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Stern, Scott 1969-

Overview
Works: 68 works in 320 publications in 1 language and 6,073 library holdings
Genres: Conference proceedings 
Roles: Editor
Classifications: HC79.T4, 338.926
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Scott Stern
Publications by Scott Stern
Most widely held works by Scott Stern
Biological resource centers knowledge hubs for the life sciences by Scott Stern( file )
10 editions published between 2003 and 2005 in English and held by 1,438 libraries worldwide
Stern argues that science and innovation policy must be premised on a clear understanding of the role that knowledge hubs play and on policy mechanisms that encourage their sustained growth and effectiveness."--BOOK JACKET
Innovation policy and the economy by Adam B Jaffe( file )
5 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 900 libraries worldwide
This annual series, sponsored by the National Bureau of Economic Research, provides a forum for research on the interactions among public policy, the innovation process, and the economy. Discussions cover all types of policy that affect the ability of an economy to achieve scientific and technological progress or that affect the impact of science and technology on economic growth. The books are designed to be of interest to general readers interested in public policy as well as to economists
Innovation policy and the economy 4 by National Bureau of Economic Research( file )
5 editions published between 2002 and 2004 in English and held by 776 libraries worldwide
Innovation policy and the economy by Joshua Lerner( Computer File )
10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 701 libraries worldwide
Papers highlighting the role economic theory and empirical analysis can play in evaluating current and prospective innovation policy alternatives
The rate and direction of inventive activity revisited ( Book )
9 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 228 libraries worldwide
"While the importance of innovation to economic development is widely understood, the conditions conducive to it remain the focus of much attention. This volume offers new theoretical and empirical contributions to fundamental questions relating to the economics of innovation and technological change while revisiting the findings of a classic book. Central to the development of new technologies are institutional environments, and among the topics discussed here are the roles played by universities and other nonprofit research institutions and the ways in which the allocation of funds between the public and private sectors affects innovation. Other essays examine the practice of open research and how the diffusion of information technology influences the economics of knowledge accumulation. Analytically sophisticated and broad in scope, this book addresses a key topic at a time when economic growth is all the more topical."--
Innovation policy and the economy by National Bureau of Economic Research( file )
12 editions published between 2001 and 2006 in English and held by 197 libraries worldwide
Innovation policy and the economy by Adam B Jaffe( Computer File )
6 editions published between 2001 and 2007 in English and held by 134 libraries worldwide
Empirical implications of physician authority in pharmaceutical decisionmaking by Scott Stern( Book )
14 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 104 libraries worldwide
This paper studies the consequences of physician authority on pharmaceutical prescribing. Physicians engage in a costly process of particular conditions and characteristics. The relative efficiency of this matching process results from the diagnostic skill of the physician along with the investments made by the doctor in learning about different drugs. While the underlying level of physician skill or knowledge cannot be observed, differences among physicians in terms of these attributes are reflected in their prescribing behavior. We provide evidence for two major findings regarding the exercise of physician authority in this context. First, there is substantial variation in the degree to which physician prescribing is concentrated (i.e., some physicians prescribe a more diverse portfolio of drugs than others). Second, this concentration is correlated with observable drug characteristics. In particular, concentrated prescribers tend to prescribe drugs with high levels of advertising, low prices, and high (lagged) market shares. Our empirical results provide evidence for the importance of both physician effort and diagnostic ability in the prescribing process. In particular, physicians who differentiate among their patients more finely are more likely to have less concentrated prescribing portfolios and to be less sensitive to information sources which promote the use of drugs for the
Patient welfare and patient compliance : an empirical framework for measuring the benefits from pharmaceutical innovation by Paul Ellickson( Book )
14 editions published between 1998 and 2001 in English and Undetermined and held by 92 libraries worldwide
The main goal of this paper is to develop an empirical framework for evaluating the patient welfare benefits arising from pharmaceutical innovation. Extending previous studies of the welfare benefits from innovation (Trajtenberg, 1990; Hausman, 1996), this paper unpacks the separate choices made by physicians and patients in pharmaceutical decisionmaking and develops an estimable econometric model which reflects these choices. Our proposed estimator for patient welfare depends on (a) whether patients comply with the prescriptions they receive from physicians and (b) the motives of physicians in their prescription behavior. By focusing on compliance behavior, the proposed welfare measure reflects a specific economic choice made by patients. We review evidence that the rate of noncompliance ranges up to 70%, suggesting an important gulf between physician prescription behavior and realized patient welfare. Since physicians act as imperfect but interested agents for their patients, the welfare analysis based on compliance must account for the nonrandom selection of patients into drugs by their physicians. The key contribution of this paper resides in integrating the choices made by both physicians and patients into a unified theoretical framework and suggesting how the parameters of such a model can be estimated from data
The adoption and impact of advanced emergency response services by Susan Athey( Book )
11 editions published between 1998 and 2000 in English and held by 87 libraries worldwide
This paper studies the causes and consequences of the adoption of technology by hospitals and public emergency response systems, focusing on Basic and Enhanced 911 services. Basic 911 allows people within a given locality to access specialized call-takers and ambulance dispatchers using the single telephone number 911. Enhanced 911 is characterized by telecommunications equipment and information technology which identifies the location of emergency callers. We begin by exploring the distribution of 911 systems among counties in the U.S., showing that this locally provided service responds to income and political factors as well as population and density of a county. Then, using a database of cardiac patients in Pennsylvania in 1995, we are able to characterize some of the productivity efforts of 911 services. We show that Enhanced 911 reduces response times, which in turn reduce mortality. Further, we find that the pre-hospital system interacts with the allocation of patients to hospitals in several ways. First, patient severity affect the allocation of patients to high-technology hospitals. Second, conditional on the availability of advanced cardiac care facilities, counties with 911 systems allocate cardiac patients to hospitals with better technology. Finally, hospitals with more advanced emergency and cardiac technology treat a higher share of cardiac patients who make use of the pre- hospital system
When does start-up innovation spur the gale of creative destruction? by Joshua Gans( Book )
14 editions published between 2000 and 2002 in English and held by 86 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the determinants of commercialisation strategy for start-up innovators. The authors examine whether the returns on innovation are earned through product market competition versus cooperation with established firms (through licensing, alliances or acquisition). The authors' hypotheses are that the relative returns to cooperation are increasing in (a) control over intellectual property rights, (b) low transaction costs, and (c) sunk costs associated with product market entry. Using a novel dataset of the commercialisation strategies of start-up innovators, the results suggest that the pro-competitive impact of start-up innovation - the gale of creative destruction - depends on imperfections in the market for ideas
An empirical framework for testing theories about complementarity in organizational design by Susan Athey( Book )
9 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 86 libraries worldwide
This paper studies alternative empirical strategies for estimating the effects of organization design practices on performance, as well as the factors which determine organizational design, in a cross-section of firms. Our economic model is based on a firm where multiple organizational design practices are en endogenously determined, and these organizational design practices affect output through an 'organizational design production function.' The econometric model includes unobserved exogenous variation in the costs and returns to each of the individual practices. The model is used to evaluate how different econometric strategies for testing theories about complementarity can be interpreted under alternative assumptions about the economic and statistical environment. We identify plausible hypotheses about the joint distribution of the unobservables under which several different approaches from the existing literature will yield biased and inconsistent estimates. We show that the sign of the bias depends on two factors: whether the organzational design practices are complements, and the correlation between the unobserved returns to each practice. We find several sets of conditions under which the sign of the bias can be determined, and we provide economic interpretations. Our analysis shows that for a particular set of hypotheses, a variety of different procedures may all yield qualitatively similar biases, presenting a challenge for the identification of complementarity. We then propose a structural approach, which is based on a system of simultaneous equations describing productivity and the demand for organizational design practices. As long as exogenous variables are observed which are uncorrelated with the unobserved returns to practices, the structural parameters are identified, yielding consistent tests for complementarity as well as the cross-equation restrictions implied by static optimization of the organizatin's profit function
The determinants of national innovative capacity by Scott Stern( Book )
12 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 85 libraries worldwide
Motivated by differences in R&D productivity across advanced economies, this paper presents an empirical examination of the determinants of country-level production of international patents. We introduce a novel framework based on the concept of national innovative capacity. National innovative capacity is the ability of a country to produce and commercialize a flow of innovative technology over the long term. National innovative capacity depends on the strength of a nation's common innovation infrastructure (cross-cutting factors which contribute broadly to innovativeness throughout the economy), the environment for innovation in its leading industrial clusters, and the strength of linkages between these two areas. We use this framework to guide our empirical exploration into the determinants of country-level R&D productivity, specifically examining the relationship between international patenting (patenting by foreign countries in the United States) and variables associated with the national innovative capacity framework. While acknowledging important measurement issues arising from the use of patent data, we provide evidence for several findings. First, the production function for international patents is surprisingly well-characterized by a small but relatively nuanced set of observable factors, including R&D manpower and spending, aggregate policy choices such as the extent of IP protection and openness to international trade, and the share of research performed by the academic sector and funded by the private sector. As well, international patenting productivity depends on each individual country's knowledge "stock." Further, the predicted level of national innovative capacity has an important impact on more downstream commercialization and diffusion activities (such as achieving a high market share of high-technology export markets). Finally, there has been convergence among OECD countries in terms of the estimated level of innovative capacity over the past quarter century
Market segmentation and the sources of rents from innovation : personal computers in the late 1980's by Timothy F Bresnahan( Book )
12 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 84 libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates the sources of transitory market power in the market for personal computers (PCs) during the late 1980's. Our analysis is motivated by the coexistence of low entry barriers into the PC industry and high rates of innovative investment by a small number of PC manufacturers. We attempt to understand these phenomena by measuring the role that different principles of product differentiation (PDs) played in segmenting this dynamic market. Our first PD measures the substitutability between Frontier (386-based) and Non- Frontier products, while the second PD measures the advantage of a brand-name reputation (e.g., by IBM). Building on advances in the measurement of product differentiation, we measure the separate roles that these PDs played in contributing to transitory market power. In so doing, this paper attempts to account for the market origins of innovative rents in the PC industry. Our principal finding is that, during the late 1980's, the PC market was highly segmented along both the Branded (B versus NB) and Frontier (F versusNF) dimensions. The effects of competitive events in any one cluster were confined mostly to that particular cluster, with little effect on other clusters. For example, less than 5% of the market share achieved by a hypothetical entrant would be market-stealing from other clusters. In addition, the product diffe- rentiation advantages of B and F were qualitatively different. The main advantage of F was limited to the isolation from NF competitors it provided; Brandedness both shifted out the product demand curve as well as segmenting B products from NB competition. These results help explain how transitory market power (arising from market segmentation) shaped the underlying incen- tives for innovation in the PC industry during the mid to late 1980s
The impact of information technology on emergency health care outcomes by Susan Athey( Book )
10 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 83 libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes the productivity of technology and job design in emergency response systems, or 911 systems.' During the 1990s, many 911 systems adopted Enhanced 911' (E911), where information technology is used to link automatic caller identification to a database of address and location information. A potential benefit to E911 is improved timeliness of the emergency response. We evaluate the returns to E911 in the context of a panel dataset of Pennsylvania counties during 1994-1996, when almost half of the 67 counties experienced a change in technology. We measure productivity using an index of health status of cardiac patients at the time of ambulance arrival, where the index should be improved by timely response. We also consider the direct effect of E911 on several patient outcomes, including mortality within the first hours following the incident and the total hospital charges incurred by the patient. Our main finding is that E911 increases the short-term survival rates for patients with cardiac diagnoses by about 1%, from a level of 96.2%. We also provide evidence that E911 reduces hospital charges. Finally, we analyze the effect of job design, in particular the use of Emergency Medical Dispatching' (EMD), where call-takers gather medical information, provide medical instructions over the telephone, and prioritize the allocation of ambulance and paramedic services. Controlling for EMD adoption does not affect our results about E911, and we find that EMD and E911 do not have significant interactions in determining outcomes (that is, they are neither substitutes nor complements)
Balancing incentives : the tension between basic and applied research by Iain Cockburn( Book )
11 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 82 libraries worldwide
This paper presents empirical evidence that the intensity of research workers' incentives for the distinct tasks of basic and applied research are positively associated with each other. We relate this finding to the prediction of the theoretical literature that when effort is multi-dimensional, firms will balance' the provision of incentives; when incentives are strong along one dimension, firms will set high-powered incentives for effort along other dimensions which compete for the worker's effort and attention (Holmstrom and Milgrom, 1991). We test for this effect in the context of pharmaceutical research using detailed data on individual research programs financed by private firms. Consistent with the complementarity hypothesis, we find strong evidence that firms who provide strong promotion-based incentives for individuals to invest in fundamental or basic' research also provide more intense incentives for success in applied research through the capital budgeting process. The intensity of these bonus' incentives is weaker in firms who use a more centralized research budgeting process. We interpret this latter finding as providing support for theories which emphasize substitutability between contractible and non-contractible signals of effort (Baker, Gibbons, and Murphy, 1994)
When does funding research by smaller firms bear fruit? : evidence from the SBIR program by Joshua Gans( Book )
12 editions published between 2000 and 2002 in English and held by 82 libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates whether the relative concentration of funding for small, research-oriented firms in a small number of high-tech industries is related to the differences across industries in the level of appropriability or capital constraints facing small firms. To do so, we exploit a novel test based on the relationship between industry-level private venture financing and the performance of government-subsidized R & D projects in those sectors. If the government funds projects on the margin (as it should under an optimal subsidy regime) and industries only differ in terms of the level of appropriability, then private funding and subsidized project performance are positively correlated. Conversely, if industries only differ in terms of the level of capital constraints, this correlation is negative. Our principal empirical result is that project-level performance is highest for those technologies that are in industrial segments that attract high rates of venture capital investment. This result suggests that industrial sectors differ in the degree of appropriability for research-oriented small businesses and that variation in the appropriability regime helps explain the concentrated nature of venture capital activity in the economy
Measuring the "ideas" production function : evidence from international patent output by Michael E Porter( Book )
11 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 81 libraries worldwide
This paper estimates the parameters of the ideas production function central to recent models of economic growth. We do so by evaluating the determinants of international patenting rates across the OECD, where an international patent is one granted by the U.S. patent office to a foreign establishment. Taking advantage of variation in the flow of ideas produced by different countries over time, we provide evidence for three main findings. First, at the level of the production of international patents, country-level R & D productivity increases proportionally with the stock of ideas already discovered, a key parametric restriction associated with the Romer model of ideas-driven growth (Romer, 1990; Jones, 1995). Second, We find that ideas productivity in a given country is constant or declining in the worldwide stock of ideas. Ideas production by other countries raises the bar for producing new-to-the-world technology domestically, outweighing the positive effects of international knowledge spillovers. Finally, ideas productivity is concave in the size of the R & D workforce and the linkage between ideas production and overall productivity growth is small. These results suggest that while the parametric restrictions required to generate endogenous technological change may be satisfied for individual economies, the growth rate associated with such effects may be modest. There seems to be a gap between the sustained production of ideas by advanced economies and the ability to translate ideas into measured productivity growth."
Do scientists pay to be scientists? by Scott Stern( Book )
10 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates the relationship between wages and the scientific orientation of R & D organizations. Science-oriented firms allow researchers to publish in the scientific literature and pursue individual research agendas. Adoption of a Science- oriented research approach (i.e., Science) is driven by two distinct forces: a (a Preference effect) and R & D productivity gains arising from earlier access to discoveries (a Productivity effect). The equilibrium relationship between wages and Science reflects the relative salience of these effects: the Preference effect contributes to a negative compensating differential while the Productivity effect raises the possibility of rent-sharing between firms and researchers. In addition, because the value of participating in Science is increasing in the prestige of researchers, Science tends to be adopted by those firms who employ higher-quality researchers. This structural relationship between the adoption of Science and unobserved heterogeneity in researcher ability leads to bias in the context of hedonic wage and productivity regressions which do not account for such effects. This paper exploits a novel field-based empirical approach to substantially overcome this bias. Specifically, prior to accepting a specific job offer, many scientists receive multiple job offers, making it possible to calculate the wage- Science curve for individual scientists, controlling for ability level. The methodology is applied to a sample of postdoctoral biologists. The results suggest a strong negative relationship between wages and Science. For example, firms who allow their employees to publish extract, on average, a 25% wage discount. The results are robust to restricting the sample to non-academic job offers, but the findings depend critically on the inclusion of the researcher fixed effects. The paper's conclusion, then, is that, conditional on scientific ability, scientists do indeed pay to be scientists
The diffusion of science driven drug discovery : organizational change in pharmaceutical research by Iain Cockburn( Book )
10 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
Recent work linking the adoption of key organizational practices to productivity raises an important question: if adoption increases productivity so dramatically, why does adoption across an industry take so long? This paper explores this question in the context of one particularly interesting practice, the adoption of science driven drug discovery by the modern pharmaceutical industry. Over the past two decades, the established pharmaceutical industry has slowly shifted towards a more science-oriented drug discovery: (a) adopters experienced substantially higher rates of R & D after the late 1970s and (b) the rate of adoption across the industry was extremely slow. Motivated by the apparent contradiction between large boosts in performance and slow rates of adoption, this paper characterizes the sources of differences in rates of adoption between 1980 and 1993. The principal finding is that adoption of a science-oriented research approach was a function of initial conditions, or subject to 'state dependence': some firms simply began the sample period at a much higher level of science orientation. Moreover, while these effects attenuated over time, our empirical results suggest that it took more than ten years before adoption was unrelated to initial conditions. In addition, consistent with theories developed in the context of technology adoption, we find that relative diffusion rates depend on the product market positioning of firms. More surprisingly, adoption rates are seperately driven by the composition of sales within the firm. This latter finding suggests the potential importance of differences among firms in terms of the internal structure of power and attention, an area which has received only a small amount of theoretical attention
 
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Associated Subjects
Academic-industrial collaboration Biological resource centers Biology--Research Competition Computer industry--Technological innovations Consumers' preferences--Econometric models Developing countries Diffusion of innovations Diffusion of innovations--Econometric models Diffusion of innovations--Economic aspects Discoveries in science Drugs--Prescribing--Econometric models Emergency medical services--Communications systems Federal aid to research High technology industries High technology industries--Finance Incentives in industry--Econometric models Industrial organization Industrial organization--Econometric models Industrial organization--Mathematical models Industrial productivity--Econometric models Industrial productivity--Effect of technological innovations on Industrial productivity--Mathematical models Information technology--Economic aspects Intellectual capital Inventions Market segmentation New business enterprises--Finance OECD countries Organizational effectiveness--Econometric models Organizational effectiveness--Mathematical models Patents Prescription pricing--Econometric models Product obsolescence Research, Industrial Research, Industrial--Econometric models Research, Industrial--Finance Research, Industrial--Government policy Research--Government policy Small business--Finance Small business--Government policy Technological innovations Technological innovations--Economic aspects Technology and state Technology transfer--Government policy Telephone--Emergency reporting systems Telephone--Emergency reporting systems--Evaluation United States United States.--Small Business Administration.--Small Business Innovation Research Program Venture capital
Alternative Names
Stern, S. 1969-
Languages
English (206)
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