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Viceira, Luis M.

Works: 38 works in 302 publications in 3 languages and 1,977 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Publications about Luis M Viceira
Publications by Luis M Viceira
Most widely held works by Luis M Viceira
Strategic asset allocation : portfolio choice for long-term investors by John Y Campbell( Book )
38 editions published between 2001 and 2005 in 4 languages and held by 515 libraries worldwide
This volume offers a scientific foundation for the advice offered by financial planners to long-term investors. It gives statistical evidence on asset return behaviour, and, based on assumed investor objectives, derives optimal portfolio rules
Who should buy long-term bonds? by John Y Campbell( Book )
23 editions published between 1998 and 2000 in English and held by 87 libraries worldwide
According to conventional wisdom, long-term bonds are appropriate for long-term investors who value stability of income. We develop a model of optimal consumption and portfolio choice for infinitely-lived investors facing stochastic interest rates, solve it using an approximate analytical method, and evaluate the conventional wisdom. We show that the demand for long-term bonds has both a myopic component and an intertemporal hedging component. As risk aversion increases, the myopic component shrinks to zero but the hedging component does not. An infinitely risk-averse investor who is infinitely unwilling to substitute consumption intertemporally should hold a portfolio of long-term indexed bonds that is equivalent to an indexed perpetuity. This portfolio finances a riskless consumption stream and in this sense provides a stable income. We calibrate our model to postwar US data and compare consumption and portfolio rules with and without bond indexation, portfolio constraints, and the possibility of investment in equities. We find that when indexed bonds are not available, inflation risk leads investors to shorten their bond portfolios and increase their precautionary savings. This has serious welfare costs for conservative investors, who are much better off when they have the opportunity to buy indexed bonds. We also find that the ratio of bonds to equities in the optimal portfolio increases with the coefficient of relative risk aversion, which is consistent with conventional portfolio advice but inconsistent with the mutual fund theorem of static portfolio analysis. Our results illustrate the general point that static portfolio choice models should not be used to study the dynamic problems facing long-term investors
A multivariate model of strategic asset allocation by John Y Campbell( Book )
24 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 78 libraries worldwide
Much recent work has documented evidence for predictability of asset returns. We show how such predictability can affect the portfolio choices of long-lived investors who value wealth not for its own sake but for the consumption their wealth can support. We develop an approximate solution method for the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem of an infinitely-lived investor with Epstein-Zin utility who faces a set of asset returns described by a vector autoregression in returns and state variables. Empirical estimates in long-run annual and postwar quarterly US data suggest that the predictability of stock returns greatly increases the optimal demand for stock. The role of nominal bonds in long-termport folios depends on the importance of real interest rate risk relative to other sources of risk. We extend the analysis to consider long-term inflation-indexed bonds and find that these bonds greatly increase the utility of conservative investors, who should hold large positions when they are available
Dynamic consumption and portfolio choice with stochastic volatility in incomplete markets by George Chacko( Book )
21 editions published between 1999 and 2005 in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes optimal portfolio choice and consumption with stochastic volatility in incomplete markets. Using the Duffie-Epstein (1992) formulation of recursive utility in continuous time, it shows that the optimal portfolio demand for stocks under stochastic volatility varies strongly with the investor's coefficient of relative risk aversion, but only slightly with her elasticity of intertemporal substitution; by contrast, optimal consumption relative to wealth depends on both preference parameters. This paper also shows that stochastic variation in volatility produces an optimal intertemporal hedging demand for stocks which is negative when changes in volatility are instantaneously negatively correlated with excess stock returns and investors have coefficients of relative risk aversion larger than one. The absolute size of this demand increases with the size of this correlation, and also with the persistence of shocks to volatility. An application to the US stock market shows that empirically this correlation is negative and large, which implies a negative hedging demand for stocks. This application also shows that only low frequency shocks to volatility exhibit enough persistence to generate sizable hedging demands by long-term, risk averse investors. A comparative statics exercise shows that the size of hedging demands is considerably more sensitive to changes in persistence than to changes in correlation
Foreign currency for long-term investors by John Y Campbell( Book )
18 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 75 libraries worldwide
Conventional wisdom holds that conservative investors should avoid exposure to foreign currency risk. Even if they hold foreign equities, they should hedge the currency exposure of these positions and should hold only domestic Treasury bills. This paper argues that the conventional wisdom may be wrong for long-term investors. Domestic bills are risky for long-term investors, because real interest rates vary over time and bills must be rolled over at uncertain future interest rates. This risk can be hedged by holding foreign currency if the domestic currency tends to depreciate when the domestic real interest rate falls, as implied by the theory of uncovered interest parity. Empirically this effect is important and can lead conservative long-term investors to hold more than half their wealth in foreign currency
Consumption and portfolio decisions when expected returns are time varying by John Y Campbell( Book )
18 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 73 libraries worldwide
Abstract: This paper proposes and implements a new approach to a classic unsolved problem in financial economics: the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem of a long-lived investor facing time-varying investment opportunities. The investor is assumed to be infinitely-lived, to have recursive Epstein-Zin-Weil utility, and to choose in discrete time between a riskless asset with a constant return, and a risky asset with constant return variance whose expected log return follows and AR(1) process. The paper approximates the choice problem by log-linearizing the budget constraint and Euler equations, and derives an analytical solution to the approximate problem. When the model is calibrated to US stock market data it implies that intertemporal hedging motives greatly increase, and may even double, the average demand for stocks by investors whose risk-aversion coefficients exceed one
Optimal portfolio choice for long-horizon investors with nontradable labor income by Luis M Viceira( Book )
11 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 58 libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes optimal portfolio decisions of long-horizon investors with undiversifiable labor income risk and exogenous expected retirement and lifetime horizons. It shows that the fraction of savings optimally invested in stocks is unambiguously larger for employed investors than for retired investors when labor income risk is uncorrelated with stock return risk. This result provides support for the popular recommendation by investment advisors that employed investors should invest in stocks a larger proportion of their savings than retired investors. This paper also examines the effect of increasing labor income risk on savings and portfolio choice and finds that, when labor income risk is independent of stock market risk, a mean-preserving increases in the variance of labor income growth increases the investor's willingness to save and reduce her willingness to hold the risky asset in her portfolio. A sensible calibration of the model shows that savings are relatively more responsive to changes in labor income risk than portfolio demands. Positive correlation between labor income innovations and unexpected asset returns also reduces the investor's willingness to hold the risky asset, because of its poor properties as a hedge against unexpected declines in labor income. This paper also provides intuition on the peculiar form of optimal portfolio choice of very young investors predicted by the standard life-cycle model
The term structure of the risk-return tradeoff by John Y Campbell( Book )
16 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 51 libraries worldwide
Recent research in empirical finance has documented that expected excess returns on bonds and stocks, real interest rates, and risk shift over time in predictable ways. Furthermore, these shifts tend to persist over long periods of time. In this paper we propose an empirical model that is able to capture these complex dynamics, yet is simple to apply in practice, and we explore its implications for asset allocation. Changes in investment opportunities can alter the risk-return tradeoff of bonds, stocks, and cash across investment horizons, thus creating a term structure of the risk-return tradeoff.'' We show how to extract this term structure from our parsimonious model of return dynamics, and illustrate our approach using data from the U.S. stock and bond markets. We find that asset return predictability has important effects on the variance and correlation structure of returns on stocks, bonds and T-bills across investment horizons
Optimal value and growth tilts in long-horizon portfolios by Jakub W Jurek( Book )
18 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 43 libraries worldwide
We develop an analytical solution to the dynamic portfolio choice problem of an investor with power utility defined over wealth at a finite horizon who faces an investment opportunity set with time-varying risk premia, real interest rates and inflation. The variation in investment opportunities is captured by a flexible vector autoregressive parameterization, which readily accommodates a large number of assets and state variables. We find that the optimal dynamic portfolio strategy is an affine function of the vector of state variables describing investment opportunities, with coefficients that are a function of the investment horizon. We apply our method to the optimal portfolio choice problem of an investor who can choose between value and growth stock portfolios, and among these equity portfolios plus bills and bonds. For equity-only investors, the optimal mean allocation of short-horizon investors is heavily tilted away from growth stocks regardless of their risk aversion. However, the mean allocation to growth stocks increases dramatically with the investment horizon, implying that growth is less risky than value at long horizons for equity-only investors. By contrast, long-horizon conservative investors who have access to bills and bonds do not hold equities in their portfolio. These investors are concerned with interest rate risk, and empirically growth stocks are not particularly good hedges for bond returns. We also explore the welfare implications of adopting the optimal dynamic rebalancing strategy vis a vis other intuitive, but suboptimal, portfolio choice schemes and find significant welfare gains for all long-horizon investors
The excess burden of government indecision by Francisco J Gomes( Book )
11 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 34 libraries worldwide
Governments are known for procrastinating when it comes to resolving painful policy problems. Whatever the political motives for waiting to decide, procrastination distorts economic decisions relative to what would arise with early policy resolution. In so doing, it engenders excess burden. This paper posits, calibrates, and simulates a life cycle model with earnings, lifespan, investment return, and future policy uncertainty. It then measures the excess burden from delayed resolution of policy uncertainty. The first uncertain policy we consider concerns the level of future Social Security benefits. Specifically, we examine how an agent would respond to learning in advance whether she will experience a major Social Security benefit cut starting at age 65. We show that having to wait to learn materially affects consumption, saving, and portfolio decisions. It also reduces welfare. Indeed, we show that the excess burden of government indecision can, in this instance, range as high as 0.6 percent of the agent's economic resources. This is a significant distortion in of itself. It's also significant when compared to other distortions measured in the literature. The second uncertain policy we consider concerns marginal tax rates. We obtain similar results once we adjust for the impact of tax rates on income
Global currency hedging by John Y Campbell( Book )
14 editions published between 2007 and 2009 in English and held by 28 libraries worldwide
This paper considers the risk management problem of an investor who holds a diversified portfolio of global equities or bonds and chooses long or short positions in currencies to manage the risk of the total portfolio. Over the period 1975-2005, we find that a risk-minimizing global equity investor should short the Australian dollar, Canadian dollar, Japanese yen, and British pound but should hold long positions in the US dollar, the euro, and the Swiss franc. The resulting currency position tends to rise in value when equity markets fall. This strategy works well for investment horizons of one month to one year. In the past 15 years the risk-minimizing demand for the dollar appears to have weakened slightly, while demands for the euro and Swiss franc have strengthened. These changes may reflect the growing role for the euro as a reserve currency in the international financial system. The risk-minimizing currency strategy for a global bond investor is close to a full currency hedge, with a modest long position in the US dollar. Risk-reducing currencies have had lower average returns during our sample period, but the difference in average returns is smaller than would be implied by the global CAPM given the historical equity premium
Optimal life-cycle investing with flexible labor supply : a welfare analysis of life-cycle funds by Francisco J Gomes( Book )
10 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
We investigate optimal consumption, asset accumulation and portfolio decisions in a realistically calibrated life-cycle model with flexible labor supply. Our framework allows for wage rate uncertainly, variable labor supply, social security benefits and portfolio choice over safe bonds and risky equities. Our analysis reinforces prior findings that equities are the preferred asset for young households, with the optimal share of equities generally declining prior to retirement. However, variable labor materially alters pre-retirement portfolio choice by significantly raising optimal equity holdings. Using this model, we also investigate the welfare costs of constraining portfolio allocations over the life cycle to mimic popular default investment choices in defined-contribution pension plans, such as stable value funds, balanced funds, and life-cycle (or target date) funds. We find that life-cycle funds designed to match the risk tolerance and investment horizon of investors have small welfare costs. All other choices, including life-cycle funds which do not match investors' risk tolerance, can have substantial welfare costs
Inflation bets or deflation hedges : the changing risks of nominal bonds by John Y Campbell( Book )
12 editions published between 2008 and 2013 in English and held by 18 libraries worldwide
The covariance between US Treasury bond returns and stock returns has moved considerably over time. While it was slightly positive on average in the period 1953-2005, it was particularly high in the early 1980's and negative in the early 2000's. This paper specifies and estimates a model in which the nominal term structure of interest rates is driven by five state variables: the real interest rate, risk aversion, temporary and permanent components of expected inflation, and the covariance between nominal variables and the real economy. The last of these state variables enables the model to fit the changing covariance of bond and stock returns. Log nominal bond yields and term premia are quadratic in these state variables, with term premia determined mainly by the product of risk aversion and the nominal-real covariance. The concavity of the yield curve -- the level of intermediate-term bond yields, relative to the average of short- and long-term bond yields -- is a good proxy for the level of term premia. The nominal-real covariance has declined since the early 1980's, driving down term premia
Understanding inflation-indexed bond markets by John Y Campbell( Book )
9 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 14 libraries worldwide
This paper explores the history of inflation-indexed bond markets in the US and the UK. It documents a massive decline in long-term real interest rates from the 1990's until 2008, followed by a sudden spike in these rates during the financial crisis of 2008. Breakeven inflation rates, calculated from inflation- indexed and nominal government bond yields, stabilized until the fall of 2008, when they showed dramatic declines. The paper asks to what extent short-term real interest rates, bond risks, and liquidity explain the trends before 2008 and the unusual developments in the fall of 2008. Low inflation-indexed yields and high short-term volatility of inflation-indexed bond returns do not invalidate the basic case for these bonds, that they provide a safe asset for long-term investors. Governments should expect inflation-indexed bonds to be a relatively cheap form of debt financing going forward, even though they have offered high returns over the past decade
Monetary Policy Drivers of Bond and Equity Risks by John Y Campbell( Book )
11 editions published between 2013 and 2015 in English and held by 13 libraries worldwide
The exposure of US Treasury bonds to the stock market has moved considerably over time. While it was slightly positive on average in the period 1960-2011, it was unusually high in the 1980s and negative in the 2000s, a period during which Treasury bonds enabled investors to hedge macroeconomic risks. This paper explores the effects of monetary policy parameters and macroeconomic shocks on nominal bond risks, using a New Keynesian model with habit formation and discrete regime shifts in 1979 and 1997. The increase in bond risks after 1979 is attributed primarily to a shift in monetary policy towards a more anti-inflationary stance, while the more recent decrease in bond risks after 1997 is attributed primarily to a renewed emphasis on output stabilization and an increase in the persistence of monetary policy. Endogenous responses of bond risk premia amplify these effects of monetary policy on bond risks
An empirical decomposition of risk and liquidity in nominal and inflation-indexed government bonds by Carolin E Pflueger( Book )
8 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
This paper decomposes the excess return predictability in inflation-indexed and nominal government bonds into effects from liquidity, market segmentation, real interest rate risk and inflation risk. We estimate a large and variable liquidity premium in US Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) from the co-movement of breakeven inflation with liquidity proxies. The liquidity premium is around 70 basis points in normal times, but much larger during the early years of TIPS issuance and during the height of the financial crisis in 2008-2009. The liquidity premium explains the high excess returns on TIPS as compared to nominal Treasuries over the period 1999-2009. Liquidity-adjusted breakeven inflation appears stable, suggesting stable inflation expectations over our sample period. We find predictability in both inflation-indexed bond excess returns and in the spread between nominal and inflation-indexed bond excess returns even after adjusting for liquidity, providing evidence for both time-varying real interest rate risk premia and time-varying inflation risk premia. Liquidity appears uncorrelated with real interest rate and inflation risk premia. We test whether bond return predictability is due to segmentation between nominal and inflation-indexed bond markets but find no evidence in either the US or in the UK
Inflation-indexed bonds and the expectations hypothesis by Carolin Pflueger( Book )
8 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
This paper empirically analyzes the Expectations Hypothesis (EH) in inflation-indexed (or real) bonds and in nominal bonds in the US and in the UK. We strongly reject the EH in inflation-indexed bonds, and also confirm and update the existing evidence rejecting the EH in nominal bonds. This rejection implies that the risk premium on both real and nominal bonds varies predictably over time. We also find strong evidence that the spread between the nominal and the real bond risk premium, or the break-even inflation risk premium, also varies over time. We argue that the time variation in real bond risk premia mostly likely reflects both a changing real interest rate risk premium and a changing liquidity risk premium, and that the variability in the nominal bond risk premia reflects a changing inflation risk premium. We estimate significant time series variability in the magnitude and sign of bond risk premia
The euro as a reserve currency for global investors by Luis M Viceira( Book )
5 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 8 libraries worldwide
Strategic asset allocation in a continuous-time var model by John Y Campbell( Book )
5 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 5 libraries worldwide
This note derives an approximate solution to a continuous-time intertemporal portfolio and consumption choice problem. The problem is the continuous-time equivalent of the discrete-time problem studied by Campbell and Viceira (1999), in which the expected excess return on a risky asset follows an AR(1)process, while the riskless interest rate is constant. The note also shows how to obtain continuous-time parameters that are consistent with discrete-time econometric estimates. The continuous-time solution is numerically close to that of Campbell and Viceira and has the property that conservative long-term investors have a large positive intertemporal hedging demand for stocks
Bond risk, bond return volatility, and the term structure of interest rates by Luis M Viceira( Book )
3 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 4 libraries worldwide
This paper explores time variation in bond risk, as measured by the covariation of bond returns with stock returns and with consumption growth, and in the volatility of bond returns. A robust stylized fact in empirical finance is that the spread between the yield on long-term bonds and short-term bonds forecasts positively future excess returns on bonds at varying horizons, and that the short-term nominal interest rate forecasts positively stock return volatility and exchange rate volatility. This paper presents evidence that movements in both the short-term nominal interest rate and the yield spread are positively related to changes in subsequent realized bond risk and bond return volatility. The yield spread appears to proxy for business conditions, while the short rate appears to proxy for inflation and economic uncertainty. A decomposition of bond betas into a real cash flow risk component, and a discount rate risk component shows that yield spreads have offsetting effects in each component. A widening yield spread is correlated with reduced cash-flow (or inflationary) risk for bonds, but it is also correlated with larger discount rate risk for bonds. The short rate forecasts only the discount rate component of bond beta
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Alternative Names
Luis M. Viceira economist (Harvard University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER))
Luis M. Viceira Wirtschaftswissenschaftler/in (Harvard University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER))
Viceira, L. M.
Viciera, Luis M.
ビセイラ, ルイス・M
English (280)
Chinese (1)
Japanese (1)
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