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np-cockburn, iain mWed Jan 15 11:16:27 EST 201472450701

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Cockburn, Iain M.

Overview
Works: 29 works in 38 publications in 3 languages and 136 library holdings
Classifications: hb1.a2,
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Iain M Cockburn
Publications by Iain M Cockburn
Most widely held works by Iain M Cockburn
Industry Effects and Appropriability Measures in the Stock Markets Valuation of R&D and Patents by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 17 libraries worldwide
Market Conditions and Retirement of Physical Capital Evidence fron Oil Tankers by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 12 libraries worldwide
The diffusion of science driven drug discovery : organizational change in pharmaceutical research by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
4 editions published in 1999 in English and No Linguistic Content and held by 12 libraries worldwide
Hedonic analysis of arthritis drugs by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
3 editions published in 1998 in English and No Linguistic Content and held by 12 libraries worldwide
University research, industrial R&D, and the anchor tenant hypothesis by Ajay Agrawal( Book )
2 editions published in 2002 in No Linguistic Content and English and held by 10 libraries worldwide
Gone but not forgotten: labor flows, knowledge spillovers, and enduring social capital by Ajay K Agrawal( Book )
2 editions published in 2003 in No Linguistic Content and English and held by 8 libraries worldwide
Are all patent examiners equal? : The impact of characteristics on patent statistics and litigation outcomes by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
2 editions published in 2002 in No Linguistic Content and English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Patents, thickets, and the financing of early-stage firms : evidence from the software industry by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
The impact of stronger intellectual property rights in the software industry is controversial. One means by which patents can affect technical change, industry dynamics, and ultimately welfare, is through their role in stimulating or stifling entry by new ventures. Patents can block entry, or raise entrants' costs in variety of ways, while at the same time they may stimulate entry by improving the bargaining position of entrants vis-à-vis incumbents, and supporting a "market for technology" which enables new ventures to license their way into the market, or realize value through trade in their intangible assets. One important impact of patents may be their influence on capital markets, and here we find evidence that the extraordinary growth in patenting of software during the 1990s is associated with significant effects on the financing of software companies. Start-up software companies operating in markets characterized by denser patent thickets see their initial acquisition of VC funding delayed relative to firms in markets less affected by patents. The relationship between patents and the probability of IPO or acquisition is more complex, but there is some evidence that firms without patents are less likely to go public if they operate in a market characterized by patent thickets.
Faster, smaller, cheaper: an hedonic price analysis of PDAs by Paul D Chwelos( file )
1 edition published in 2004 in No Linguistic Content and held by 4 libraries worldwide
Not invented here? : Innovation in company towns by Ajay K Agrawal( Book )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
We examine variation in the concentration of inventive activity across 72 of North America's most highly innovative locations. In 12 of these areas, innovation is particularly concentrated in a single, large firm; we refer to such locations as "company towns.'' We find that inventors employed by large firms in these locations tend to draw disproportionately from their firm's own prior inventions (as measured by citations to their own prior patents) relative to what would be expected given the underlying distribution of innovative activity across all inventing firms in a particular technology field. Furthermore, we find such inventors are more likely to build upon the same prior inventions year after year. However, smaller firms in company towns do not exhibit this myopic behavior; they draw upon prior inventions as broadly as their small-firm counterparts in more diverse locations. In addition, we find that inventions by large firms in company towns have less impact than those produced elsewhere, although the difference is modest, and that the impact is disproportionately appropriated by the inventing firms themselves. Finally, the geographic scope of impact realized by company town inventions is narrower, whether produced by large or small firms.
Patents and the survival of internet-related IPOs by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
We examine the effect of patenting on the survival prospects of 356 internet-related firms that IPO'd at the height of the stock market bubble of the late 1990s. By March 2005, nearly 2/3 of these firms had delisted from the NASDAQ exchange. Although changes in the legal environment in the US in the 1990s made it much easier to obtain patents on software and, ultimately, on business methods, less than half of the firms in this sample obtained, or attempted to obtain, patents. For those that did, we hypothesize that patents conferred competitive advantages that translate into higher probability of survival, though they may also simply be a signal of firm quality. Controlling for age, venture-capital backing, financial characteristics, and stock market conditions, patenting is positively associated with survival. Quite different processes appear to govern exit via acquisition compared to exit via delisting from the exchange due to business failure. Firms that applied for more patents were less likely to be acquired, though obtaining unusually highly cited patents may make them more attractive acquisition target. These findings do not hold for business method patents, which do not appear to confer a survival advantage.
Entry, exit and patenting in the software industry by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
We examine the effects of software patents on entry and exit in 27 narrowly-defined classes of software products, using a dataset with comprehensive coverage of both mature public firms and small privately held firms between 1994 and 2004. Reflecting the complex economics underlying the relationship between patent protection, entry costs and industry structure, we find that patents have a mixture of effects on entry and exit. Controlling for firm and market characteristics, firms are less likely to enter product classes in which there are more software patents. However, all else equal, firms that hold software patents are more likely to enter these markets. The net effect on entry of increasing the number of software patents is difficult to measure precisely: estimates of the effect of an across-the-board 10% increase in patent holdings on the number of entrants into the average market in this sample range from -5% to +3.5%, with quite large standard errors. Evidence on exit and survival is consistent with these findings - holding patents appears to enhance the survival prospects of firms after entering a market.
Faster, smaller, cheaper : an hedonic price analysis of PDAs by Paul D Chwelos( Book )
1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
We compute quality-adjusted price indexes for Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) for the period 1999-2004, using data on prices and characteristics of 203 models sold by 12 manufacturers. The PDA market is growing in size, it is technologically dynamic with very substantial changes in measured characteristics over time, and it has experienced rapid rates of product introduction. Hedonic regressions consistently show prices to be positively related to processor performance, RAM memory, permanent storage capacity, and battery life, as well as several measures of screen size and quality. Features such as networking, biometric identification, camera, and cellphone capability are also positively associated with price. Hedonic price indexes implied by these regressions decline at an AAGR of 21.1% to 25.6% per year during this period. A matched model price index computed from a subset of observations declines at 18.75% per year. Though these PDA rates of price decline are lower than have been estimated for desktop and laptop PCs, consumers in this "ultra-portable" segment of the computer market appear to have enjoyed substantial welfare gains over the past five years.
Is price inflation different for the elderly? : an empirical analysis of prescription drugs ( Book )
1 edition published in 1997 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Vpliv izsledkov kliničnih študij na trend predpisovanja zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev, 1996-2002 = (Impact of clinical trial results on national trends in alpha-blocker prescribing, 1996-2002) ( Book )
1 edition published in 2004 in Slovenian and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Izhodišče: Proučevanje dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na vzorce predpisovanja zdravil, in njihovo spreminjanje na podlagi izsledkov kliničnih raziskav je omejeno. Cilj: Proučitev sprememb pri predpisovanju zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev za zdravljenje hipertenzije pred aprilom 2000, ko je bil zaradi neugodnih izsledkov objavljen zgodnji konec raziskave antihipertenzivnega zdravljenja in zniževanja lipidov za preprečevanje srčnih dogodkov (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial - ALLHAT). Raziskava se je nanašala na uporabo doksazosin mezilata. Spremembe v predpisovanju smo tehtali upoštevaje druge možne vzporedne vplive na uporabo zdravil med letoma 1996 in 2002, vključno s spremembami cen zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev, prehodom na generična zdravila, promocijo zdravil in tekmovanje na tržišču. Zasnova, kraj raziskave in bolniki: Na podlagi dveh poročil o ameriških farmacevtskih tržnihraziskavah, ki ju je objavil IMS HEALTH, smo sledili predpisovanje zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev, objavljeno v National Prescription Audit - v naključnem računalniškem vzorcu so zajeli okoli 20.000 izmed 29.000 javnih samostojnih lekarn in lekarn za naročanje po pošti ter veledrogerij in diskontnih hiš - ter vzorec predpisovanja zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev v zdravniških ordinacijah, objavljen v National Disease and Therapeutic Index - v katerem so zajeli naključni stratificirani vzorec okoli 3.500 zdravniških ordinacij. Kazalci izida: Trendi uporabe zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev po poročilih zdravnikov in predpisovanje ter izdajanje zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev v lekarnah Združenih držav. Rezultati: V času od 1996 do konca 1999 sta nenehno naraščali število na novo predpisanih zaviralcev alfa-adrenergičnih receptorjev in izdanih zdravil v lekarnah ter zdravniška uporaba zdravil. (Izvleček skrajšan pri 2000znakih).
Public-Private Interaction and the Productivity of Pharmaceutical Research by Iain M Cockburn( Book )
1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Is Price Inflation Different for the Elderly? : An Empirical Analysis of Prescription Drugs ( Book )
1 edition published in 1997 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
Using annual IMS data from 1990 to 1996, we examine empirically whether whether elderly-nonelderly price inflation differentials exist for one medical item, namely, prescription pharmaceuticals. We assess prices for Rx for Rx drugs destined for ultimate use by the elderly vs. the nonelderly at three points in the distribution chain: initial sales from manufacturers, intermediate purchases by retail pharmacies, and final sales from retail pharmacies to patients/payors. We find that at the initial point in the distribution chain, there are no differences in price inflation for the aggregate of drugs destined for use by the elderly vs. the nonelderly. At the intermediate sell-in to pharmacy distribution point, we examine antibiotics (ABs), antidepressants (ADs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). For ABs, since 1992 elderly price inflation is somewhat greater than for the young, reflecting in part the elderly's more intensive use of newer branded products having fewer side effects, adverse drug interactions and more convenient dosing--attributes of particular importance to the elderly. For ADs, elderly price inflation is considerably less than for the young, due in large part to the elderly's greater use of older generic products. For CCBs, elderly- nonelderly differentials are negligible. None of these differentials adjusts for variations in quality. At the final retail sell-out point, we only examine ADs. We find that since retailers obtain larger gross margins on generic than on branded products, and because the elderly are disproportionately large users of generic ADs, the elderly-nonelderly price inflation differential benefiting the elderly at the intermediate point is reduced considerably at final sale.
University Research, Industrial R&D, and the Anchor Tenant Hypothesis ( Book )
1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
We examine geographic concentration, agglomeration, and co-location of university research and industrial R&D in three technological areas: medical imaging, neural networks, and signal processing. Using data on scientific publications and patents as indicators of university research and industrial R&D, we find strong evidence of geographic concentration in both activities at the level of MSAs. While evidence for agglomeration (in the sense of excess' concentration relative to the size of MSAs and the size distribution of research labs) of research in these fields is mixed, we do find strong evidence of co-location of upstream and downstream activity. We view such co-located vertically connected activities as constituents of a local innovation system,' and these appear to vary markedly in their ability to convert local academic research into local commercial innovation. We develop and test the hypothesis that the presence of a large, local, R&D-intensive firm an anchor tenant' enhances the productivity of local innovation systems by making local university research more likely to be absorbed by and to stimulate local industrial R&D. Presence of anchor tenant firms may be an important factor in stimulating both the demand and supply sides of local markets for innovation and may be an important channel for transmission of spillovers. While our empirical results are preliminary, they indicate that anchor tenant technology firms may be an economically important aspect of the institutional structure of local economies.
Patents and the Survival of Internet-related IPOs ( Book )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
We examine the effect of patenting on the survival prospects of 356 internet-related firms that IPO'd at the height of the stock market bubble of the late 1990s. By March 2005, nearly 2/3 of these firms had delisted from the NASDAQ exchange. Although changes in the legal environment in the US in the 1990s made it much easier to obtain patents on software and, ultimately, on business methods, less than half of the firms in this sample obtained, or attempted to obtain, patents. For those that did, we hypothesize that patents conferred competitive advantages that translate into higher probability of survival, though they may also simply be a signal of firm quality. Controlling for age, venture-capital backing, financial characteristics, and stock market conditions, patenting is positively associated with survival. Quite different processes appear to govern exit via acquisition compared to exit via delisting from the exchange due to business failure. Firms that applied for more patents were less likely to be acquired, though obtaining unusually highly cited patents may make them more attractive acquisition target. These findings do not hold for business method patents, which do not appear to confer a survival advantage.
Patents, Thickets, and the Financing of Early-Stage Firms : Evidence from the Software Industry ( Book )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
The impact of stronger intellectual property rights in the software industry is controversial. One means by which patents can affect technical change, industry dynamics, and ultimately welfare, is through their role in stimulating or stifling entry by new ventures. Patents can block entry, or raise entrants' costs in variety of ways, while at the same time they may stimulate entry by improving the bargaining position of entrants vis-à-vis incumbents, and supporting a "market for technology" which enables new ventures to license their way into the market, or realize value through trade in their intangible assets. One important impact of patents may be their influence on capital markets, and here we find evidence that the extraordinary growth in patenting of software during the 1990s is associated with significant effects on the financing of software companies. Start-up software companies operating in markets characterized by denser patent thickets see their initial acquisition of VC funding delayed relative to firms in markets less affected by patents. The relationship between patents and the probability of IPO or acquisition is more complex, but there is some evidence that firms without patents are less likely to go public if they operate in a market characterized by patent thickets.
 
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