 81 percent of the world's population lived in countries where agricultural growth exceeded population growth. Moreover, that growth occurred as agricultural prices declined. Productivity gains are a dominant characteristic of agriculture for the period. Average productivity increased for land and labor. Moreover, agricultural productivity gains were greater than average productivity gains for the economy in 80 percent of the countries studied. Measuring the effects of technology choice on productivity is crucial to understanding the determinants of agricultural growth. After selectively reviewing applied production studies, Mundlak, Larson, and Crego conclude that the choice-of-technique method, which has its roots in Tinter's early production function studies, is best suited for examining the determinants of agricultural growth. Investments in technology have yielded large gains for agriculture, and the benefits have been passed on to consumers in the form of lower prices. Thus history justifies public spending on agricultural research. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the determinants of agricultural growth. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project The Determinants of Agricultural Growth (RPO 679-03)
How dirty are "quick and dirty" methods of project appraisal? by Dominique Van de Walle( file )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide
April 1998 Routine quick-and-dirty methods of project appraisal can be so dirty in guiding project selection as to wipe out the net social gains from public investment. Routine quick-and-dirty methods of project appraisal can be so dirty in guiding project selection as to wipe out the net social gains from public investment, contend van de Walle and Gunewardena, illustrating their point with a case study of irrigation projects in Vietnam. They test a common quick-and-dirty method for estimating benefits from irrigation investments, using data for Vietnam. They compare the results with impacts assessed through econometric modeling of marginal returns, which allows for household and area heterogeneity using integrated household-level survey data. The quick-and-dirty method performs well in estimating average benefits nationally but can be misleading for some regions and, by ignoring heterogeneity, overestimates how much the poor gain. At moderate to high project cost levels, quick-and-dirty makes enough mistakes to eliminate the net benefits from public investment. When irrigating as little as 3 percent of Vietnam's nonirrigated land, the savings from the more data-intensive method are enough to cover the costs of the extra data required. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to assess the welfare impacts of public spending. Dominique van de Walle may be contacted at dvandewalle@worldbank.org
Evaluating a targeted social program when placement is decentralized by Martin Ravallion( file )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
July 1998 A social program that relies partly on geographic decentralization for placement provides indicators helpful for identifying the program's impact on welfare. An assessment of the welfare gains from a targeted social program can be seriously biased unless it takes proper account of the endogeneity of program participation. Bias comes from two sources of placement endogeneity: the purposive targeting of the geographic areas to receive the program, and the targeting of individual recipients within selected areas. Decentralization of program placement decisions is common, because of the administrative cost of centralized placement decisions and the fact that local groups and governments are likely to be better informed about who most needs help. But full decentralization is uncommon; the center typically retains control of broad geographic targeting. Ravallion and Wodon argue that partial decentralization of program placement decisions creates control and instrumental variables useful for identifying program benefits. The central allocation to a local level of government is presumably based on observable indicators. The central allocation will also influence the allocation to an individual but is unlikely to determine outcomes at the individual level conditional on individual program participation. So with suitable controls for the welfare-relevant geographic characteristics determining program placement decisions, the center's allocation across areas can be used as an instrumental variable for individual participation. The authors use Bangladesh's Food for Education program to illustrate their approach. A single post-intervention cross-sectional household survey was used to identify the impact of the program on school attendance, using geographic placement at the village level as an instrument for individual program placement. To deal with bias from the endogeneity of village selection, the authors used a detailed community survey coordinated with the household survey to control for likely sources of heterogeneity in geographicinfluences on school attendance, consistent with prior information on how the government targeted the program geographically. They found that the programs had significant and sizable impacts on school attendance. At mean points, the program's incentive increased attendance by 24 percent of the maximum feasible days of schooling. A regression estimator ignoring the purposive program placement was found to result in a substantial underestimation of the program's impact. Indeed, the simplest possible control group method-assuming that nonparticipants provide a valid counterfactual-performed much better than a regression method treating placement as exogenous. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to evaluate the impact of social programs. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Policies for Poor Areas (RPO 681-39). Martin Ravallion may be contacted at mravallion@worldbank.org
Risks, lessons learned, and secondary markets for greenhouse gas reductions by Donald F Larson( file )
4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
March 1999 Emissions trading could significantly reduce the costs of limits on greenhouse gas emissions. Complementary domestic policies to reduce fragmentation in evolving secondary markets, establish clear baselines and procedures, and strengthen host-country institutions could further reduce the risks and costs of emission limits. Collectively or individually, countries are likely to implement policies designed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Experience from tradable quota schemes suggests that emissions trading could significantly reduce the costs of emission limits. The Kyoto Protocol provides the framework for a common trading mechanism for all countries--including countries that would not face immediate emission limits. Significantly, the Protocol places the responsibility for meeting emission limits with national governments. How policymakers choose to implement emission limits will significantly shape the incentives that drive evolving secondary markets for greenhouse-gas-based instruments. Potential market participants who were surveyed rate policy-related risk as higher than business-related risks. Domestic policies designed to reduce fragmentation in secondary markets, establish clear baselines and procedures, and strengthen host-country institutions can all help reduce the risks and costs of emission limits. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to support more cost-effective environmental regulations. Donald Larson may be contacted at dlarson@worldbank.org
Regulatory controversies of private pension funds by Dimitri Vittas( file )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
March 1998 Although controversial, investment and other draconian regulations for private pension funds are suitable for countries with weak capital markets and little tradition of private pension provision. But regulations should be relaxed as private pension funds gain in maturity. Like other financial institutions, private pension funds require a panoply of prudential and protective regulations to ensure their soundness and safeguard the interests of affiliated workers. These regulations include authorization criteria (such as minimum capital, fit and proper, and business plan requirements), asset segregation and external custody, professional asset management, external audits and actuarial reviews, extensive information disclosure, and effective supervision. These regulations resemble those applied to banks and insurance companies and are not particularly controversial. But private pension funds in developing countries are often subject to structural and operational controls that are more controversial. Such controls include special authorizations and market segmentation, one account per worker and one fund per company rules, nondiscrimination provisions, regulations on fees and commissions, investment limits, minimum profitability rules, and state guarantees. Vittas discusses the use of such regulations in developing countries that have implemented systemic pension reforms. He draws a distinction between this approach and the more relaxed regulatory regime that relies on the prudent person rule found in more advanced countries. He argues that the draconian regulatory approach can be justified on several grounds, but especially by the compulsory nature of the pension system, the absence of strong and transparent capital markets, and the lack of a long tradition of private pension funds. But the regulations should be progressively relaxed as private pension funds and their affiliated workers gain in experience, sophistication, and maturity. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study pension funds and institutional investors
Ecuador's rural nonfarm sector as a route out of poverty by Peter Lanjouw( file )
5 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 62 libraries worldwide
March 1998 The nonagricultural rural sector represents a potentially important route out of poverty in Ecuador. Poverty declines as the share of income from nonagricultural sources rises. Nonagricultural employment and earnings are positively associated with better education and infrastructure access. Poverty could be expected to fall substantially with expansion in nonfarm sectors such as construction, transport, commerce, and services. Lanjouw analyzes a recent household survey for Ecuador to assess the role of the nonagricultural rural sector in reducing poverty. That sector accounts for roughly 40 percent of rural incomes in Ecuador, three-fourths of which comes from nonagricultural enterprises as opposed to wage labor. The sector provides employment to nearly 40 percent of men and 50 percent of economically active women. The nonagricultural rural sector represents a potentially important route out of poverty: Poverty declines as the share of income from nonagricultural sources rises. Nonagricultural employment and earnings are positively associated with higher education levels and better access to infrastructure services. Although women are more likely than men to be employed in this sector, their earnings for given education levels and other household characteristics are significantly lower. All other things equal, the greatest fall in poverty could be expected from expanding employment opportunities in transport, commerce-related activities, and such services as administration and the hotel and restaurant trade. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study the role of the nonfarm sector in the rural economy. The author may be contacted at planjouw@worldbank.org
Inequality convergence by Martin Ravallion( file )
5 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 59 libraries worldwide
Is income inequality tending to fall in countries with high inequality and to rise in those where inequality is low? Is there a process of convergence toward medium-level inequality?
A measured approach to ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity : concepts, data, and the twin goals by Dean Jolliffe( Book )
2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 42 libraries worldwide
In 2013, the World Bank Group adopted two new goals to guide its work: ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. More specifically, the goals are to reduce extreme poverty in the world to less than 3 percent by 2030, and to foster income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population in each country. While poverty reduction has been a mainstay of the World Bank's mission for decades, the Bank has now set a specific goal and timetable, and for the first time, the Bank has explicitly included a goal linked to ensuring that growth is shared by all. The discussion until now has centered primarily on articulating the new goals. This report, the latest in World Bank's Policy Research Report series, goes beyond that and lays out their conceptual underpinnings, discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses by contrasting them with alternative indicators, and proposes empirical approaches and requirements to track progress towards the goals. The report makes clear that the challenges posed by the World Bank Group's new stance extend not just to the pursuit of these goals but, indeed, to their very definition and empirical content. The report also argues that an improved data infrastructure, consisting of many elements including the collection of more and better survey data, is critical to ensure that progress towards these goals can be measured, and policies to help achieve them can be identified and prioritized
A gendered assessment of the brain drain by Frédéric Docquier( Book )
2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This paper updates and extends the Docquier-Marfouk data set on inter-national migration by educational attainment. The authors use new sources, homogenize definitions of what a migrant is, and compute gender-disaggregated indicators of the brain drain. Emigration stocks and rates are provided by level of schooling and gender for 195 source countries in 1990 and 2000. The data set can be used to capture the recent trend in women's skilled migration and to analyze its causes and consequences for developing countries. The findings show that women represent an increasing share of the OECD immigration stock and exhibit relatively higher rates of brain drain than men. The gender gap in skilled migration is strongly correlated with the gender gap in educational attainment at origin. Equating women's and men's access to education would probably reduce gender differences in the brain drain
Can China Continue Feeding Itself ? The Impact of Climate Change On Agriculture by Jinxia Wang( file )
1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Several studies addressing the supply and demand for food in China suggest that the nation can largely meet its needs in the coming decades. However, these studies do not consider the effects of climate change. This paper examines whether near future expected changes in climate are likely to alter this picture. The authors analyze the effect of temperature and precipitation on net crop revenues using a cross section consisting of both rainfed and irrigated farms. Based on survey data from 8,405 households across 28 provinces, the results of the Ricardian analysis demonstrate that global warming is likely to be harmful to China but the impacts are likely to be very different in each region. The mid latitude region of China may benefit from warming but the southern and northern regions are likely to be damaged by warming. More precipitation is beneficial to Chinese farmers except in the wet southeast. Irrigated and rainfed farmers have similar responses to precipitation but not to temperature. Warmer temperatures may benefit irrigated farms but they are likely to harm rainfed farms. Finally, seasonal effects vary and are offsetting. Although we were able to measure the direct effect of precipitation and temperature, we could not capture the effects of change in water flow which will be very important in China. Can China continue feeding itself if climate changes? Based on the empirical results, the likely gains realized by some farmers will nearly offset the losses that will occur to other farmers in China. If future climate scenarios lead to significant reductions in water, there may be large damages not addressed in this study.--Provided by publisher
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Alternative Names

controlled identity World Bank

controlled identity World Bank. Policy Research Department

DECRG
World Bank. Development Economics Research Group
World Bank. Research Development Group
Languages
English (66)
Covers
Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.