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National Bureau of Economic Research

Works: 19,072 works in 29,746 publications in 1 language and 50,919 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  Periodicals  Case studies  History 
Roles: Other, Publisher, Editor, Organizer of meeting
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
Publication Timeline
Publications about National Bureau of Economic Research
Publications by National Bureau of Economic Research
Most widely held works about National Bureau of Economic Research
Most widely held works by National Bureau of Economic Research
Corporate takeovers : causes and consequences by Alan J Auerbach( Book )
11 editions published between 1988 and 1991 in English and held by 857 libraries worldwide
The takeover boom that began in the mid-1980s has exhibited many phenomena not previously observed, such as hostile takeovers and takeover defenses, a widespread use of cash as a means of payment for targeted firms, and the acquisitions of companies ranking among the largest in the country. With the aim of more fully understanding the implications of such occurances, contributors to this volume consider a broad range of issues as they analyze mergers and acquisitions and study the takeoveer process itself
Technical working paper by National Bureau of Economic Research( file )
in English and held by 77 libraries worldwide
Frontiers in health policy research ( file )
in English and held by 49 libraries worldwide
Exchange rate targets and currency bands by Paul R Krugman( Book )
7 editions published between 1992 and 1994 in English and held by 45 libraries worldwide
"Contains most of the papers presented at the conference on exchange rate targets and currency bands organized jointly by the Centre for Economic Policy Research and the National Bureau of Economic Research and held at the University of Warwick on 9-11 July, 1990"--Preface
NBER reporter by National Bureau of Economic Research( serial )
in English and held by 43 libraries worldwide
The effect of conviction on income through the life cycle by Daniel Nagin( Book )
4 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
Existing studies of the impact of conviction on income and employment do not consider life cycle issues. We postulate that conviction reduces access to career jobs offering stable, long-term employment. Instead, conviction relegates offenders to spot market jobs, which may have higher pay at the outset of the career but do not offer stable employment or rapidly rising wages. Thus, first-time conviction may increase the wages of young workers while decreasing the wages of older workers. We test our theory with data on federal offenders and find that first-time conviction has a positive and significant effect on income for offenders under age 25 and an increasingly negative and significant impact for offenders over age 30. These results imply that the present value of income lost as a result of conviction varies over the life cycle, reaching a maximum in the middle of the career. We find that the gains sought by these offenders follow similar profiles, suggesting that prospective offenders are deterred by the possibility of lost future income. Because the discounted loss in future income facing young offenders may be small, our results may provide part of an explanation of youth crime
Foreign tax policies and economic growth : a conference report of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Brookings Institution by National Bureau of Economic Research( Book )
7 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 41 libraries worldwide
Conditional cash transfers in education design features, peer and sibling effects evidence from a randomized experiment in Colombia by Felipe Barrera Osorio( file )
2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"We evaluate multiple variants of a commonly used intervention to boost education in developing countries -- the conditional cash transfer (CCT) -- with a student level randomization that allows us to generate intra-family and peer-network variation. We test three treatments: a basic CCT treatment based on school attendance, a savings treatment that postpones a bulk of the cash transfer due to good attendance to just before children have to reenroll, and a tertiary treatment where some of the transfers are conditional on students' graduation and tertiary enrollment rather than attendance. On average, the combined incentives increase attendance, pass rates, enrollment, graduation rates, and matriculation to tertiary institutions. Changing the timing of the payments does not change attendance rates relative to the basic treatment but does significantly increase enrollment rates at both the secondary and tertiary levels. Incentives for graduation and matriculation are particularly effective, increasing attendance and enrollment at secondary and tertiary levels more than the basic treatment. We find some evidence that the subsidies can cause a reallocation of responsibilities within the household. Siblings (particularly sisters) of treated students work more and attend school less than students in families that received no treatment. We also find that indirect peer influences are relatively strong in attendance decisions with the average magnitude similar to that of the direct effect"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Trade policy, income risk, and welfare by Tom Krebs( file )
2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"This paper studies empirically the relationship between trade policy and individual income risk faced by workers, and uses the estimates of this empirical analysis to evaluate the welfare effect of trade reform. The analysis proceeds in three steps. First, longitudinal data on workers are used to estimate time-varying individual income risk parameters in various manufacturing sectors. Second, the estimated income risk parameters and data on trade barriers are used to analyze the relationship between trade policy and income risk. Finally, a simple dynamic incomplete-market model is used to assess the corresponding welfare costs. In the implementation of this methodology using Mexican data, we find that trade policy changes have a significant short run effect on income risk. Further, while the tariff level has an insignificant mean effect, it nevertheless changes the degree to which macroeconomic shocks affect income risk"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Financial development and growth in the short and long run by Raymond Fisman( file )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"We analyze the relationship between financial development and inter-industry resource allocation in the short- and long-run. We suggest that in the long-run, economies with high rates of financial development will devote relatively more resources to industries with a 'natural' reliance on outside finance due to a comparative advantage in these industries. By contrast, in the short-run we argue that financial development facilitates the reallocation of resources to industries with good growth opportunities, regardless of their reliance on outside finance. To test these predictions, we use a measure of industry-level 'technological' financial dependence based on the earlier work of Rajan and Zingales (1998), and develop new proxies for shocks to (short run) industry growth opportunities. We find differential effects of these measures on industry growth and composition in countries with different levels of financial development. We obtain results that are consistent with financially developed economies specializing in 'financially dependent' industries in the long-run, and allocating resources to industries with high growth opportunities in the short-run"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Realizing the gains from trade export crops, marketing costs, and poverty by Jorge F Balat( file )
2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"This paper explores the role of export costs in the process of poverty reduction in rural Africa. We claim that the marketing costs that emerge when the commercialization of export crops requires intermediaries can lead to lower participation into export cropping and, thus, to higher poverty. We test the model using data from the Uganda National Household Survey. We show that: i) farmers living in villages with fewer outlets for sales of agricultural exports are likely to be poorer than farmers residing in market-endowed villages; ii) market availability leads to increased household participation in export cropping (coffee, tea, cotton, fruits); iii) households engaged in export cropping are less likely to be poor than subsistence-based households. We conclude that the availability of markets for agricultural export crops help realize the gains from trade. This result uncovers the role of complementary factors that provide market access and reduce marketing costs as key building blocks in the link between the gains from export opportunities and the poor"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Business environment and firm entry evidence from international data by Leora Klapper( file )
1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"Using a comprehensive database of firms in Western and Eastern Europe, we study how the business environment in a country drives the creation of new firms. Our focus is on regulations governing entry. We find entry regulations hamper entry, especially in industries that naturally should have high entry. Also, value added per employee in naturally "high entry" industries grows more slowly in countries with onerous regulations on entry. Interestingly, regulatory entry barriers have no adverse effect on entry in corrupt countries, only in less corrupt ones. Taken together, the evidence suggests bureaucratic entry regulations are neither benign nor welfare improving. However, not all regulations inhibit entry. In particular, regulations that enhance the enforcement of intellectual property rights or those that lead to a better developed financial sector do lead to greater entry in industries that do more RetD or industries that need more external finance"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Big bad banks? the impact of u.s. branch deregulation on income distribution by Thorsten Beck( file )
2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"Policymakers and economists disagree about the impact of bank regulations on the distribution of income. Exploiting cross-state and cross-time variation, we test whether liberalizing restrictions on intra-state branching in the United States intensified, ameliorated, or had no effect on income distribution. We find that branch deregulation lowered income inequality. Deregulation lowered income inequality by affecting labor market conditions, not by boosting the business income of the poor, nor by enhancing educational attainment. Reductions in the earnings gap between men and women and between skilled and unskilled workers account for the bulk of the explained drop in income inequality"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Estimating real production and expenditures across nations a proposal for improving the Penn world tables by Robert C Feenstra( file )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"In this paper we propose a new approach to international comparisons of real GDP measured from the output-side. The traditional Geary-Khamis system to measure real GDP from the expenditure-side is modified to include differences in the terms of trade between countries. It is shown that this system has a strictly positive solution under mild assumptions. On the basis of a set of domestic final output, import and export prices and values for 14 European countries and the U.S. it is shown that differences between real GDP measured from the expenditure and output-side can be substantial, especially for small open economies"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Legal institutions and financial development by Thorsten Beck( file )
3 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"Why do some countries have growth-enhancing financial systems, while others do not? Why have some countries developed the necessary investor protection laws and contract-enforcement mechanisms to support financial institutions and markets, while others have not? This paper reviews existing research on the role of legal institutions in shaping financial development"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Measuring ancient inequality by Branko Milanović( file )
2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life expectancies as unequal as they are today? For want of sufficient data, these questions have not yet been answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known as social tables, stretching from the Roman Empire 14 AD, to Byzantium in 1000, to England in 1688, to Nueva Espa' a around 1790, to China in 1880 and to British India in 1947. It applies two new concepts in making those assessments -- what we call the inequality possibility frontier and the inequality extraction ratio. Rather than simply offering measures of actual inequality, we compare the latter with the maximum feasible inequality (or surplus) that could have been extracted by the elite. The results, especially when compared with modern poor countries, give new insights in to the connection between inequality and economic development in the very long run"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Trade protection and industry wage structure in Poland by Chor-Ching Goh( file )
2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"This study examines the impact of Poland's trade liberalization 1994-2001 on the industry wage structure. The liberalization was undertaken in preparation for Poland's accession to the European Union and was more pronounced in industries with larger shares of unskilled labor. Our analysis indicates that a decrease in an industry tariff was associated with higher wages being earned by workers employed in the industry, controlling for worker characteristics and geographic variables. The result is robust to including year and industry fixed effects, controlling for industry-level exports, imports, concentration, stock of foreign direct investment and capital accumulation. The finding is consistent with liberalization increasing competitive pressures, forcing firms to restructure and improve their productivity, which in turn translates into higher profits being shared with workers. It could also be potentially attributed to trade liberalization lowering the costs of imported inputs which enhances firm profitability. The result holds when skilled workers are excluded from the sample, thus suggesting that reductions in trade barriers benefited the unskilled in terms of an increase in wages"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Assessing job flows across countries the role of industry, firm size and regulations by John C Haltiwanger( file )
1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"This paper analyzes job flows in a sample of 16 industrial and emerging economies over the past decade, exploiting a harmonized firm-level dataset. It shows that industry and firm size effects (and especially firm size) account for a large fraction in the overall variability in job flows. However, large residual differences remain in the job flow patterns across countries. To account for the latter, the paper explores the role of differences in employment protection legislation across countries. Using a difference-in-difference approach that minimizes possible endogeneity and omitted variable problems, our findings show that hiring and firing costs tend to curb job flows, particularly in those industries and firm size classes that require more frequent labor adjustment"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Does tariff liberalization increase wage inequality? some empirical evidence by Branko Milanović( file )
2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"The objective of the paper is to answer an often-asked question : if tariff rates are reduced, what will happen to wage inequality? We consider two types of wage inequality : between occupations (skills premium), and between industries. We use two large data bases of wage inequality that have become recently available and a large dataset of average tariff rates all covering the period between 1980 and 2000. We find that tariff reduction is associated with higher inter-occupational and inter-industry inequality in poorer countries (those below the world median income) and the reverse in richer countries. The results for inter-occupational inequality though must be treated with caution"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Law and firms' access to finance by Thorsten Beck( file )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 35 libraries worldwide
"This paper contributes to the literature on how a country's legal origin influences the operation of its financial system by using firm-level survey data on the obstacles that firms face in raising external finance. The paper assesses two channels through which legal origin may influence the financial system. It finds that the adaptability of a country's legal system is more important for explaining the obstacles that firms face in accessing external finance than the political independence of the judiciary"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
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