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Jensen, J. Bradford

Works: 70 works in 319 publications in 1 language and 5,926 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Publications about J. Bradford Jensen
Publications by J. Bradford Jensen
Most widely held works by J. Bradford Jensen
Global trade in services : fear, facts, and offshoring by J. Bradford Jensen( Book )
9 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 281 libraries worldwide
The service sector is large and growing. Additionally, international trade in services is growing rapidly. Yet there is a dearth of empirical research on the size, scope and potential impact of services trade. The underlying source of this gap is well-known-official statistics on the service sector in general, and trade in services in particular, lack the level of detail available for the manufacturing sector in many dimensions. Because services are such a large and important component of the US economy, understanding the implications of increased trade in services is crucial to the trade liberalization agenda going forward. In this path-breaking book, J. Bradford Jensen conducts primary research using a range of data sources to produce the most detailed and robust portrait available on the size, scope, and potential impact of trade in services on the US economy. Jensen presents new evidence on the prevalence of service firm participation in international trade. He finds that, in spite of US comparative advantage in service activities, service firms' export participation lags manufacturing firms. Jensen evaluates the impediments to services trade and finds evidence that there is considerable room for liberalization-especially among the large, fast-growing developing economies. The policy recommendations coming out of this path-breaking study are quite clear. The United States should not fear trade in services. It should be pushing aggressively for services trade liberalization. Because other advanced economies have similar comparative advantage in service, the United States should make common cause with the European Union and other advanced economies to encourage the large, fast-growing developing economies to liberalize their service sectors through multilateral negotiations in the General Agreement on Trade in Services and the Government Procurement Agreement. Jensen notes that the coming global infrastructure building boom is of historic proportions and provides an enormous opportunity for US service firms if the proper policies are in place. Increased trade in services might help rebalance the global economy, and both developed and developing economies would benefit from the productivity-enhancing reallocation brought by increased trade in services
Producer dynamics : new evidence from micro data ( Book )
13 editions published in 2009 in English and Undetermined and held by 252 libraries worldwide
"The Census Bureau has recently begun releasing official statistics that measure the movements of firms in and out of business and workers in and out of jobs. The economic analyses in Producer Dynamics exploit this newly available data on establishments, firms, and workers, to address issues in industrial organization, labor, growth, macroeconomics, and international trade." "This innovative volume brings together a group of renowned economists to probe topics such as firm dynamics across countries; patterns of employment dynamics; firm dynamics in nonmanufacturing industries such as retail, health services, and agriculture; employer-employee turnover from matched worker/firm data sets; and turnover in international markets. Producer Dynamics will serve as an invaluable reference for economists and policy makers seeking to understand the links between firms and workers, and the sources of economic dynamics, in the age of globalization."--Jacket
Exporting and productivity by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
14 editions published between 1998 and 2000 in English and held by 74 libraries worldwide
Exporting is often touted as a way to increase economic growth. This paper examines whether exporting has played any role in increasing productivity growth in U.S. manufacturing. Contemporaneous levels of exports and productivity are indeed positively correlated across manufacturing industries. However, tests on industry data show causality from productivity to exporting but not the reverse. While exporting plants have substantially higher productivity levels, we find no evidence that exporting increases plant productivity growth rates. However, within the same industry, exporters do grow faster than non-exporters in terms of both shipments and employment. We show that exporting is associated with the reallocation of resources from less efficient to more efficient plants. In the aggregate, these reallocation effects are quite large, making up over 40% of total factor productivity growth in the manufacturing sector. Half of this reallocation to more productive plants occurs within industries and the direction of the reallocation is towards exporting plants. The positive contribution of exporters even shows up in import-competing industries and non-tradable sectors. The overall contribution of exporters to manufacturing productivity growth far exceeds their shares of employment and output
Understanding increasing and decreasing wage inequality by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
13 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 72 libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper uses data on inequality within U.S. states to test hypotheses about the sources of rising wage inequality during the 1970s and 1980s. State labor markets are found to respond to local demand shocks in the short and medium run and to national (industry) demand shocks only after long intervals. The measure of wage inequality employed in the paper is the (log) ratio of the weekly wage at the 90th percentile to that at the 10th percentile in the state after controlling for observable characteristics of the workers. Individual states are found to have very different levels and changes of inequality. For example, Pennsylvania and Georgia had the second lowest and ninth highest 90-10 ratios respectively in 1970. By 1990, Georgia's 90-10 ratio had fallen 4% while Pennsylvania's had risen 21%. This paper finds that changes in industrial composition, in particular the loss of durable manufacturing jobs, are strongly correlated with inequality increases
Exceptional exporter performance : cause, effect, or both? by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
13 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and held by 69 libraries worldwide
Abstract: A growing body of empirical work has documented the superior performance characteristics" of exporting plants and firms relative to non-exporters. Employment, shipments and capital intensity are all higher at exporters at any given moment. This paper asks whether good" firms become exporters or whether exporting improves firm performance. The evidence is quite" clear on one point: good firms become exporters, both growth rates and levels of success measures" are higher ex-ante for exporters. The benefits of exporting for the firm are less clear. Employment" growth and the probability of survival are both higher for exporters; however growth is not superior, particularly over longer horizons
Survival of the best fit : competition from low wage countries and the uneven growth of US manufacturing plants by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
20 editions published between 2002 and 2005 in English and held by 65 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the role of international trade in the reallocation of U.S. manufacturing within and across industries from 1977 to 1997. Motivated by the factor proportions framework, we introduce a new measure of industry exposure to international trade that focuses on where imports originate rather than on their overall level. We find that plant survival and growth are negatively associated with industry exposure to low-wage country imports. Within industries, we show that manufacturing activity is disproportionately reallocated towards capital-intensive plants. Finally, we provide the first evidence that firms adjust their product mix in response to trade pressures. Plants are more likely to switch industries when exposure to low-wage countries is high
The deaths of manufacturing plants by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
13 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 61 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the causes of manufacturing plant deaths within and across industries in the U.S. from 1977-1997. The effects of international competition from low wage countries, exporting, ownership structure, product diversity, productivity, geography, and plant characteristics are considered. The probability of shutdowns is higher in industries that face increased competition from low-income countries, especially for low-wage, labor-intensive plants within those industries. Conditional on industry and plant characteristics, closures occur more often at plants that are part of a multi-plant firm and at plants that have recently experienced a change in ownership. Plants owned by U.S. multinationals are more likely to close than similar plants at non-multinational firms. Exits occur less frequently at multi-product plants, at exporters, at plants that pay above average wages, and at large, older, more productive and more capital-intensive plants
Why some firms export by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
15 editions published between 1997 and 2001 in English and held by 60 libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic model of the export decision by a profit-maximizing firm. Using a panel of U.S. manufacturing plants, we test for the role of plant characteristics, spillovers from neighboring exporters, entry costs and government export promotion expenditures. Entry and exit in the export market by U.S. plants is substantial, past exporters are apt to reenter, and plants are likely to export in consecutive years. However, we find that entry costs are significant and spillovers from the export activity of other plants negligible. State export promotion expenditures have no significant effect on the probability of exporting. Plant characteristics, especially those indicative of past success, strongly increase the probability of exporting as do favorable exchange rate shocks
Falling trade costs, heterogeneous firms, and industry dynamics by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
17 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 58 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the response of industries and firms to changes in trade costs. Several new firm-level models of international trade with heterogeneous firms predict that industry productivity will rise as trade costs fall due to the reallocation of activity across plants within an industry. Using disaggregated U.S. import data, we create a new measure of trade costs over time and industries. As the models predict, productivity growth is faster in industries with falling trade costs. We also find evidence supporting the major hypotheses of the heterogenous-firm models. Plants in industries with falling trade costs are more likely to die or become exporters. Existing exporters increase their shipments abroad. The results do not apply equally across all sectors but are strongest for industries most likely to be producing horizontally-differentiated tradeable goods
Factor price equality and the economies of the United States by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
13 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 58 libraries worldwide
Do New York and Nashville face the same pressures from increased trade? This paper considers the role of international trade in shaping the product mix and relative wages for regions within the US. Using the predictions from a Heckscher-Ohlin trade model, we ask whether all the regions in the US face the same relative factor prices. Using the production side of the HO model, we derive a general test of relative factor price equality that is robust to unobserved regional productivity differences, unobserved regional factor quality differences, and variations in production technology across industries. Using data from 1972-1992, we reject the the hypothesis that all regions face the same relative factor prices in favor of an alternative with at least three distinct factor price cones. Sort regions into cones with similar relative factor prices, we find that industry mix varies systematically across the groups. Regions that switch cones over time have more churning of industries
Who dies? : international trade, market structure, and industrial restructuring by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
13 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 57 libraries worldwide
This paper examines the role of changing factor endowments in the growth and decline of industries and regions. The implications of an endowment-based Heckscher-Ohlin trade model for plant entry and exit are tested on 20 years of data for the entire US manufacturing sector. The trade model provides predictions for which industries will see growth through the positive net entry of plants. A multi-region version of the same model has predictions for which regions will see high turnover and net entry of plants. In a country such as the U.S. that is augmenting both its physical and human capital, the least capital-intensive, least skill-intensive industries are correctly predicted to have the lowest rate of net entry. In addition, increases in regional capital and skill intensity are associated with higher probabilities of shutdown, especially for plants in industries with low initial capital and skill intensities
Understanding the U.S. export boom by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
7 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 54 libraries worldwide
U.S. exports grew at a rate of 8.2% per year from 1987-1994, far faster than the economy as a whole or even the manufacturing sector. This paper examines the source of this export boom and argues that the boom itself has been less remarkable for the rate of growth of exports than for the striking increase in export intensity. This increase in export intensity has occurred both in the aggregate and for individual plants across a wide range of industries. Competing explanations for the rise in exports are tested with a comprehensive plant level data set. Changes in exchange rates and rises in foreign income are the dominant sources for the export increase, while productivity increases in U.S. plants play a relatively small role. The results suggest that slower growth rates of U.S. trading partners and an appreciation of the dollar will have strong negative effects on the growth rate of U.S. manufacturing exports
Importers, exporters, and multinationals : a portrait of firms in the U.S. that trade goods by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
14 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 40 libraries worldwide
This paper provides an integrated view of globally engaged U.S. firms by exploring a newly developed dataset that links U.S. international trade transactions to longitudinal data on U.S. enterprises. These data permit examination of a number of new dimensions of firm activity, including how many products firms trade, how many countries firms trade with, the characteristics of those countries, the concentration of trade across firms, whether firms transact at arms length or with related parties, and whether firms import as well as export. Firms that trade goods play an important role in the U.S., employing more than a third of the U.S. workforce. We find that the most globally engaged U.S. firms, i.e. those that both export to and import from related parties, dominate U.S. trade flows and employment at trading firms. We also find that firms that begin trading between 1993 and 2000 experience especially rapid employment growth and are a major force in overall job creation
Transfer pricing by U.S. based multinational firms by Andrew B Bernard( Book )
9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
This paper examines how prices set by multinational firms vary across arm's-length and related-party customers. Comparing prices within firms, products, destination countries, modes of transport and month, we find that the prices U.S. exporters set for their arm's-length customers are substantially larger than the prices recorded for related-parties. This price wedge is smaller for commodities than for differentiated goods, is increasing in firm size and firm export share, and is greater for goods sent to countries with lower corporate tax rates and higher tariffs. We also find that changes in exchange rates have differential effects on arm's-length and related-party prices; an appreciation of the dollar reduces the difference between the prices
Evaluating estimates of materials offshoring from U.S. manufacturing by Robert C Feenstra( Book )
5 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
When materials offshoring is measured by estimating imported intermediate inputs, a common assumption used is that an industry's imports of each input, relative to its total demand, is the same as the economy-wide imports relative to total demand: this is the so-called "import comparability" or "proportionality" assumption. A report to the National Research Council identified this assumption as being a significant limitation of current data collection and analysis. In this note we move beyond this assumption to obtain a direct measure of imported materials by industry for the United States in 1997. At the 3-digit I-O industry level, there is a correlation of 0.68 between the offshoring shares made with and without the proportionality assumption, and a higher correlation of 0.87 when the shares are value weighted. While most value-weighted industry have differences below 50 percentage points in the two estimates, there is significant number of cases that differ by 10 percentage points or more
Global Supply Chains, Currency Undervaluation, and Firm Protectionist Demands by J. Bradford Jensen( Book )
5 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 11 libraries worldwide
We examine firm participation in global supply chains to help explain a puzzling decline in protectionist demands in the U.S. despite increased import competition and ongoing currency undervaluation. To explain firm responses to undervaluation, we rely on advances in the international trade literature that uncover intraindustry heterogeneity in firm trade and investment activities. We propose that firm foreign direct investments in, and subsequent related party trade with, countries with undervalued exchange rates will lead to fewer antidumping filings. Examining the universe of U.S. manufacturing firms, we find that antidumping petition filers are more internationally engaged than non-filing peers, but conduct less related party trade with filed-against countries. High levels of related-party imports (arm's length imports) from countries with undervalued currencies significantly decrease (increase) the likelihood of U.S. antidumping petitions. Our study highlights the centrality of global supply chains in understanding political mobilization over international economic policy
The Tradability of Services Geographic Concentration and Trade Costs by Antoine Gervais( Book )
8 editions published between 2013 and 2015 in English and held by 9 libraries worldwide
We develop a methodology for estimating the "tradability'' of goods and services using data on U.S. establishments. Our results show that the average service industry is less tradable than the average manufacturing industry. However, there is considerable within-sector variation in estimated tradability and many service industries are as tradable as manufacturing. Tradable service industries account for a significant share of economic activity and workers employed in those industries have relatively high average wages. Counterfactual analysis indicates that the potential welfare gains from policy liberalization in service trade are of the same order of magnitude as liberalization in the manufacturing sector
Birth and death of manufacturing plants and restructuring in Appalachia's industrial economy, 1963-1992 : evidence from the longitudinal research database by J. Bradford Jensen( Book )
2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Assessing the impact of trade liberalization on import-competing industries in the Appalachian Region by Andrew B Bernard( file )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Analyzing the impact of trade in services on the U.S. labor market : the response of service sector employment to exchange rate changes by J. Bradford Jensen( file )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
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Alternative Names
Bradford Jensen, J.
Jensen, J. B.
Jensen, John Bradford
English (205)
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