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Argonne National Lab

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Works: 13,756 works in 14,753 publications in 1 language and 39,016 library holdings
Roles: Researcher, Sponsor
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Publications about Argonne National Lab
Publications by Argonne National Lab
Most widely held works by Argonne National Lab
Realtime tune measurements in slow-cycling accelerators ( Computer File )
23 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 92 libraries worldwide
The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS's design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience
Effect of the Keck telescope's segmented primary on the performance on the Keck adaptive optics system ( Computer File )
8 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities) is a graphical user interface (GUI) created to execute several computer programs that calculate the basic information needed by a synchrotron beamline scientist (designer or experimentalist). Typical examples of such calculations are: insertion device (undulator or wiggler) spectral and angular distributions, mirror and multilayer reflectivities, and crystal diffraction profiles. All programs are provided to the user under a unified GUI, which greatly simplifies their execution. The XOP optics applications (especially mirror calculations) take their basic input (optical constants, compound and mixture tables) from a flexible file-oriented database, which allows the users to select data from a large number of choices and also to customize their own data sets. XOP includes many mathematical and visualization capabilities. It also permits the combination of reflectivities from several mirrors and filters, and their effect, onto a source spectrum. This feature is very useful when calculating thermal load on a series of optical elements. The XOP interface is written in the IDL (Interactive Data Language). An embedded version of XOP, which freely runs under most Unix platforms (HP, Sun, Dec, Linux, etc) and under Windows95 and NT, is available upon request
Nature of the Triple Point in Chromium Alloys Mode-Softening of the Incommensurate Spin Density Wave ( Computer File )
7 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 28 libraries worldwide
Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction studies of incrementally neutron-irradiated U₃Si and U₃Si₂ have revealed details of progressive amorphization of bulk materials, crystalline transformation prior to amorphization, elastic strain and diffuse scattering resulting from scattering interference between crystalline and amorphous fractions. Density differences between amorphous and crystalline fractions give rise, respectively, to tensile and compressive strain in U₃Si and U₃Si₂. Diffuse scattering associated with each Bragg peak shows crystallographic direction-dependent variation both in magnitude and displacement (relative to the Bragg position). A theoretical model describing this behavior relates the size of the amorphous zones, and the magnitude and displacement of the diffuse scattering contribution. After complete amorphization of U₃Si and U₃Si₂, anneals to progressively higher temperatures generate gradual evolution of the short- to intermediate-range amorphous structures prior to re-crystallization
Security preparation for receipt of SNF from the FRR to the INEEL ( Computer File )
6 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
Twelve different uranium alloys and compounds with uranium densities greater than 13.8 g/cc were fabricated into fuel plates. Sixty-four experimental fuel plates, referred to as microplates, with overall dimensions of 76.2 mm x 22.2 mm x 1.3 mm and elliptical fuel zone of nominal dimensions of 51 mm x 9.5 mm, began irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor on August 23, 1997. The fuel test matrix consists of machined or comminuted (compositions are in weight %) U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U6Mo-0.6 Ru, U-10Mo-0.05Sn, U₂Mo and U₃Si₂ (as a control). The low enriched (²³⁵U <20%) fuel materials were cast, powdered, mixed with aluminum dispersant at a volume ratio of 1:3, compacted and hot rolled to form the microplates. Spherical atomized powders of two fuels, U-10Mo and U₃Si₂, were utilized to make microplates and included in the irradiation test as well. The experimental design and fabrication steps employed in the selection and production of the fueled microplates is discussed
An ultrasonic instrument for measuring density and viscosity of tank waste ( Computer File )
6 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 24 libraries worldwide
An attractive approach to decreasing the probability of actinide migration in the subsurface is to transform the ions into less mobile forms by remote treatment. The process described herein relies on a polyfunctional organophosphorus complexant to sequester the mobile metal ions by complexation/cation exchange in the near term. The cation exchanger is designed to subsequently decompose, transforming the actinides into insoluble phosphate mineral forms as the medium of stable long-term isolation. This material can be generated in situ in the subsurface thus eliminating the need for excavation to immobilize the actinide ions. Previous investigations have identified a suitable organophosphorus reagent and profiled its decomposition kinetics, verified the formation of phosphate mineral phases upon decomposition of the reagent, determined solubility limits for appropriate metal phosphates under groundwater conditions, and examined the cation exchange behavior of the calcium salt of the organophosphorus reagent. In this report, the focus is on a laboratory-scale demonstration of the concept using a soil sample from the Fernald Environmental Management Plant
Biotreatment of produced waters for volume reduction and contaminant removal ( Computer File )
5 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 20 libraries worldwide
The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area
Design and performance of low-wattage electrical heater probe ( Computer File )
5 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 20 libraries worldwide
We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs
Probing high density plasmas with soft x-ray lasers ( Computer File )
5 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 20 libraries worldwide
X-ray optical elements (such as single-crystal silicon monochromators) illuminated with high-power synchrotron-radiation beams produced by insertion devices and, to a lesser extent bending magnets, require cooling, When operating a silicon crystal at room temperature, channels for the coolant are often fabricated directly beneath the diffracting surface. Then a separate silicon distribution manifold/plenum is manufactured, and the components are bonded together using an adhesive or some intermediate material. In many cases, such monochromators suffer from strains induced by the bond. A silicon-to-silicon direct-bonding technique (i.e., without any intermediate material) has been developed that appears to be an attractive method for creating a bond with less strain between two pieces of silicon. This technique is well understood for the case of thin wafers ((approximately)0.5 mm thickness) and is used by the semiconductor industry. Recently, bonding of 16-mm-thick 10-cm-diameter silicon crystals has been successfully performed inducing very little strain. A short review of the silicon-to-silicon crystals has been successfully performed inducing very little strain. A short review of the silicon-to-silicon direct-bonding process will be presented with an emphasis on its application to room temperature high-heat-load x-ray optics with the present status of direct bonding efforts at the APS
XOP Recent developments ( Computer File )
4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities) is a graphical user interface (GUI) to run computer programs which calculate basic information needed by synchrotron radiation beamline scientists and engineers. It can also be used as a front-end for specific codes or packages for data analysis and data reduction (XAFS, surface crystallography, etc.). XOP contains a customized database for optical and atomic constants. It has a flexible design and new applications may be added. The capabilities of XOP including those related to simulations of crystal diffraction profiles and multilayer reflectivities are summarized. The authors discuss the most recent developments which have been included in the XOP version 2.0. A few other examples of typical calculations are: insertion device (undulator and wiggler) spectra and angular distributions, mirror and multilayer reflectivities, and crystal diffraction profiles. The computer programs are executed and the results are analyzed within the GUI which make them fast and easy to use. The XOP interface is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) from Research Systems Inc., and it runs on the Unix (HP, Sun, Linux, DEC-Alpha, and Silicon Graphics), and on the Windows 95/NT operating systems. It has been built with an IDL license embedded and is available under some limited conditions free of charge from the authors
Measurement of diffraction gratings with a long trace profiler with applications for synchrotron beamline gratings ( Computer File )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure
Plastic flow in FCC metals induced by single-ion impacts ( Computer File )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
Irradiation of Au and Pb foils with Xe ions at temperatures between 30 and 450 K has been monitored using in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Single ion impacts give rise to surface craters on the irradiated surface with sizes as large as 12 nm. Approximately 2--5% of impinging ions produce craters on Au while only about 0.6% produce craters on Pb. Larger craters on Au frequently have expelled material associated with them. Temporal details of crater formation and annihilation has been recorded on video with a time-resolution of 33 milliseconds. Craters annihilate in discrete steps due to subsequent ion impacts or anneal in a continuous manner due to surface diffusion. Craters production (those persisting for one or more video-frames) as a function of temperature indicates that the surface diffusion process responsible for thermal annealing of craters has an activation energy of 0.76 eV in Au. Crater creation results from plastic flow associated with near surface cascades. Crater annihilation in discrete steps results from plastic flow induced by subsequent ion impacts, including those that do not themselves produce a crater
Development of ceramic superconductors for electric power applications ( Computer File )
4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
The U.S. Department of Energy supports an applied superconductivity program entitled {open_quotes}Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems.{close_quotes} Activities under this program are designed to help develop the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) technology that is needed for industry to proceed with the commercial development of electric power applications. Research is conducted in three categories: wire development, systems technology development, and Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI). Wire development activities are devoted to improving the critical current density (J{sub c}) of short-length HTS wire, whereas activities in systems technology development focus on fabrication of long-length wires, coils, and magnets. Finally, SPI activities focus on the development of prototypes that consist of a generator coil, a fault current limiter, a transmission cable, and a motor. A current overview and recent progress in the development of HTSs are outlined in this paper. 48 refs., 6 figs
Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects
Problem decomposition and domain-based parallelism via group theoretic principles ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
Roughly 3 years ago work on Argonne's Integral Fast Reactor ({open_quotes}IFR{close_quotes}) was terminated and at that time, ANL funding was redirected to a number of alternative programs. One such alternative was waste management and, since disposal of spent fuel from ANL's EBR-II reactor presents some special problems, this seemed an appropriate area for ANL work. Methods for the treatment and disposal of spent fuel (particularly from EBR-II but also from other sources) are now under very active investigation at ANL. The very large waste form development program is mainly experimental at this point, but within the Reactor Analysis ({open_quotes}RA{close_quotes}) Division a small computational chemistry program is underway, designed to supplement the experimental program. One of the most popular proposals for the treatment of much of our high-level wastes is vitrification. As noted below, this approach has serious drawbacks for EBR-II spent fuel. ANL has proposed, instead, that spent fuel first be pretreated by a special metallurgical process which produces, as waste, chloride salts of the various fission products; these salts would then be adsorbed in zeolite A, which is subsequently bonded with glass to produce a waste form suitable for disposal. So far it has been the main mission of RA's computational chemistry program to study the process by which leaching occurs when the glass-bonded zeolite waste form is exposed to water. It is the purpose of this paper to describe RA's computational chemistry program, to discuss the computational techniques involved in such a program, and in general to familiarize the M. and C. Division with a computational area which is probably unfamiliar to most of its member. 11 refs., 2 figs
Critical current density and dissipation in sintered YBCO filaments ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
The high energy physics experiment known as the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), which is intended for the study of neutrinos, will incorporate a large particle detector system. The detector employs an analyzing magnetic field generated by magnetizing an array of steel plates, called absorbers, with a current-carrying coil. We have evaluated the feasibility of a high-temperature superconductor coil system that provides a 25,000 A-turn magnetizing force. An equivalent conventional coil system (i.e., water-cooled copper) was also designed for comparison
Transient heat transfer program for glovebox process vessels ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
A glovebox was designed and fabricated to house test containers loaded with contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. The test containers were designed to simulate the environmental characteristics of the caverns at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The support and control systems used to operate and maintain the Gas Generation Experiment (GGE) include the following: glovebox atmosphere and pressure control, test container support, glovebox operation support, and gas supply and exhaust systems. The glovebox atmosphere and pressure control systems consist of various components used to control both the pressure and quality of the argon atmosphere inside the glovebox. The glovebox pressure is maintained by three separate pressure control systems. The primary pressure control system is designed to maintain the glovebox at a negative pressure with the other two control systems serving as redundant safety backups. The quality of the argon atmosphere is controlled using a purifying bed system that removes oxygen and moisture. Glovebox atmosphere contaminants that are monitored on a continuous or periodic basis include moisture, oxygen, and nitrogen. The gas generation experiment requires the test containers to be filled with brine, leak tested, maintained at a constant temperature, and the gas head space of the test container sampled on a periodic basis. Test container support systems consisting of a brine addition system, leak test system, heating system, and gas sampling system were designed and implemented. A rupture disk system was constructed to provide pressure relief to the test containers. Operational requirements stipulated that test container temperature and pressure be monitored and collected on a continuous basis. A data acquisition system (DAS) was specifically designed to meet these requirements
An overview of the APS 352-MHz rf systems ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
A switching control system has been designed and built to provide the capability of rapidly switching the waveguide and low-level cabling between different klystrons to operate the Advanced Photon Source storage ring in the event of a failure of a klystron system or to perform necessary repairs and preventative maintenance. The twelve possible modes of operation allow for complete redundancy of the booster synchrotron rf system and either a maximum of two storage ring rf systems to be completely off-line or one system to be used as a power source for an rf test stand. A programmable controller is used to send commands to intermediate control panels which interface to WR2300 waveguide switches and phase shifters, rf cavity interlock and low-level rf distribution systems, and klystron power supply controls for rapid reconfiguration of the rf systems in response to a mode-selection command. Mode selection is a local manual operation using a keyswitch arrangement which prevents more than one mode from being selected at a time. The programmable controller also monitors for hardware malfunction and guards against {open_quotes}hot-switching{close_quotes} of the rf systems. The rf switching controls system is monitored via the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for remote system status check
Design and development of a bipolar power supply for APS storage ring correctors ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
The Advanced Photon Source (APS) requires a number of correction magnets. Basically, two different types of bipolar power supplies (BPS) will be used for all the correction magnets. One requires dc correction only, and the other requires dc and ac correction. For the storage ring horizontal/vertical (H/V) correctors, the BPS should be able to supply dc and ac current. This paper describes the design aspects and considerations for a bipolar power supply for the APS storage ring H/V correctors
Derivation of criticality safety benchmarks from ZPR fast critical assemblies ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
Scores of critical assemblies were constructed, over a period of about three decades, at the Argonne National Laboratory ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9, and ZPPR fast critical assembly facilities. Most of the assemblies were mockups of various liquid-metal fast breeder reactor designs. These tended to be complex, containing, for example, mockups of control rods and control rod positions. Some assemblies, however, were 'physics benchmarks'. These relatively 'clean' assemblies had uniform compositions and simple geometry and were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods. Assemblies in this last category are well suited to form the basis for new criticality safety benchmarks. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of some of these benchmark candidates and to describe the strategy being used to create the benchmarks
MOCVD capacitors ( Computer File )
3 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has, for many years, been engaged in battery-related R and D programs for DOE and the transportation industry. In particular, from 1973 to 1995, ANL played a pioneering role in the technological development of the high-temperature (400 C) lithium-iron disulfide battery. With the emphasis of battery research moving away from high temperature systems toward ambient temperature lithium-based systems for the longer term, ANL has redirected its efforts toward the development of a lithium-polymer battery (60--80 C operation) and room temperature systems based on lithium-ion technologies. ANL's lithium-polymer battery program is supported by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), 3M and Hydro-Quebec, and the lithium-ion battery R and D efforts by US industry and by DOE
 
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