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Argonne National Lab

Works: 13,875 works in 14,751 publications in 1 language and 58,086 library holdings
Roles: Researcher, Sponsor
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Publications about Argonne National Lab
Publications by Argonne National Lab
Most widely held works by Argonne National Lab
Design and fabrication of high density uranium dispersion fuels ( file )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Twelve different uranium alloys and compounds with uranium densities greater than 13.8 g/cc were fabricated into fuel plates. Sixty-four experimental fuel plates, referred to as microplates, with overall dimensions of 76.2 mm x 22.2 mm x 1.3 mm and elliptical fuel zone of nominal dimensions of 51 mm x 9.5 mm, began irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor on August 23, 1997. The fuel test matrix consists of machined or comminuted (compositions are in weight%) U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6 Ru, 10Mo-0.05Sn, U₂Mo and U₃Si₂(as a control). The low enriched (²³⁵U <20%) fuel materials were cast, powdered, mixed with aluminum dispersant at a volume ratio of 1:3, compacted and hot rolled to form the microplates. Spherical atomized powders of two fuels, U-10Mo and U₃Si₂, were utilized to make microplates and included in the irradiation test as well. The experimental design and fabrication steps employed in the selection and production of the fueled microplates is discussed
The RERTR Program a status report ( file )
5 editions published between 1991 and 1998 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The past, present and future of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program are discussed with an emphasis on some of the reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics codes and modelling required to accommodate research and test reactor analysis, and some of the development work still in progress is described. Some comparisons with physical measurements and Monte Carlo are provided. The efforts in fuels development and the experimental support are summarized. The accomplishments in joint study programs and the transfer of technology are high lighted. The joint study with the Russian reduced enrichment program presents many new challenges
Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs ( file )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area
An examination of utility emissions contributions to elevated ozone concentrations in the Chicago area ( file )
3 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
In order to reduce the pollutant load to the atmosphere and subsequent damaging effects, Titles I and IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAAs) require reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen oxides (NO(subscript x)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Title IV is aimed at reducing acidic deposition and requires utilities to reduce SO₂ and NO(subscript x) emissions to specified levels. As a consequence of this, many utilities will have to install SO₂ and NO(subscript x) control technologies. Title I is concerned with bringing regions into compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the criteria pollutants, among which is ozone (O₃). The NAAQS for O₃ is 120 ppb (parts per billion by volume) hourly average concentration, not to be exceeded four times in three years. O₃ is a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when NO(subscript x) and VOCs react together in the presence of sunlight. Utilities are a significant source of NO(subscript x) and an unimportant source of VOCs. In the past, O₃ control strategy has focused on reducing VOC emissions because of the possibility that reducing NO(subscript x) actually might make O₃ concentrations higher. However, this approach has not worked, perhaps because of underestimation of natural and manmade VOC emissions and transport of O₃ from other regions. Computer modeling has shown that for many highly polluted areas massive NO(subscript x) reductions may be necessary in addition to or in place of VOC controls. Utilities are a potential source of these NO(subscript x) reductions
Modeling the effects of uncertainty on fear of nuclear waste Differences among science, business and environmental group members ( file )
3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
This paper analyzes the relationships between the subjective assessment of riskiness of managing nuclear waste and the level of certainty regarding the assessment. Uncertainty can be operationalized in two ways. The direct approach asks a person to assess their own subjective beliefs about a potential hazard. The indirect approach assesses how readily an individual will change his or her beliefs when confronted with new information that conflicts with prior beliefs. This paper tests for the relationships between these two distinct operationalizations of uncertainty and overall assessments of the risks posed by radioactive wastes. First we analyze the relationships between stated levels of uncertainty about the effects of radiation on the level of perceived risks from radioactive wastes. Second, we assess the linkage between willingness to alter prior beliefs about the risks of radioactive wastes in response to new information provided by ''a neutral source'' (or responsiveness of beliefs) and uncertainty. Using data taken from random mail surveys of members of scientific, business, and environmental groups in Colorado and New Mexico in the summer of 1990, we test hypotheses that (a) greater uncertainty is associated with greater perceived risks, and (b) greater responsiveness of beliefs to new information is associated with greater uncertainty. The import of these hypotheses concerns the dynamics of uncertainty in controversial technical policy issues, wherein perceived risks are a primary ingredient in policy positions taken by participants in policy disputes
Structural concerns in dynamic drop loads on transfer lock mechanisms ( file )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Drop loads are usually low probability events that can generate substantial loading to the impacted structures. When the impacted structure contains slender elements, the concern about dynamic buckling must be addressed. The problem of interest here is a structure is also under significant preload, which must be taken into account in the transient analysis. For complex structures, numerical simulations are the only viable option for assessing the transient response to short duration impactive loads. this paper addresses several analysis issues of preloaded structures with slender members subjected to drop loads. A three-dimensional beam element is validated for use in dynamic buckling analysis. the numerical algorithm used to solve the transient response of preloaded structures is discussed. The methodology is applied to an inter-compartment lock that is under significant preloads, and subjected to a drop load
Ice slurry cooling development and field testing ( file )
2 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years
High resolution monochromator for inelastic scattering studies of high energy phonons using undulator radiation at the advanced photon source ( file )
5 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
A number of different applications for high resolution Bragg Focusing Optics are reviewed. Applications include Sagittal Focusing, Energy Dispersive optics for x-ray absorption and diffraction, a curved analyzer-multichannel detector method for efficient acquisition of powder and small angle scattering data, the use of Backscattering Analyzers for very high resolution inelastic scattering, and curved crystals for high energy applications
Magnetic excitations in antiferromagnetically coupled superlattices Fe/Mo and Fe/Cr ( file )
2 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Here we report the results of a Brillouin light scattering (BLS) study of magnetic excitations in antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled Fe/Mo and Fe/Cr superlattices. This technique, already been applied to AF coupled tri-layer films shows that these systems reflect coupling (ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic) between ferromagnetic layers. However since in ordinary magnetic superlattices, new collective modes exist resulting from dipolar coupling of the ferromagnetic layers, it could be expected that these new antiferromagnetic systems will also show novel behaviour. In this manuscript, only the magnetization and BLS results are presented and discussed
Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of uranium silicides ( file )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The aggregation of di(2ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids and their complexes with various metal cations at different concentrations in toluene has been studied in detail using Small Angle Neutron Scattering. The diphosphonic acids are being employed as novel solvent extraction reagents in the Chemistry Division of ANL. These compounds exhibit extraordinarily strong affinity for actinide ions and for Fe(III). The growth of large metal-diphosphonate aggregates depends on the metal species, metal to extractant ratio, and the length of the carbon bridge between the two acid groups. Fe(III) complexes with the methane and butane (but not the ethane) bridged diphosphonic acid aggregate to form large polymeric rods at high metal to extractant ratios. Actinide ions likewise give large aggregates with di(2ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid. Ca{sup 2+} and La{sup 3+} show only the usual formation of small 'monomeric' chelates
Factors influencing chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses ( file )
2 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
A short summary is given of our studies on the major factors that affect the chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses. These factors include glass composition, solution composition, SA/V (ratio of glass surface area to the volume of solution), radiation, and colloidal formation. These investigations have enabled us to gain a better understanding of the chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses and to accumulate.a data base for modeling the long-term durability of waste glass, which will be used in the risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal. This knowledge gained also enhances our ability to formulate optimal waste glass compositions
Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H₂O) system for a fusion material test facility ( file )
2 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations for light nuclei ( file )
3 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground and low-lying excited states for nuclei with A (less-than or equal to) 8 have been made using a realistic Hamiltonian that fits NN scattering data. Results for more than two dozen different (J{sup {pi}}, T) p-shell states, not counting isobaric analogs, have been obtained. The known excitation spectra of all the nuclei are reproduced reasonably well. Density and momentum distributions and various electromagnetic moments and form factors have also been computed. These are the first microscopic calculations that directly produce nuclear shell structure from realistic NN interactions
Diamond monochromator for high heat flux synchrotron x-ray beams ( file )
3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Single crystal silicon has been the material of choice for x-ray monochromators for the past several decades. However, the need for suitable monochromators to handle the high heat load of the next generation synchrotron x-ray beams on the one hand and the rapid and on-going advances in synthetic diamond technology on the other make a compelling case for the consideration of a diamond mollochromator system. In this Paper, we consider various aspects, advantage and disadvantages, and promises and pitfalls of such a system and evaluate the comparative an monochromator subjected to the high heat load of the most powerful x-ray beam that will become available in the next few years. The results of experiments performed to evaluate the diffraction properties of a currently available synthetic single crystal diamond are also presented. Fabrication of diamond-based monochromator is within present technical means
Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems ( file )
5 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Risk assessment has become an increasingly important and essential tool in support of Federal decision-making regarding the handling, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This paper analyzes the current statutory and regulatory framework and related legal precedents with regard to SNF and HLW transportation. The authors identify key scientific and technical issues regarding the use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal decision-making regarding anticipated shipments
Run - Beyond - Cladding - Breach (RBCB) test results for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metallic fuels program ( file )
6 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Simple methods are described for bounding the passive response of a metal fueled liquid-metal cooled reactor to the chilled inlet accident. Calculation of these bounds for a prototype of the Integral Fast Reactor concept shows that failure limits -- eutectic melting, sodium boiling and fuel pin failure -- are not exceeded. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Elastic modulus calculations from load ( file )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The National Academy of Sciences recommended dissolution in a silicate matrix, with fission products to provide a protective radiation field, as one option for dispositioning excess weapons-grade plutonium. Candidate materials and processing conditions have been developed to pursue this option using high-level waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Devitrification of glassy host materials achieves increased plutonium loading by partitioning plutonium into durable crystalline host phases. Results of devitrification experiments are summarized, and several unique plutonium host phases are reported. These phases were initially synthesized and characterized using cerium as a plutonium surrogate, to simplify operational requirements. Tests using plutonium were performed to validate results obtained with surrogate materials. Characterization and leach test results are reported
A strategy for minimizing common mode human error in executing critical functions and tasks ( file )
2 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Human error in execution of critical functions and tasks can be costly. The Three Mile Island and the Chernobyl Accidents are examples of results from human error in the nuclear industry. There are similar errors that could no doubt be cited from other industries. This paper discusses a strategy to minimize common mode human error in the execution of critical functions and tasks. The strategy consists of the use of human redundancy, and also diversity in human cognitive behavior: skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior. The authors contend that the use of diversity in human cognitive behavior is possible, and it minimizes common mode error
Code validation with EBR-II test data ( file )
3 editions published between 1991 and 1992 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
An extensive system of computer codes is used at Argonne National Laboratory to analyze whole-plant transient behavior of the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2. Three of these codes, NATDEMO/HOTCHAN, SASSYS, and DSNP have been validated with data from reactor transient tests. The validated codes are the foundation of safety analyses and pretest predictions for the continuing design improvements and experimental programs in EBR-II, and are also valuable tools for the analysis of innovative reactor designs
Synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic lubricants on boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics ( file )
2 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
In a study seeking to achieve low friction and low wear on ceramic materials, we investigated a new lubrication concept that explores the synergistic effect of a silver film and a recently developed synthetic oil on the boundary lubrication behavior of silicon nitride (Si₃N₄) ceramics. Friction and wear tests were performed on a wear test machine at temperatures up to 380°C. Under the test conditions explored, we found that the friction coefficients of Si₃N₄/Si₃N₄ test pairs during oil-lubricated sliding tests ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, and the average wear rates of ceramic pins were between 3 x 10⁻⁷ and 10⁻⁶ mm³ N⁻¹ m⁻¹, depending on test temperature. Concurrent use of lubricant oil with a silver film had a synergistic effect on both friction and wear. When silver films are used at oil-lubricated sliding interfaces, wear rates of both pins and flats were reduced to unmeasurable levels and the friction coefficients were reduced by factors of two to ten below those of the test pairs without silver films. Beneficial synergistic effects of silver films and synthetic oil on the boundary-lubrication behavior of ceramics were more pronounced at elevated test temperatures than at room temperature
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